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APPENDIX 3

Scientific Names, Common Names, Principal NWFPs and Type of Use for Conifers Mentioned in this Paper

GENUS ABIES


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
Abies
A. alba
 

A. amabilis

A. balsamea
 
 
 

A. cephalonica
A. concolor

A. firma

A. fraseri

A. grandis 
 

A. homolepis
A .koreana
A. lasiocarpa

A. magnifica
A. normandiana
A. procera
A. pindrow
A. pinsapo
A. religiousa
A. sibirica
A. spectabilis

A. veitchii


European silver fir
 

Pacific silver fir

Balsam fir
 
 
 

Greek fir
White fir

Japanese fir, Momi fir

Fraser fir

Grand fir
 

Nikko fir
Korean fir
Subalpine fir

California red fir
Caucasian fir
Noble fir
West Himalayan fir 
Spanish fir
Sacred fir, Oyamel, Abeto

East Himalayan fir

Veitch’s silver fir


Essential oils
Christmas trees and boughs
Landscape material

Bark (medicine)
Boughs

Essential oils
Christmas trees and boughs
Curios (pillows filled with foliage)
Landscape material
Resin

Landscape material
Christmas trees
Landscape material
Landscape material

Christmas trees
Landscape material

Christmas trees and boughs
Landscape material
Resin (Medicine and wood finish)

Landscape material
Landscape material
Bark (medicine)
Boughs

Landscape material
Christmas trees and boughs
Christmas trees and boughs
Essential oil
Landscape material
Boughs
Essential oil
Dye (Cones)
Resin
Landscape material


C
C
C

T
L

C
C
L
C
T

C
L
C
L

L
L

C
L
T

L
L
T
L

L
C
C
L
L
T
C
L
T
L

* C - Commercially important at a regional or international level , L - Commercially important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, historical use or in current use by tribal cultures.
 
 

GENERA AGATHIS AND ARAUCARIA


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
Agathis
A. australis
A. dammara
A. vitiensis
Araucaria
A. araucana

A. angustifolia

A. bidwelli
A. columaris

A. heterophylla


Kauri pine
Dammara

Monkey puzzle tree

Paranà pine

Bunya pine

Norfolk Island pine


Amber; Resin
Resin
Resin (Fijian glue)

Landscape material
Edible nuts
Landscape material
Edible nuts
Resin; 
Edible nuts
Christmas trees
Landscape material
House plant
Landscape material


L; L
C
T

C
L,T
L
L,T
L
T
L
L
C
C

* C - Commercially important at a regional or international level , L - Commercially important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, historic use or in current use by tribal cultures.

GENERA CALCOCEDRUS, CALLITRIS, CALLITROPSIS, CEDRUS AND CHAMAECYPARIS


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
Calcocedrus
C. decurrens

Callitris
C. calcarta
C. preissi

Callitropsis
C. araucariodes

Cedrus
Cedrus spp.
C. atlantica

C. deodara
 

C. libani
 

Chamaecyparis
C. lawsoniana

C. nootkatensis

C. obtusa


Incense cedar

Cypress pine
Cypress pine
 
 
 

True cedars
Atlantic cedar

Deodar cedar
 

Cedar of Lebanon
 
 

Port Orford Cedar

Alaska yellow cedar

Hinoki cypress


Boughs

Resin (Australian sandarach)
Resin (Australian sandarach)

Essential oil

Bonsai
Essential oil
Landscape material
Bark (medicine)
Essential oil
Landscape material

Landscape material
Resin
 

Boughs
Landscape material
Bark (Clothing, canoes, woven products)

Bonsai


L

L
L

C

C
C
C

T
C
C

C
T

C
C
T

C

* C - Commercially important at a regional or international level , L - Commercial important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, historic use or in use by tribal cultures.
 
 

GENERA CUPRESSUS, CRYPTOMERIA AND GINGKO


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
Cupressus
C. arizonica

C. funebris
C. lusitanica
C. macrocarpa
C. sempervirens
 

Cryptomeria

C. japonica

Gingko
G. biloba


Arizona cypress
 

Mexican cypress
Monterrey cypress
Mediterranean cypress
 
 
 

Japanese cedar
 

Gingko, Maidenhair tree


Christmas trees
Landscape material
Essential oil

Landscape material
Landscape material
Landscape material
 
 
 

Bonsai
Bark (Construction)
Landscape material

Bonsai
Landscape material
Medicinal uses


L
C
C

C
C
C
 
 
 

C
T
C

C
C
C

* C - Commercially important at a regional or international level , L - Commercial important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, used or in current use by tribal cultures.
 
