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Composition and characteristics of selected palm products

This compilation of 25 tables has been assembled to provide technical information on the array of food and industrial products derived from palms. Included is information on domesticated and wild palms; palm products are somewhat similar so that in the absence of any data for a wild palm product some inferences can be made from closely-related domesticated species. The tables are arranged in alphabetical order by scientific name.
 
 

Table 9-1: Chemical Constituents of Arecanut, Areca catechu
 
 
Constituents1 Green Nut
(range)
Ripe Nut
(range)
Moisture content (%) 69.4-74.1 38.9-56.7
Total water extractives (%) 32.9-56.5 23.3-29.9
Polyphenols (%) 17.2-29.8 11.1-17.8
Arecoline (extraction method) (%) 0.11-0.14 0.12-0.24
Fat (%) 8.1-12.0 0.12-0.24
Crude fiber (%) 8.2-9.8 11.4-15.4
Total polysaccharides (%) 17.3-23.0 17.8-25.7
Crude protein (%) 6.7-9.4 6.2-7.5
Ash (%) 1.2-2.5 1.1-1.5

Note: 1.Constituents expressed as percentage values calculated as dry basis
(except moisture).

Source: Bavappa et al., 1982.
 
 
 

Table 9-2: Nutritional Composition of Pejibaye Fruit Mesocarp Pulp, Bactris gasipaes
(per 100 g)
 
 
Water (%) 56 Iron (mg) 2.76
Calories 194 Sodium (mg) -
Protein (%) 3.01 Ascorbic Potassium (mg) -
Fat (%) 6.14 Carotene (mg)  1.28
Carbohydrate (%) 33.05 Thiamine (mg) 0.030
Fiber (%) 1.02 Acid (mg) -
Ash (%) 0.88 Niacin (mg) 0.455
Calcium (mg) 44.6 Riboflavin (mg) 0.068
Phosphorus (mg) 101.84    

Source: Pérez Vela, 1985.
 
 
 

Table 9-3: Nutritional Composition of Pejibaye Flour1, Bactris gasipaes
(fresh basis per 100 g)
 
 
Calories 413.5 Vitamin B2 (mg) 0.3
Humidity (g) 12.0 Vitamin C (mg) 62.2
Protein (g) 3.8  Niacin (mg) 2.5
Fat (g) 8.9  Iron (mg)  6.1
Ash (g) 1.3 Calcium (mg) 10.9
Crude fiber (g) 2.1 Sodium (mg) 2.7
Carbohydrates (g)2 72.1 Potassium (mg) 162.8
Vitamin A (ug eq) 1.2 Magnesium (mg) 11.7
Vitamin B1 (g) 0.1 Zinc (mg) 2.1

Notes: 1. Values calculated from fresh pejibaye fruit mesocarp.
2. Carbohydrates by difference.

Source: Blanco Metzler et al. 1992.
 
 
 

Table 9-4: Nutritional Composition of Palmyra Sweet Sap, Borassus flabellifer
 
 
Specific gravity 1.07 Calcium Trace
pH 6.7-6.9 Phosphorus
(g/100 cc)
0.14
Nitrogen (g/100 cc) 0.056 Iron
(g/100 cc)
0.4
Protein (g/100 cc) 0.35 Vitamin C
(mg/100 cc)
13.25
Total sugar (g/100 cc) 10.93 Vitamin B1 (IU) 3.9
Reduced sugar (g/100 cc) 0.96 Vitamin B complex Negli-gible
Minerals as ash (g/100cc) 0.54    

Source: Davis and Johnson, 1987.
 
 

Table 9-5: Nutritional Composition of Palmyra Sugar (Jaggery), Borassus flabellifer
 
 
Moisture Nil Phosphorus (%) 0.064
Protein (%) 0.24 Iron (mg/100 g) 30.0
Fat (%, ether extract) 0.37 Nicotinic acid (umg/100 g) 4.02
Mineral matter (%) 0.50 Vitamin B1 (umg/100 g) Nil
Carbohydrate (% by difference) 98.89 Riboflavin (umg/100 g)  229
Carbohydrate (%, direct polarimetry) 98.4 Caloric value (/100 g)  398
Calcium (%) 0.08    

Source: Davis and Johnson, 1987.

