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Part I: Main report


Part I: Main report

1. Introduction

1.1. Consultation announcement

The subject of the consultation is the policy support required to operationalise wood energy planning with a gender component. The objective is to discuss with senior policy makers the analytical procedures in practical planning which can help to ensure that planned interventions at policy and programme level are sensitive to the differential impact they may have on men, women, children and other groups in society.

Rationale

It is widely recognised that the burden of supplying woodfuels for household use in the region is largely carried by women. These women often suffer from rising woodfuel prices, decreasing woodfuel quality and increased difficulty of access to woodfuels. Many policy changes in pricing of fossil fuels, conservation of forests, and landuse controls also have a disproportionately negative impact on women, especially women from the lower income groups. In order to mitigate the problems that women in particular, but also other groups, face in connection with wood energy, it is necessary to review any planned interventions in the light of their relative impact on different groups within society: men, women, children, minorities, etc. This is important since the problems of women or any other group cannot be separated from the context in which they occur. The approach is known as a gender approach. In recent years, a large number of analytic and data gathering tools have been developed which can simplify the problem of assessing such differential impacts. The expert consultation is designed to demonstrate their use and review and assess their appropriateness.

Contents

The experts will consider different policy approaches to the question of women and development, which reflect different underlying views regarding the ways in which women should be involved. The implications of each of these different approaches for energy policy and programme choice will be discussed. A number of analytical tools for examining the impacts of policy and programmes on gender will be presented, and the data requirements for their use will be considered. Participants will assess the quality of these tools and their usefulness in the context of wood energy planning. The practicality of operationalising the use of such tools in existing institutions will be considered, and the workshop will end with a consideration of the efforts needed to introduce workable gender-analytic procedures into normal routines.

Preparation

Participants will be expected to bring with them policy documents which refer to the question of gender (or women) in energy, and if such documents are not available, national policy statements relating to women in development generally.

Participants

The expert consultation is intended for senior policy makers and policy advisors in ministries of energy and forestry in RWEDP member countries. A follow-up course will at a later date to which programme and project officers from these same ministries will be invited. The intention of the follow-up course is to train officers in the actual use of the analytical tools reviewed in the current expert consultation.

1.2. Organization of the consultation

RWEDP invited three scholars, each of them well-known in the field of gender analysis, to prepare the expert consultation on "Gender and Wood Energy in Asia". The three consultants, Margaret Skutsch of the University of Twente in the Netherlands, Govind Kelkar of the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok and Uraivan Tan-Kim-Yong of Chiang Mai University, met together with RWEDP staff and relevant persons from the FAD-RAP office, such as Alexandra Stephens, Regional Sociologist and WID Officer, and on the basis of their discussions an overall programme for the consultation was agreed upon. Modules for each session were also decided. Through further frequent consultations, using fax and e-mail, the consultants prepared and finalized their own respective sections of the consultation. Since it was impossible for Margaret Skutsch to attend the consultation herself, the materials she prepared were handed over to Conrad Heruela, RWEDP staff member, who agreed to present the modules and facilitate the discussion in her place.

Policy makers from the forestry and energy sectors of the member countries were invited to attend the consultation in order to review the use of relevant gender analysis tools. At Chiang Mai there were 33 participants from 13 countries. One-third of the participants were women and two-thirds were men. The importance attached to the meeting was illustrated by the representation of five countries at DG-level, as well as addresses by the ADG and Regional Representative of FAO in the Asia-Pacific region, the Chief of the Asia-Pacific Forestry Desk of FAO Headquarters in Rome and the Deputy Vice-Governor of Chiang Mai Province.

The programme consisted of plenary sessions, case studies, videos and group discussions, as well as field observations at the Upland Social Forestry Project of Doi Sam Muan. During the field visit participants could discuss variations in gender roles in different ethnic communities.

2. Inaugural session

2.1. Welcome address by Mr. Jadul Apichatabutra, vice governor, Chiang Mai province

It is my pleasure and honour to welcome you to Chiang Mai, on behalf of Chiang Mai Province. We are delighted you have selected Chiang Mai for convening this important regional FAO meeting on 'Gender and Wood Energy in Asia'. Indeed, we are pleased to host delegates from 15 countries, who will meet and discuss policy issues as part of the Regional Wood Energy Programme. We all know that wood energy is an important energy source in most countries in Asia.

