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Synthesis of case studies on the role of women in fishing communities


Synthesis of case studies on the role of women in fishing communities

by B.P. Satia - Programme Coordinator

and C. Zanou Wétohossou - Consultant

Being involved in artisanal fisheries activities, women have become unavoidable actors in the socio-economic development of West African countries. And yet, despite this key role, the importance of their contribution is often not well known. Thus, in 1995, IDAF Programme set up a Working Group on women's key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities. This group, composed of eleven women, all distinguished scientists and rural development experts in the sub-region, undertook ten case studies in fourteen (14) regions in eight countries. It also organized two meetings for an in-depth thought about women's effective involvement in fishing communities.

INTRODUCTION

As the understanding of women's role in development is changing, the policy about women is changing progressively too.

IDAF Programme did not stand aloof from this process. Indeed, since it started in 1983, it has paid special attention to activities related to artisanal fisheries, as well as to community development activities within fishing communities. In 1990 it organized a round table to synthesize information related to women's contribution to artisanal fisheries. In 1995, the Programme set up a working group to think about women's roles and issues related to gender in fishing communities. The members of this Working Group are eleven distinguished scientists and experts from the countries covered by IDAF.

OBJECTIVES OF THE COTONOU MEETINGS

They were held from 28th to 30th August and from 9th to 12th October 1995.

The first reflection meeting dealt mainly with the development of a strategy for the analysis of women's role, identification of the difficulties women face and the search for solutions to improve their living and working conditions.

The second meeting dealt with the analysis of case studies per country, identification of the specific characteristics of each country, and the development of a methodological framework for detailed studies.

CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNTRIES

The ten case studies concern activities related to fisheries in the regions of M'Bour and Joal in Senegal, Kaback and Kamsar in Guinea, Koko in the Delta State in Nigeria, Limbe and Kribi in Cameroon, Brufut and Gunjur in the Gambia, Grand-Lahou and Adiake in Côte d'Ivoire, Aguégués and Ayiguinnou in Benin and finally Elmina in Ghana.

In all these regions, the main activity of women is the processing and marketing of fishery products.

In Senegal, women partly fund in advance the means of production, organise themselves in economic interest group and in federations to ensure the sustainability of their activities in the fishing environment.

In Cameroon and Benin, the relationships between women and men are often those of partnership and dependence. In the region of Koko in Nigeria, women are involved in fishery production. In the Gambia, women wish to be trained in order to be better involved in production and increase their incomes.

PROBLEMS

The surveys carried out in those eight countries reveal that all the fisherfolk communities face similar difficulties. The problems women face come from the lack of credit, the absence of storage infrastructures and their dependence vis-à-vis men for fish supply.

Studies also reveal that women spend more than 50% of their incomes on food. Children care and savings come second and third respectively. In addition, there are ecology, hygiene and sometimes health problems caused by smoking, as well as the lack of training in accountancy and management for women.

OPPORTUNITIES AND PERSPECTIVESS

Development opportunities for the fishing sector are evidenced by the interest of the international community to promote woman and especially woman in rural area.

Considering these advantages and insufficiencies and sometimes the potentialities existing in the eight countries investigated, the working group recommended the following:

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