Table 9-6: Nutritional Composition of Limuran Fruit,Calamus ornatus var. philippinensis (per 100 g)
 
 
Water (%) 0 Iron (mg) 8.1
Calories 376 Sodium (mg) -
Protein (%) 2.9 Ascorbic Potassium (mg) -
Fat (%) 5.7 Carotene (ug)  -
Carbohydrate (%) 88.6 Thiamine (mg) 0.29
Fiber (%) 2.4 Acid (mg) 23.8
Ash (% 2.9 Niacin (mg) 4.29
Calcium (mg) 90.5 Riboflavin (mg) 0.05
Phosphorus (mg) 47.6    

Source: Atchley, 1984.

Table 9-7: Nutritional Composition of Palm Inflorescence, Pacaya, Chamaedorea tepejilote (10 g edible portion)
 
 
Energy value (cal) 45  Phosphorus (mg) 106.0
Water (%) 85  Iron (mg) 1.4
Protein (g) 4.0 Vitamin A (mcg) 5.0
Carbohydrates (g) 8.3  Thiamine (mg) 0.08
Fiber (g) 1.2 Riboflavin (mg) O.10
Ash (g) 2.0 Niacin (mg) 0.9
Calcium (mg) 3.69 Ascorbic acid (mg) 14.0

Source: Castillo Mont et al., 1994.

Table 9-8: Components of Whole Coconut, Cocos nucifera (wet basis)
 
 
Husk 35% Meat (endosperm) 28%
Shell  12% Water  25%

Source: Phil. Coco. Auth., 1979.

Table 9-9: Characteristics of Coconut Oil from Copra, Cocos nucifera (usual range)
 
 
Fat, % of part, dry basis 65-72
Characteristics of fat  
Acid value 1-10
Saponification value 251-264
Iodine value 7-10
Thiocyanogen value 6.1-7.0
R-M value 6-8
Polenske value 12-18
Unsaponifiable (%) 0.15-0.6
Refr. index, np, 40o C 1.448-1.450
Sp. gr., 40o/25o 0.908-0.913
Melting point (o C) 23-26
Titer (o C) 20-24
Composition of fatty acids, wt. % of total fatty acids  
Saturated acids
Capric
0-0.8
Caprylic 5.5-9.5
Capric 4.5-9.5
Lauric 44-52
Myristic 13-19
Palmitic 7.5-10.5
Stearic 1-3
Arachidic 0-0.4
Unsaturated acids
Hexadecenoic
0-1.3
Oleic 5-8
Linoleic 1.5-2.5

Source: Eckey, 1954.

Table 9-10: Composition of Coconut Shell, Cocos nucifera (dry basis)
 
 
Lignin 36% Ash 0.6%
Cellulose 53%    

Source: Ohler, 1984.
 
 
 

Table 9-11: Nutritional Composition of Coconut Water, Cocos nucifera
 
 
Water (%) 95.5 Carbohydrates (%) 4.0
Protein (%) 0.1 Calcium (%) 0.02
Fat (%) 0.1 Phosphorous (%) 0.001
Mineral matter (%) 0.4 Iron (mg/100 g) 0.5

Source: Thampan, 1975.
 
 
 

Table 9-12: Mechanical Properties of Coconut Wood, Cocos nucifera
 
 
Basic
density

kg/m3

Av.MC

%

M
o
E
 
 
 

MPa

M
o
R
 
 
 

MPa

Stress
at
limit
of
propor-
tionality

MPa

Impact
Bending
 
 
 

mN

Compre
-sion
parallel
grain
 

MPa

Compresion
perpendi-
cular 
grain /1
 

MPa

Shear radial2
 
 
 

MPa

Cleavage
maximum3
 
 
 

N/mm2

600 + 57 10857 86 52 20 49 8 10 12
12 11414 104 62 20 57 9 13 11
400-599 107 6880 53 30 18 31 3 6 9
12 7116 63 38 10 38 3 8 8
250-399 240 3100 26 13 8 15 1 4 4
12 3633 33 15 9 19 2 n.a. 4

Notes: 1. Compressive stress at limit of proportionality.
2. Radial and tangential values differ insignificantly.
3. Combined maximum values of radial and tangential cleavage.

Source: Killmann, 1988.