Some delegates may have been in this city before. It was just over 2 years ago, in February 1993, that we hosted, in this same hotel in Chiang Mai, another Regional Meeting of the FAO Wood Energy Programme in Asia. That meeting was addressed by the then Vice-Governor of Chiang Mai Province (Mr. Pongpayome Vasaputi). I understand that in that meeting the plans for the present FAO programme were conceptualised in consultation with delegates of the then member countries. So, it seems Chiang Mai and the Regional Wood Energy Programme have already a successful history of cooperation.

I hope you will enjoy your stay in the beautiful city of Chiang Mail We receive many tourists and other visitors in our province each year. The city and its environment may give you inspiration for your deliberations. As a field visit to the Upland Social Forestry Project in Doi Sam Muen is part of your programme, I am pleased you will have the opportunity to see some of the environment outside the city as well. Perhaps, when you have more time later, you will come back and enjoy the interesting historic sites and pleasant scenery of the city and the province, as well as the interesting cultures of Northern Thailand.

I wish you a successful meeting over the coming three days, and a pleasant stay in Chiang Mail

2.2. Opening address by Mr. A.Z.M. Obaidullah Khan, ADO/RR, FAO/RAPA

Your Excellency the Vice Governor, Professor Hulscher, colleagues and friends

The development objective of the FAO Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia is to contribute to a sustainable production of wood fuels, their efficient processing and marketing, and their rational use for the benefit of households, industries and other enterprises. The programme focusses on strengthening efforts in all policy analyses, and strategy formulations for the energy sector and wood energy assessment. Also, the programme addresses the need to improve the efficiency of wood and biomass energy utilization in households, and rural enterprises.

The present Wood Energy Programme was conceptualized in consultations between various experts and representatives of the member countries, some 3 years ago. A lot of experience with wood energy development had already been built up within FAO and other programmes. Previous work includes, for instance, a study on Women's Role in Forest Resource Management, published by the FAO Regional Wood Energy Programme in 1989, as well as other activities. It has been, and still is, observed that interventions in the energy sector such as land use and price reforms can have major implications for women and low-income groups. Moreover, the burden of providing traditional energy supply often falls disproportionately on women. Women have so far mainly suffered from increasing prices, lower quality and reduced access to woodfuels. They have as yet insufficiently benefitted from the potential offered by wood energy development. In many countries of Asia, the concerns of women are underrepresented in shaping wood energy policies and strategies.

It is anticipated that sustainable access to wood energy and improvements in cheap and woodfuel-efficient cooking and heating devices will be of direct benefit to women, while improved marketing and trade may provide additional income to them. Many women are managing food preparation or processing enterprises, or are employed in woodfuel-using industries. It is advisable therefore to make provisions to ensure full participation of women and women's groups in the planning and implementation of development project activities, including the design of training programmes and annual and regional workplans.

Your Expert Consultation will, no doubt, take note of these past experiences as you discuss current policy issues. It is clear from the title of your Consultation, that you will widen the scope from women's issues to gender issues, thus incorporating wood energy aspects which matter to men and women or for that matter to the children and the elderly.

When most of us here use the word 'gender' we immediately think of women. Usually we assume we are going to have to "do something about women in development' in our own work. It is not an exaggeration, however, to say that sizable resources have been deployed to 'Women in Development' projects and programmes over the past few decades. Yet what has this achieved? The facts speak for themselves.

According to most social and economic indicators rural women are lagging behind rural men and behind urban populations. Women farmers are at the very bottom of the socio-economic heap buried deeper than they were before all these so-called efforts on their behalf. They comprise fully 60 percent of the absolutely poor and destitute in rural areas now, and their numbers are expected to increase to 65 or 70 percent by the year 2000.

The trends and available evidence on population and migration, the state of the natural resource base, management and conservation of scarce renewable as well as non-renewable resources, economic and social inequity and other factors contributing to a widening gender gap, point to a number of imperatives for policy makers and planners. They will have to identify and analyze the sources of women's subjugation, but more than that they need to analyze the role and status of both sexes in such programmes as 'wood energy' in order to ensure economic, social, political and environmental sustainability for wood energy security, at the community level. For, like food security, wood energy security demands efficiency in the use of resources and effectiveness in their sustainable management. A key resource in any programme is the human resource - men and women who together make up the human capital at the center of any development programme.

As you are aware, for many years gender issues have constituted an important element in projects which deal with household energy and community forestry for wood energy development. A great deal of sensitizing has already been achieved and valuable experiences, gained. In the present meeting, as I have seen from your programme, you will move a few steps further. You will systematically review gender analysis tools, and also discuss how gender analysis can be institutionalized in your own organizations.