 

GENUS JUNIPERUS


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
Juniperus spp.
J. ashei
J. californica
J. chinensis

J. communis

J. erythrocarpa
J. formosana
J. macrocarpa
J. oxycedrus
J. procera
J. procumbens
J. rigida
J. sabina
J. sargentii
J. scopularum

J. virginiana

J. vulgaris

Junipers
Ashe juniper
California juniper
Chinese juniper

Common juniper

Redberry juniper
Formosan juniper, Prickly cypress
Plum juniper
Prickly juniper
African pencil cedar
Nana juniper
Needle juniper
Savin
Sargent’s juniper
Rocky Mountain juniper

Eastern red cedar 

Boughs
Essential oil
Bark (diapers for infants)
Bonsai
Essential oil
Berries (seasoning, gin)
Essential oil
Dye
Essential oil (potential source)
Essential oil
Essential oil
Bonsai
Essential oil
Bonsai
Bonsai
Essential oil
Bonsai
Boughs (shamanistic healing)
Essential oil (potential source)
Bonsai
Christmas trees
Essential oil
Essential oil
L
C
T
C
C
C
C
L
L
C
C
C
T
C
C
C
T
L

C
L
C
C

* C - Commercially important at a regional or international level , L - Commercial important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, used or in current use by tribal cultures.
 
 

GENERA LARIX AND PICEA


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
Larix
L. decidua
L. laricina

Picea
P. abies
 
 
 

P. engelmanni
P. glauca
 
 
 

P. mariana
 
 

P. orientalis
P. rubens

P. sitchensis 
P. smithiana
P. pungens
P. jezoensis


Japanese larch
Eastern larch, Tamarack

Norway spruce
 
 
 

Engelmann spruce
White spruce
 
 
 

Black spruce
 
 

Oriental spruce
Red spruce

Sitka spruce
West Himalayan spruce
Colorado blue spruce 


Bonsai
Resin (medicine)

Bonsai
Christmas trees and boughs
Landscape material
Resin
Tannin

Bark (medicine, construction)
Bark (medicine, construction woven products)
Bonsai
Christmas trees
Resin

Bark (woven products)
Bonsai
Christmas trees
Resin

Bonsai
Bark (woven products)
Christmas trees
Resin
Roots (basketry)
Resin (medicine)
Landscape material
Bonsai


C
T

C
C
C
T
T

T
T

C
L
T

T
C
C
T

C
T
L
T
T
T
C
C

* C - Commercially important at a regional or international level , L - Commercially important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, used or in current use by tribal cultures.
 
 

GENUS PINUS


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
Pinus spp. (13 species)

P. albicaulis
P. ayacahuite
P. banksiana
P. brutia
P. canariensis

P. caribaea

P. cembra
P. contorta

P. coulteri
P. cubensis
P. echinata

P. elliottii

P. flexilis

P. gerardiana
P. halepensis

P. jeffreyi
P. kesiya
P. koraiensis
P. lambertiana

P. longaeva
P. massoniana
P. merkusii
P. montana

P. monticola

P. nigra

P. oocarpa

P. palustris
P. parviflora
P. pinaster

Piñon pines

Whitebark pine
Mexican white pine
Jack pine

Canary Island pine

Caribbean pine

Swiss stone pine
Lodgepole pine

Coulter pine
Cuban pine
Shortleaf pine

Slash pine

Limber pine

Chilgoza pine
Aleppo pine

Jeffery pine

Korean pine
Sugar pine

Bristlecone pine
Masson pine

Mugho pine

Western white pine

Austrian pine

Oocarpa pine, pino oocarpa

Longleaf pine
Japanese white pine
Maritime pine, pin maritime

Edible nuts (See Table 7.2)
Resin
Edible nuts
Edible nuts
Christmas trees 
Resin
House plants
Landscape material
Curios (needle baskets)
Resin
Edible nuts
Bark (food, construction)
Boughs
Cones
Edible nuts
Resin
Bark (oil spill absorption)
Christmas trees
Resin
Pine straw
Bonsai
Edible nuts
Edible nuts
Resin

Resin (heptane)
Resin
Edible nuts, pine nut oil
Boughs
Edible nuts

Resin
Resin
Bonsai
Essential oil
Landscape material
Boughs
Edible nuts
Bonsai
Christmas trees
Resin

Resin
Bonsai
Resin

C, L, T
T
T
T
L
L
L
L
T
C
L
T
C
C
T
L
L
L
C
L
C
T
C
L

T
C
C
L
T

C
C
C
C
C
C
T
C
L
C,T

C
C
C

* C - Commercially important at a regional or international level , L - Commercial important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, historical use or in current use by tribal cultures.
 