Table 9-13: Composition and Properties of Carnaúba Wax,Copernicia prunifera
 
 
  Types1
1,2,2A
Types
3,4
Type
5
Melting point - minimum (oC) 83 82.5 82.5
Flash point - minimum (oC) 310 299 299
Volatile matter (including moisture) maximum % 2 1.5 6
Insoluble impurities - maximum % 1 2 1.5

Note: 1. Carnaúba wax is graded in terms of quality on a scale
from 1-5; Type 1 is the highest quality.

Source: Johnson, 1970.
 
 
 

Table 9-14: Nutritional Composition of Buri Palm Fruit, Corypha utan (per 100 g)
 
 
Water (%) 0 Iron (mg) 1.1
Calories 326 Sodium (mg) -
Protein (%) 3.7 Ascorbic Potassium (mg) -
Fat (%) 0.5 Carotene (ug)  -
Carbohydrate (%) 93.7 Thiamine (mg) 0.05
Fiber (%) 6.8 Acid (mg) 57.9
Ash (% 2.1 Niacin (mg) 3.16
Calcium (mg) 73.7 Riboflavin (mg) 0.11
Phosphorus (mg) 89.5    

Source: Atchley, 1984.
 
 

Table 9-15: Nutritional Composition of African Oil Palm Fruit, Elaeis guineensis
(per 100 g)
 
 
Water (%) 0 Iron (mg) 5.6
Calories 746 Sodium (mg) -
Protein (%) 2.2 Ascorbic Potassium (mg) -
Fat (%) 81.9 Carotene (ug)  50,680.6
Carbohydrate (%) Times">14.6 Thiamine (mg) 0.35
Fiber (%) 3.8 Acid (mg) 12.5
Ash (% 1.3 Niacin (mg) 1.81
Calcium (mg) 136.1 Riboflavin (mg) 0.17
Phosphorus (mg) 61.1    

Source: Atchley, 1984.
 
 
 

Table 9-16: Nutritional Composition of African Oil Palm Oil1, Elaeis guineensis
(per 100 g)
 
 
Water (%) 0 Iron (mg) 5.5
Calories 882 Sodium (mg) -
Protein (%) 0.0 Ascorbic Potassium (mg) -
Fat (%) 99.6 Carotene (ug)  27,417.1
Carbohydrate (%) 0.4 Thiamine (mg) 0.00
Fiber (%) 0.0 Acid (mg)
Ash (% 0.0 Niacin (mg) 0.00
Calcium (mg) 7.0 Riboflavin (mg) 0.03
Phosphorus (mg) 8.0    

Note: 1. Source does not indicate whether mesocarp oil or kernel oil.

Source: Atchley, 1984.

Table 9-17: Nutritional Composition of Palm Heart, Euterpe spp.
 
 
Component Euterpe edulis Euterpe oleracea
Protein (%) 2.42 1.72
Ash (%) 1.43 0.83
Crude fiber (%) 0.89 0.27
Fat (%) 0.33 0.08
Total sugars (%) 0.86 0.70
Reducing sugars (%) 0.49 0.30
Tannins (%) 0.06 0.06
Vitamin C (mg/100 g) 1.8 1.4

Source: Quast and Bernhardt, 1978.
 
 

Table 9-18: Nutritional Composition of African Doum Palm Fruit Mesocarp, Hyphaene compressa
 
 
Moisture (%) 4 Calcium (mg) 34
Energy (Kcal) 390 Phosphorus (mg) 110
Protein (g) 3.8 Thiamin (mg) 0.05
Fat (g) 0.8 Riboflavin (mg) 0.10
Carbohydrate (g) 84.1 Niacin (mg) 3.4
Ash (g) 7.3    

Source: Hoebeke, 1989.
 
 
 

Table 9-19: Nutritional Composition of Palm Wine from Sap of Hyphaene coriacea
(per 100 g)
 
 
Moisture (%) 98.8 Potassium (mg) 152
Ash (g) 0.4 Copper (mg) 0.04
Protein (g) 0.1 Zinc (mg) 0.01
Fat (g) - Manganese (mg) trace
Fiber (g) - Phosphorus (mg) 1.37
Carbohydrate (g) 0.7 Thiamin (mg) 0.01
Energy value 13 + 109 Riboflavin (mg) 0.01
Calcium (mg) 0.13 Niacin (mg) 0.22
Magnesium (mg) 4.18 Vitamin C (mg) 6.8
Iron (mg) 0.07 Alcohol (% v/v) 3.6
Sodium (mg) 9.88    

Source: Cunningham and Wehmeyer, 1988.
 