To those who say gender equity can be achieved merely by legislation, quotas, policies and plans, I dare to say you will fail, as so many of us have failed in the past. These have usually been no more than lip service commitments without enforcement, transparency or even accountability. Further, laws, rules and regulations have not been given the teeth of the tiger, and have not been backed up with appropriate resource allocations. Obstacles to women's participation have been hidden behind the 'technology is gender-neutral' approach, until women hit the glass ceiling on advancement. This happens in the village committee and the farmers' organization in the village, as much as on the corporate ladder.

Ladies and Gentlemen

I hope you will be able to break through the old approaches which have cost so much, and achieved so little. I hope you will be able to discard the approaches which shackle women to the boring and menial, the underpaid and the unpaid work, the drudgery and the least remunerated roles in production, whether it is of wood energy or food. Gender analysis provides a framework for identifying the roles of each sex, the division of labour, and the access each has to productive resources. It facilitates the recognition of gender-based constraints and obstacles to progress, and allows the identification of solutions. Built into gender analysis is the design of remedies, to mobilize and deploy both, male and female human resources for a pattern of development that incorporates equity.

A start is being made today by Dr. Hulscher and his team, with Dr. Uraiwan and Dr. Kelkar and other resource persons to help incorporate gender considerations in the overall project. It may be late, but it is not too late. The gender gap is an indictment of us all, and it must be closed. I hope all of you will be able to begin to reverse the trend of a widening gender gap in your own wood energy programme as a result of this Consultation. Your personal commitment to doing so is the first and necessary step. I hope you will make that commitment today and over the next few days. Allow me to recall the words of the English poet John Keats when he wrote, "for this the eternal law, the first in beauty should be the first in might."

The magical verses of Keats about the tranquil consciousness and elegance of trees is also true about human beings.

I wish you a dynamic dialogue and a pleasant stay in the city of flowers.

2.3. Statement by Mr. S. Muttiah, Chief Asia and Pacific Desk, FAO/HQ

It is my pleasure to attend the opening session of the Regional Expert Consultation on Gender and Wood Energy for Asia in this auspicious city which I understand has been chosen for the exhibition of energy projects and plans. On this occasion I wish to convey to all of you greetings from Mr. Dave Harcharik, Assistant Director General, of the FAO Forestry Department and Mr. Patrick Tesha, Chief of the Forestry Operations Service of the Technical Cooperation Department in Rome. They have expressed their interest in the subject of your meeting and wish you very fruitful deliberations and outcomes in the coming days.

I do appreciate that so many experts from different countries in Asia have come together to discuss in-depth the important subject of gender and wood energy. Our experience shows us that gender aspects at various levels, in particular at grassroots level, play a key role in conservation and development programmes. This is particularly so in the field of wood energy which deals with a major source of the total energy needs of developing countries. In Asia it constitutes more than 50% of all energy needs. The problem of wood and biomass energy of course, is only part of a more complex scenario affecting gender groups.

It is, therefore, not surprising that the Rio Declaration of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 proclaimed two principles in relation to gender aspects. Principle 20 states: women have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their full participation is similarly, essential to achieve sustainable development. Principle 21 states: The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be mobilised to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable development and ensure a better future for all. The forthcoming World Conference on Women to be held in Beijing is further testimony to the importance of your Consultation.

The often serious constraints encountered by women and other gender groups, especially in rural areas, in managing their daily wood and biomass needs are well observed but not so well researched, documented and analysed in order to find durable solutions to a recurrent problem. It is within the mandate of FAO to support this aspect of the programme in cooperation with subject matter specialists to assist policy makers, planners and project leaders of the member countries to find sustainable ways and means to alleviate the problems of people in need.

FAO under its normative and field programmes, fully supports the conscious efforts of the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme, now a familiar name to those concerned in Asia, to address the problems of gender and wood energy. As you may be aware, the present programme specifically addresses these concerns, among others, and was formulated in close consultation with the member countries and the Government of the Netherlands, the donor country. We wish to take this opportunity of expressing our appreciation to the Government of the Netherlands for generously funding this long term programme to address a burning issue.

I am delighted to see that Professor Hulscher and his team have actively taken up the challenge and that you, as policy makers and experts from Forestry, Energy and other Departments, in fact key advisors to government and NGOs, have come together to exchange and analyze your views on gender issues. I feel sure the results of this Expert Consultation will have an impact on the future direction and activities of the Programme and even beyond. The diverse experiences of each of you as well as your different social and cultural backgrounds will enrich the future course of actions.