 

GENUS PINUS (CONTINUED)


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
P. pinea

P. ponderosa
 

P. pumila

P. radiata
 

P. resinosa
P. rigida

P. roxburghii 

P. sabiniana
P. sibirica
P. strobus

P. sylvestris
 

P. taeda
 

P. torreyana
P. thunbergiana

P. tropicalis
P. virginiana
P. wallichiana

Italian stone pine

Ponderosa pine 
 

Japanese stone pine

Monterrey pine, radiata pine

Red pine
Pitch pine

Chir pine

Digger pine
Siberian stone pine 
Eastern white pine

Scots pine
 

Loblolly pine
 

Torrey pine
Japanese black pine

Tropical pine
Virginia pine
Blue pine

Edible nuts
House plants
Landscape material
Bark (Landscaping)
Bonsai
Edible nuts
Resin
Bonsai 
Edible nuts
Bark (tannin)

Landscape material
Resin
Christmas trees
Bonsai
Christmas trees
Edible nuts
Resin
Edible nuts
Edible nuts, pine nut oil
Christmas trees and boughs
Landscape material

Bark (food)
Bonsai
Essential oil
Resin
Bark (oil spill absorption)
Pine needle baskets
Pine straw (mulch)

Edible nuts
Bonsai
Christmas trees
Resin
Christmas trees
Resin

C
L
C
L
C
T
L

L
L

C
C
L
C
L
T
C,T
T
L
C
C

T
C
C
C
L
T
L

T
C
L
L
L
T

* C - Commercially important at a regional or international level , L - Commercial important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, historical use or in current use by tribal cultures.
 
 

GENERA PSEUDOLARIX, PSEUDOTSUGA, SEQUOIA AND SEQUOIADENDRON


Genus and species
Common name(s)
Products
Type of use*
Pseudolarix
P. kaempferi

Pseudotsuga
P. menziesii
 
 

Sequoia
S. sempervirens
Sequoiadendron
S. giganteum


Golden larch
 

Douglas-fir
 
 
 

Redwood

Giant sequoia, Big tree


Bonsai
Landscape material

Bark (landscaping, Silvacon)
Boughs
Christmas trees
Resin

Tannin (Potential source)
 


C
C

C
C
C
L

L

L


GENERA TAXUS AND TÓRREYA


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
Taxus
T. baccata
 

T. brevifolia

T. cuspida

Tetraclinis
T. articulata

Tórreya
T. californica

T. grandis 
T. nucifera


English yew
 

Pacific yew

Japanese yew
 
 
 

Stinking yew

Chinese torreya
Japanese torreya
Kaya (Japanese)


Foliage (Taxotere)
Landscape material
Topiary

Foliage (Taxol)
Bark -(Taxol) 
Bonsai
Taxol (potential source)

Essential oil
Resin (Sandarach)

Edible nuts
Roots (basketry)
Edible nuts
Edible nuts 


C
C
C

C
C
C

C
C

T
T
L
C

GENERA THUJA AND TSUGA


Genus and Species
Common name(s)
Principal uses
Type of use*
Thuja
T. occidentalis
 

T. plicata

Tsuga
T. canadensis

T. heterophylla


Northern white cedar, Arborvitae

Western red cedar

Eastern hemlock

Western hemlock


Bonsai
Essential oil
Landscape material
Medicinal uses
Bark (clothing, canoes, woven articles)
Boughs
Bark (dye, tannin)
Landscape material
Resin
Bark (food, dye, medicine, tannin)

C
C
C
T
T

L
T
C
T
T

C - Commercially important at a regional or international level , L - Commercial important in individual countries or portions of countries, T - Traditional, used or in current use by tribal cultures.

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