Statement of procedure/methodology
1. Coordination with the Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office/Community Environment and Natural Resources Office.
Proper coordination with the PENROs and CENROs was made in such a way that they could provide services in the survey of the individual farmlots, establishment of permanent monuments, and issuance of the Certificates of Stewardship Contract to the CARP-ISF beneficiaries.
2. Courtesy call with the local officials
Courtesy calls on the municicipal and barangay officials were made to inform them about the project. This could ensure easy means of entry to the community and promote mutual relationship and active support toward the project.
3. Rapid Resource Appraisal (RRA)
a. Site Selection/Identification
Several CARP-ISF areas in Western Visayas were surveyed based on the recommendation of the PENROs and CENROs. After evaluating possible sites, Barangay Maypole, San Enrique, Iloilo, was chosen as one of the pilot (R&D) areas for the Community-based Agroforestry Livelihood Project. Based on the results of the Rapid Resource Appraisal, constraints were identified and analyses were made. Likewise, developmental goals and objectives, as well as strategies to solve such constraints, were formulated, as shown below (Figure 1).
Figure 1a. Schematic diagram of the relationship among constraints, objectives, and strategies for Upland Development Project, (CARP-ISF Agroforestry).
Figure 1b. RRA analysis in CARP-ISF Area in Barangay, Mapili, San Enrique Iloilo.
b. Identification of Farmer Cooperators
The farmer-cooperators were identified based on the criteria formulated by the implementing agency and the Technical Advisory Group of the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau. The criteria in the selection of the farmer-cooperators are as follows:
a. It must be an identified CARP-ISF area.
b. Participants must be holders of the Certificate of Stewardship Contract (CSC).
c. At least his/her CSC lot is at least not less than one-half hectare.
d. A participant must be willing to abide by the rules and regulation to be set by the association.
Aside from the identification of constraints and formulation of developmental goals and objectives, as well as strategies, a network analysis was made. Figure 2 shows the network analysis of the problems in the identified CARP-ISF area at Barangay Mapili, Iloilo.
4. Community Organizing/Formation of Association/Cooperative
Participants were organized into an association/cooperative. Training courses on Community Organizing and Development were conducted. House-to-house visitations were undertaken to reorient the values and perceptions of the participants. Regular monthly meetings were conducted by the cooperators with the assistance of the site coordinator for them to trace problems and find solutions in order to come up with a meaningful plan for the development of their farm. Participatory approach to development is being practiced whereby every member of the association/cooperative has the right to present his ideas in a collective way.
5. Farmers Training
Trainings courses on Agroforestry Technology were conducted to teach the farmers the techniques of upland farming. A cross-farm visit to other successful agroforestry sites was made to enable the farmers to see for themselves and to interact with their fellow farmers.
A Pre-membership Education Seminar (PMES) on Cooperatives was conducted as a requirement for the registration with the Cooperative Development Authority (CDA). This will strengthen the association in terms of credit assistance and marketing of their products, and provide the association a juridical personality. After the association/cooperative has been legally organized based on the provision stated in Republic Act 6938, otherwise known as Cooperative Law of the Republic of the Philippines, the Mapili Agroforestry Multi purpose Cooperative, Inc. (MAMCI) operated using the model shown in figure 3.
6. Nursery Establishment
A multipurpose nursery shed was established in the area taking into consideration the steps and criteria involved in nursery establishment. This served as a laboratory for the farmer-cooperators on planting stock production, and a venue for meetings and seminars. Aside from central nursery, farmer-cooperators were also encouraged to construct their own backyard nursery. Through this means, they could raise their own stock for their farm and for commercial purposes as an added income.
Figure 2: Network Analysis of the Problems in the Identified CARP-ISF area at Barangay Mapili, San Enrique, Iloilo
Figure 3: A Model for Planning of the CARP-ISF Community-based Agroforestry R & D at Brgy. Mapili, San Enrique, Iloilo
7. Area Allocation
The area of each participant was allocated in different land uses depending on the soil condition and slope of the area. Soil analysis per cooperator was made to determine the suitable crops that would be planted in their respective farm lots.
8. Formation of Working Groups
Working groups comprising seven to 10 members in each group headed by a key leader were formed. Each working group scheduled its activity in such a way that it would be able to attain its targets. During the monthly meeting, in which the Site Coordinator and the Project Leader are present, "the key leader" reports the group's accomplishments and problems encountered during the period.
9. Establishment of different Soil and Water Conservation Measures
Various soil and water conservation measures were established depending on the biophysical condition of the farmers' lot. In study areas, rock walls were constructed along contour lines while in some areas, kakawate cuttings, flamengia, pineapple suckers, and banana were utilized as planting materials along contours.
In establishing soil and water conservation measures, an A-frame was used to maintain even contours. The distance between contour depends on the degree of the slopes. The steeper the slope, the closer is the distance between contours.
10. Determination of Soil-loss and Soil-Buildup
To determine the soil loss and soil buildup, an erosion gauge was established to provide the farmer data on the effectiveness of the different soil and water conservation structures.
11. Installation of Rain Gauge
A rain gauge was installed in the area to monitor the monthly rainfall. This is necessary or indispensable in the preparation of a planting calendar so that planting will be synchronized with the needed rainfall required by a particular plant species.
12. Planting of cash crops
Crop diversification of crops was practiced in the area. Crop rotation (legumes and non-legumes) was introduced to maintain the fertility of the soil. Likewise, the need for organic farming such as composting and green manuring was emphasized to reduce the use of inorganic commercial fertilizer which most of the farmers cannot afford.
Regular trimming of contour hedgerows 50-70 centimeters from the ground helps in ameliorating the soil by incorporating the leaves and stalks in the soil.
13. Provision of Farm Tools/Implements
Working tools were provided to the association for the use of the participants in the development of their farm lot. The association set a schedule for the use of tools/implements so that all members could use them.
a. Provision of Farm Inputs
Farm inputs such as fertilizers, seeds of cash crops, and insecticides were provided by the implementing agency to the participants during the initial stage of project implementation. A "no dole-out and no-subsidy" approach was applied. Upon harvest, the participant pay back the equivalent amount to the association as their capital build-up. They agreed to pay a 5 percent interest for the monetary value of farm inputs they received. The treasurer of the cooperative deposited such amount to the Land Bank of the Philippines, Iloilo Branch Office, in the name of the association/cooperative. Presently, the association has a seed money of P80,000. Procurement of planting materials is now being handled by the association in such a way that delivery of the materials will be made on time. All expenses incurred are presented to the body during monthly meetings for information and record purposes. Withdrawal of any amount from the Bank can only be made with the concurrence of the officers and with the corresponding work and financial plan duly approved by the majority of the members.