I wish you all success in this landmark consultation.

2.4. Vote of Thanks by Dr. W. Hulscher, CTA, FAO-RWEDP

Mr. Vice-Governor, we do enjoy being here in Chiang Mai City and Chiang Mai Province. As you have rightly recalled, the Regional Wood Energy Programme had an important meeting at the same place, two years ago. At that time, the experiences and benefits of the previous wood energy programme were discussed amongst experts and delegates from the member countries. At the same time, the blueprint of the new five-year programme was designed, which is the programme we are currently implementing. I think I can say the participants in the previous meeting were more than satisfied with the results. I was told, the delegates very much enjoyed the pleasant atmosphere and hospitality of the City, and that is exactly why we have come back!

Mr. Vice-Governor, thank you very much for your warm welcome. Indeed, we are also looking forward to our visit to Doi Sam Muen. I think, with the present meeting a new milestone marks the history of the good cooperation between Chiang Mai Province and the Regional Wood Energy Programme in Asia.

Mr. Obaidullah Khan, You have touched upon many important issues of Gender and Wood Energy. As you have indicated, gender aspects are present almost throughout development programmes which include social and rural components. Specifically for wood energy development, gender is a key-issue both for consumers and producers of woodfuels. Indeed, a lot is still to be done, even though these days we have much more experience and understanding on how to integrate gender into wood energy development than in the past.

It is now time to discuss how to operationalise our experiences in a broader framework in our own organisations, and how to make good use of gender analysis tools as they have been developed by experts. The effectiveness of our programmes and interventions will benefit, and in turn the ultimate beneficiaries, being the weakest groups in our societies, will benefit from an effective and professional approach.

Mr. Obaidullah Khan, thank you very much for your interest in this regional meeting of the Wood Energy Programme, and thank you for your inspiring words at this opening session.

Mr. Muttiah, I would like to thank you for your statements which underline the importance of our present Regional Consultation. The Regional Wood Energy Programme is grateful for your lively interest in the Programme and your continuous support and advice.

We know, you carry the responsibility for many FAO projects and programmes in the Asia-Pacific Region, and we feel very honoured that you can spare the time to be with us.

As you indicated, the results of the present consultations will give further direction to the forthcoming activities of the Wood Energy Programme. Of course, we will keep you informed of the results and any further proposals. Once again, Mr. Muttiah, I would like to thank you for your active contribution.

Distinguished experts, participants and guests, I am delighted that so many policy makers and experts have been able to attend this regional meeting. I think, it illustrates again the good cooperation between RWEDP and the member countries, as well as the importance you attach to the subject of Gender and Wood Energy in Asia. We will have ample time to discuss policy matters during and beyond our sessions. Furthermore, as you are aware, the proposed programme includes a review of relevant gender analysis tools, and discussions on how to institutionalise gender analysis in our own organisations. We expect that both themes will help us in our daily work.

I think the documents you have received for this meeting provide solid and professional background materials. At this point I would like to acknowledge the expert-inputs from our advisers, Mrs. Margaret Skutsch, Mrs. Govind Kelkar, and Mrs. Uraivan Tan-Kim-Yong. I am glad to say that I have personally benefited a great deal already from my interactions with the experts during the course of the preparations for this Regional Expert Consultation.

I do not expect we can solve or even discuss at length all relevant gender issues in the coming three days. We will confine ourselves to the headlines. Later this year as well as next year, RWEDP plans to organise more detailed training courses on Gender and Wood Energy for your staff. The design of these training courses will benefit from your views and advice in the coming days.

Let me share with you a little story which helped to sensitise myself about gender and wood energy. A long time ago a surveyer came to a rural village somewhere in Asia. The surveyer interviewed the village headman about fuelwood shortages in his village. The headman, however, firmly stated that there were no such shortages around. When the surveyer insisted about fuel problems which might prevail in this woodstarving district, the village headman responded by saying: "Yes, of course, our problem is that we do not have enough children in the village".

Ladies and gentlemen, once again, on behalf of RWEDP I would like to thank you for your support and cooperation. I wish you a pleasant stay in Chiang Mai and fruitful discussions in the coming days.