 
 

Table 9-20: Nutritional Composition of Indian Doum Palm Mesocarp, Hyphaene dichotoma (young fruit)
 
 
Energy Cal/100 g 406 Fiber (%) 50.07
Water (%) 0 Ash (%) 7.69
Protein (%) 9.26 Calcium (mg/100g) 268 
Fat (%) 7.21 Phosphorus (mg/100g) 224
Carbohydrate (%) 75.81 Iron (mg/100g) 38.241

Note: 1. High iron value probably due to soil type.

Source: Bonde et al. 1990

Table 9-21: Nutritional Composition of Moriche Palm Fruit1, Mauritia flexuosa.
(per 100 g)
 
 
Water (%) 0 Iron (mg) 12.9
Calories 526 Sodium (mg) -
Protein (%) 11.0 Ascorbic Potassium (mg) -
Fat (%) 38.6 Carotene (ug)  90,992.6
Carbohydrate (%) 46.0 Thiamine (mg) 0.11
Fiber (%) 41.9 Acid (mg) 95.6
Ash (% 4.4 Niacin (mg) 2.57
Calcium (mg) 415.4 Riboflavin (mg) 0.85
Phosphorus (mg) 69.9    

Note: 1. Source does not indicate but assumed to be mesocarp pulp.

Source: Atchley, 1984.
 
 
 

Table 9-22: Nutritional Composition of Sago Starch, Metroxylon sagu
(per 100 g of raw sago)
 
 
Calories 285.0 Calcium (mg) 30.0 
Water (g) 27.0  Carbohydrate (g) 71.0 
Protein (g) 0.2  Iron (mg) 0.7 
Fat, carotene, thiamine, ascorbic acid negligible Fiber (g) 0.3 

Source: Ruddle et al., 1978.

Table 9-23: Nutritional Composition of Date1 Fruit, Phoenix dactylifera
(100 g, edible portion)
 
 
Water (%) 22.5 Iron (mg) 3.0
Food energy (cal) 274 Sodium (mg) 1
Protein (g) 2.2 Potassium (mg) 648
Fat (g) 0.5 Vitamin A (IU) 50
Carbohydrate (g, total) 72.9 Thiamine (mg) 0.9
Carbohydrate (g, fiber) 2.3 Riboflavin (mg) 0.10
Ash (g) 1.9 Niacin (mg) 2.2
Calcium (mg) 59 Ascorbic acid (mg) 0
Phosphorus (mg) 63    

Note: 1. Natural, domestic date; not stated but very likely the Deglet Noor variety.

Source: Watt and Merrill, 1963.
 
 
 

Table 9-24: Nutritional Composition of Palm Wine from Sap of Phoenix reclinata
(per 100 g)
 
 
Moisture (%) 98.3 Potassium (mg) 157
Ash (g) 0.4 Copper (mg) 0.05
Protein (g) 0.2 Zinc (mg) 0.02
Fat (g) - Manganese (mg) trace
Fiber (g) - Phosphorus (mg) 1.74
Carbohydrate (g) 1.1 Thiamin (mg) 0.01
Energy value 22 + 109 Riboflavin (mg) 0.01
Calcium (mg) 0.45 Niacin (mg) 0.5
Magnesium (mg) 5.12 Vitamin C (mg) 6.5
Iron (mg) 0.07 Alcohol (% v/v) 3.6
Sodium (mg) 5.85    

Source: Cunningham and Wehmeyer, 1988.
 
 
 

Table 9-25: Nutritional Composition of Salak Palm Fruit, Salacca zalacca
(per 100 g)
 
 
Water (%) 0 Iron (mg) 19.1
Calories 345 Sodium (mg) -
Protein (%) 1.8 Ascorbic Potassium (mg) -
Fat (%) 0.0 Carotene (ug)  0.00
Carbohydrate (%) 95.0 Thiamine (mg) 0.18
Fiber (%) - Acid (mg) 9.1
Ash (% 3.2 Niacin (mg) -
Calcium (mg) 127.3 Riboflavin (mg) -
Phosphorus (mg) 81.8

Source: Atchley, 1984.

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