3. Report of the discussions

During the Regional Expert Consultation on Gender and Wood Energy in Asia all participants actively engaged themselves in the programme, and many points made in the lectures and presentations were discussed by them at length. Given the fact that most participants were attending a gender consultation (or workshop) for the first time, inevitably a lot of time was taken up discussing basic concepts of gender analysis, rather than addressing the application of gender analysis to woodfuel-related issues. What follows is a brief account of the discussions, drawing out the salient points.

While there was almost no reference to "good wives and mothers" it was argued by some that there was a physical or biological basis to gender differences: men can do hard work, while women can do delicate work. The discussion showed, however, that the idea of what is hard work is itself a matter of definition on the basis of the values of a society. Is ploughing harder work than transplanting? Furthermore, in Africa for example, women are not always less strong than men. Finally, in today's world, with machines taking over much of the physical aspect of labour, it is not physical strength but skill that is important.

In response to the statements on existing gender gaps (in wages and earnings, in positions of power and influence, etc.) some questioned whether it was at all necessary to accept the closing of gender gaps as a development objective. In reply it was stated that if other gaps, e.g. relating to race or caste, were not acceptable in development, then gender gaps should not be acceptable.

But will reducing gaps erode the traditional roles of women and men, and undermine the family? Democratic functioning, it was pointed out, would strengthen and not weaken the family as an institution. It was also pointed out that there are variations in gender roles across cultures and that these gender roles and cultures themselves were also not static, but constantly changing.

Above all, it was pointed out that gender analysis is not only relevant for those who advocate social equality, but also for those planners and development practitioners primarily concerned with the success of their policies and development efforts.

In the course of the consultation, the varied experiences with improved, more fuel-efficient cookstoves came up for discussion. It was clear that in China, for example, these stoves were sold commercially on the market, and were quite well accepted as an innovation, whereas in India and Nepal where there were numerous subsidy schemes for the distribution of these stoves their acceptance was not very substantial. The reason lay not only in the inadequacy of design, but more so in the fact that gender roles in India and Nepal did not stress the economizing of women's labour in fetching fuel and in cooking. These were non-monetized costs, whereas a stove entailed a monetized cost. The improved stoves were widely accepted where, as in China, women were substantially involved in monetized production.

The differences in gender roles related to the acceptance or nonacceptance of improved stoves were also revealed in the discussion around the field visit. In the field area, the Karen more readily accepted the fuel-efficient improved stoves than the Hmong. The new stoves needed constant tending, which the Hmong women, who usually worked outside the house, were loathe to do. For the Karen the improved stoves helped to improve the quality of their main cash crop, tea.

In discussing the planning approaches of the different government departments, those of forestry and energy, represented in the consultation, it became clear that there were major differences in the experiences of the two with regard to gender issues.

Across Asia there has been a shift, though not to the same extent in every country, to participatory forms of forest management. In Nepal all the income from community forestry goes to the users. There are rules and regulations about land use in the forests and the Department of Forestry provides technical help.

Community forestry project managers have begun to realize that if communities and families are treated as undifferentiated units then projects are likely to fail. In the Philippines, for example, women were initially included in the training activities. However, later it became apparent that if women were trained the project would work better. Taking account of the existing division of labour in the household appears to be necessary for a project to be efficiently executed.

It was also pointed out that as a development objective it was also necessary to take measures to change the division of labour and control of resources in the household in a more fair and democratic direction.

Discussions revealed that there was little realization of gender issues within the region's departments of energy. While there was a disaggregation of data on energy sources into nonmonetized and monetized fuels, the social factors underlying such differences in sources and uses of fuel were not brought out. In fact, the area of non-monetized fuels tended to be ignored by energy departments. It was mainly in forestry departments, where there were concerns with the sustainability of woodfuel extraction, that the non-monetized fuel sector was looked into.

Would incorporation of gender issues increase costs and reduce efficiency in a project? While some argued that it would increase costs, others pointed out that in the long run the extra costs incurred would be more likely to ensure the project's success. For example, with people's participation, in which the roles of both women and men were to be taken into account, the project implementation process might become longer and, thus, seem to increase costs. But if women were not consulted on a project, it might fail altogether. Failure is ultimately more expensive than a longer, but successful, process involving consultation with women and men.

Some pointed out that education was necessary for effective participation. But others argued that participation should not wait until the potential participants had been educated. The right to vote or to govern oneself, far more serious rights, were not made contingent upon educational attainments. Education is always an objective, but cannot be made a condition.

Given that gender analysis is essential to improving the working of a development programme, how can a concern with gender issues be institutionalized? It was argued that political support was needed at the national level. One participant said that political will to take up gender issues and improve the condition of women was necessary.

At a ministry or government department level, policy statements which address gender issues in the wood energy sectors were thought to be necessary.

Discussion on the ways of formulating and implementing gender policies led to recommendations, unanimously approved by the participants:

It was suggested that RWEDP should prepare specific materials on the gender issue in wood energy in each country or sub-region. The participants felt that FAO and the RWEDP could take the lead in organizing trainers' training programmes in the various countries of the region. The RWEDP staff pointed out that sub-regional workshops for training project staff in gender analysis were being planned, and that modules that could be used for gender analysis training both within RWEDP-related departments and other institutions would also be prepared.

4. Conclusions: RWEDP policy statement on gender and wood energy

During the Regional Expert Consultation on 'Gender and Wood Energy in Asia', the following statements were discussed and endorsed by the participants.

4.1. Observations

The burden of providing traditional energy supplies for domestic use is commonly the responsibility of women. General trends towards higher woodfuel prices, lower woodfuel quality and reduced access to woodfuels increases their burden. Interventions in the energy sector such as landuse and fuel price reform often have disproportionately negative implications for women, especially those of the lower income groups. They have as yet insufficiently benefitted from the potential that wood energy development offers. In many countries of Asia the concerns of women are underrepresented in shaping wood energy policies and strategies.

It is widely recognised that wood energy plays a part in the reproductive tasks that most women carry out, that is to say in the maintenance of the household. The development of cheap (or less time-consuming) and sustainable access to sources of wood energy and of woodfuel efficient cooking and heating devices will be of direct benefit to women in this role. But women increasingly also have energy needs in their productive, bread-winning tasks. Many women today depend on wood or other biomass energy for independent commercial activities such as food preparation for sale, or are employed in establishments which operate on a wood fuel base. Others are economically dependent on trading in fuelwood and charcoal. Moreover, where firewood is being sustainably produced either in woodlots or by planned offtake and management of natural forests by local communities, women very certainly are involved. The need to understand and to relate to women's needs in regard to these matters is thus of central importance in wood energy planning at all levels.

4.2. Policy

4.3. Annex 1: List of participants

Bangladesh

   
     

Dr. Muhammad Eusuf

   

Chairman (Acting) and Member (Science &

Tel:

(Off.) 88-2-504392

Technology), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and

 

(Res.) 88-2-502269

Industrial Research (BCSIR)

Fax:

88-2-863022

Qudrat - e - Khuda Road, Dhaka

   
     

Dr. Shamsur Rahman

   

Chief Conservator of Forests

Tel:

(Off.) 88-2-883633, 605923

Bana Bhaban

 

(Res.) 88-2-818249

Gulshan Road

Fax:

88-2405923

Mohakhali, Dhaka 12

Cable:

FORESTS

     

China

   
     

Mr. Cai Mantang

   

Associate Professor

Tel:

(Off.) 86-20-7797299

Infortrace, c/o Research Institute of Tropical

 

(Res.) 86-20-7797299

Forestry

Fax:

86-20-7725622

Longdong, Guangzhou 510520

E-mail:

zhuzh@sun.ihep.ac.cn

     

Mr. Ma Benjing

   

Senior Engineer

Tel:

(Off.) 86-104229944, Ext.3702

Energy-Efficiency Office

 

(Res) 86-104209624

Dept. of Forest Industries

Fax:

86-242131 84

Ministry of Forestry

   

Hepingli, Beijing 100714

   
     

India

   
     

Dr. Parveen Dhamija

   

Principal Scientific Officer

Tel:

(Off.) 91 -11 4363052

Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources

 

(Res.) 91-114119158

(MNES), Govt of India

Fax:

91-114361298

Block No. 14, CGO Complex

   

Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003

   

Mr. Sudhir Kumar Pande

   

Additional Inspector General of Forests

Tel:

(Off.) 91-11436-2785

Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex

 

(Res.) 91-11436-2329

Ministry of Environment and Forests

Fax:

91-11436-2785

New Delhi 1 10003

   
     

Indonesia

   
     

Ms. Maritje Hutapea

   

Head, Renewable Energy Demonstration Section

Tel:

(Off.) 61-21-5225180

Dir. Gen. of Electricity and Energy Development

 

(Res.) 61-21-8475246

Jl. H.R. Rasuna Said

Fax:

61-21-5256044, 5256066

Blok X-2, Kav. 7-8, Kuningan

   

Jakarta

   
     

Ms. Ismuni

   

Head of Reporting & Evaluation Division

Tel:

(Off.) 61-21-5738519

Bureau of Planning, Ministry of Forestry

 

(Res.) 61-21-5855923

Manggala Wanabakti Block 7/2nd Floor

Fax:

61-21-5738519

Jl. Gatot Subroto, P.O. Box 6505

   

Jakarta

   
     

Malaysia

   
     

Prof. Baharudin Bin Yatim

   

Dean

Tel:

60-3-8250262

Faculty of Physical and Applied Science

Fax:

60-3-8256086

National University of Malaysia

E-mail:

dfsfg@vm1.cc.ukm.my

43600 Bangi, Selangor

   

Dr. Choo Yuen May

   
     

Research Officer/Leader

Tel:

(Off.) 60-3-8259155

Processing Research Group

 

(Res.) 60-3-7040329

Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM)

Fax:

60-3-8259446

No. 6, Persiaran Institusi, 43000

   

Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor

   

Darul Ehsar

   

P.O. Box 10620, 50720

   

Kuala Lumpur

   
     

Maldives

   
     

Ms. Aminath Shafia Zakaria

   

Senior Project Officer

Tel:

(Off.) 960-322625, 323928

Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture

 

(Res.) 960-324047

Ghazee Building

Fax:

960-326558

Ameer Ahmed Magu

   

Male, 20-05

   
     

Myanmar

   
     

Mr. Kyi Win

   

Assistant Director

Tel:

95-1-62578

Myanmar Heavy Industries

Fax:

95-1-60465

c/o P.O. Box 370, Yangon

   
     

Nepal

   
     

Dr. Govind Raj Bhatta

   

Executive Secretary

Tel:

(Off.) 977-1-227699

HMG Nepal, Ministry of Water Resource

 

(Res.) 977-1- 470086

The Water and Energy Commission Secretariat

Fax:

977-1-227185

P.O. Box 1340, Singh Durbar

   

Kathmandu

   
     

Mr. Subarna C. Karmacharya

   

Chief

Tel:

(Off.) 977-1-220303, 221231

Planning and Training Division

 

(Res.) 977-1-472146

Department of Forest

Fax:

977-1-226099

Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation

   

P.O. Box 339, Babar Mahal

   

Kathmandu

   
     

Pakistan

   
     

Mr. Rafiq Ahmad

Tel:

92-51-821732

Deputy Inspector General of Forest

Fax:

92-51-825289

Ministry of Environment and Urban Affairs Division

   

Islamabad

   
     

Mr. Shehryar Khan

   

Chairman

Tel:

92-51 -811092

Pakistan Council of Appropriate Technology

Fax:

92-51-812193

P.O. Box 1306, Islamabad

   
     

Philippines

   
     

Dr. Jessie C. Elauria

   

Director

Tel:

63-2-8447214

Energy Utilization Management Bureau

Fax:

63-2-8447214

Department of Energy

   

PNPC Complex, Merritt Road

   

Fort Bonifacio, Metro Manila

   
     

Ms. Juliet U. Texon

   

Division Chief

Tel:

(Off.) 63-2-951761 (DL)

Planning and Policy Service

 

(Res.) 63-2-7118566

Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources

Fax:

63-2-994938, 9683461

Visayas Avenue

   

Diliman, P.O. Box 2363

   

Quezon City

   
     

Thailand

   
     

Mr. Sawad Hemkamon

   

Director

Tel:

(Off.) 66-2-2236664

Office of Energy Cooperation

 

(Res.) 66-2-2431450

Dept. of Energy Development and Promotion

Fax:

66-2-2261416

17 Rama I Road, Patumwan

   

Bangkok 10330

   
     

Mr. Winai Panyathanya

   

Head, Wood Energy R&D Group

Tel:

(Off.) 66-2-5798532

Forest Products Research Division

 

(Res.) 66-2-5991366

Forest Research Office

Fax:

66-2-5614872

Royal Forest Department

   

Phaholyothin Road, Bangkok 10900

   
     

Vietnam

   
     

Mr. Tran Ngoc Tue

   

Engineer

Tel:

(Off.) 84-4-344031, 622419

Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

Fax:

84-4-345722

Chem, Tu Liem

   

Hanoi

   
     

Dr. Pham Khanh Toan

   

Chief of International Cooperation Dept.

Tel:

(Off.) 84-4-523353, 523311

Institute of Energy and Electricity of Vietnam

Fax:

84-4-523311

Khuong Thuong - Dong-da

Telex:

412317-lNSEN-VT

Hanoi

   

List of Invitees

   
     

Ms. Christina Aristanti Tjondroputro

   

Manager

Tel:

62-274-561247

ASIA Regional Cookstove Program (ARECOP)

Fax:

62-274-563423

P.O. Box 19, Bulaksumur

   

Yogyakarta

   

INDONESIA

   
     

Ms. Lorenza A. Umali

   

Senior Planning Officer

Tel:

63-2-7417313, 7125266

National Commission on the Role of Filipino

Fax:

63-2-7125266

Women (NCRFW)

   

1145 J.P. Laurel St.

   

1005 San Miguel, Manila

   

PHILIPPINES

   

List of Resource Persons

   
     

Dr. Margaret Skutsch

   

University of Twente

Tel:

31-53-893538

P.O. Box 217

Fax:

31-53-340822

7500 AE Enschede

E-mail:

m.m.skutsch@tdg.utwente.nl

NETHERLANDS

   
     

Dr. Govind Kelkar

   

Coordinator

Tel:

(Off.) 66-2-5245673

Gender and Development Studies

 

(Res.) 66-2-5246257

Asian Institute of Technology

Fax:

66-2-5162126

GPO. Box 2754

   

Bangkok 10501

   

THAILAND

   
     

Dr. Dev Nathan

   

Resource Person

Tel:

(Res.) 66-2-5246257

c/o Gender and Development Studies

Fax:

66-2-5162126

Asian Institute of Technology

   

GPO. Box 2754

   

Bangkok 10501

   

THAILAND

   
     

Dr. Uraivan Tan-kim-yong

   

Director

Tel:

(Off.) 66-53-221699 Ext.3573

Resource Management and Development

 

(Res.) 66-53-215-345

Programme

Fax:

66-53-222763

Faculty of Social Sciences

   

University of Chiang Mai

   

Chiang Mai 50002

   

THAILAND

   

List of Inaugural Speakers

List of FAO/RWEDP Secretariat

Administrative Support Staff

4.4. Annex 2: Agenda and timetable

Proposed Programme

27 June

Arrival in Chiang Mai

 

Registration in Chiang Mai Orchid Hotel

19.00 h:

Welcome cocktail

   

28 June

 
   

09.00 h:

Opening Session

10.30 h:

Break

11.00 h:

Statements by participants

12.30 h:

Lunch

13.30 h:

Placing Gender (C. Heruela)

15.00 h:

Break

15.30 h:

Planning Approaches to Gender in Energy (C. Heruela)

17.00 h:

End of session

   

29 June

 
   

08.30 h:

Video on Gender Analysis for Forestry Development Planning

09.00 h:

Gender Analysis Tools (G. Kelkar)

10.30 h:

Break

11.00 h:

Gender Analysis Tools (continued)

12.30 h:

Lunch

13.30 h:

Preparing Gender Policy Statements (U. Tan-Kim-Yong)

15.00 h:

Break

15.30 h:

Institutionalising a Gender Approach in an Organization (C. Heruela)

 

Video on Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service

17.00 h:

End of session

   

30 June

 
   

09.00 h:

Introduction to field visit (U. Tan-Kim-Yong)

10.00 h:

Field visit to tea producing areas under the Upland Social Forestry Project of Doi Sam Muen (50 km North-West of Chiang Mai)

15.00 h:

Evaluation of field visit (U. Tan-Kim-Yong)

15.00 h:

Break

15.30 h:

Discussion on operationalization, institutional weaknesses and policy statements in gender and wood energy (U. Tan-Kim-Yong & C. Heruela)

17.00 h:

Close of Meeting

19.00 h:

Farewell dinner

   

1 July

Departure from Chiang Mai

4.5. Annex 3: Workshop evaluation by participants

An evaluation sheet was filled out by all participants at the end of the consultation. The results indicate that participants generally appreciated the initiative taken by RWEDP, the organization of the sessions, lectures and materials distributed. One participant, however, found the material "too theoretical". A number of participants found the exercises difficult. The reason may be, as one of the participants expressed it, because "all the approaches and methods presented are new." At the same time some participants felt that having smaller groups with more time for group discussion, would enable them "to think carefully especially in discussing policy issues." One participant also suggested that prior distribution of the materials would make for "better interaction and a more concrete, result-oriented outcome."

Some of the participants felt that they would on their own try and follow up what they had learned in the consultation, by conducting similar courses or by trying to institutionalize gender in their own organizations and carrying out gender analysis in projects.

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