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(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Major Programme 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Trust Fund 2000-01 Total Activities Percent of Total
2.1 Agricultural Production and Support Systems 89 835 139 89 974 325 060 415 034 30%
2.2 Food and Agriculture Policy and Development 87 943 1 049 88 992 13 620 102 612 29%
2.3 Fisheries 39 826 (80) 39 746 43 093 82 839 13%
2.4 Forestry 31 142 (406) 30 736 62 345 93 081 10%
2.5 Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts 53 906 (407) 53 499 39 216 92 715 18%
Total (zero real growth) 302 652 295 302 947 483 334 786 281 100%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 2 892  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 305 839  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (6 686)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 299 153  

202. While this global table for Chapter 2 reflects the proposed allocations, it may convey the perception of decline in resources under some programmes. However, one important factor amongst the many movements which make up the proposal, is the savings derived from the restructuring of the MSUs. These result in substantial reductions under programme management which, in the case of Major Programme 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5, exceed the programme change shown under these programmes. Such reductions are not, therefore, to be considered a loss of "substantive content", but they represent a decline in administrative costs. Similarly, the restructuring of the editorial services pool has resulted in the transfer of resources from Chapter 2 to Chapter 5.


(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Trust Fund 2000-01 Total Activities Percent of Total
2.1.1 Natural Resources 15 482 606 16 088 44 118 60 206 18%
2.1.2 Crops 25 068 296 25 364 245 912 271 276 28%
2.1.3 Livestock 17 215 66 17 281 23 540 40 821 19%
2.1.4 Agricultural Support Systems 15 395 (87) 15 308 10 953 26 261 17%
2.1.5 Agricultural Applications of Isotopes and Biotechnology 5 143 11 5 154 537 5 691 6%
2.1.9 Programme Management 11 532 (753) 10 779 0 10 779 12%
Total (zero real growth) 89 835 139 89 974 325 060 415 034 100%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 1 487  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 91 461  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (3 051)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 88 410  

Objectives and Priorities

203. The following factors have influenced the priorities for this major programme:

204. These determining factors will, in turn, lead to changes in dietary and consumption patterns and increase public awareness of food safety and environmental issues. These changes are taking place against a background of continued globalization and the evolving role and functions of the state. It is anticipated that governments will continue to withdraw from areas where the private sector and markets can perform more efficiently. Furthermore, despite steady progress in research and technological development, and the growing impact of information and communication technology, there are increasing disparities in access to adequate food, productive resources, knowledge and technology.

205. The major programme is to assist in improving agricultural production and post-production systems in support of national food security and sustainable development, in direct support to the implementation of the WFS Plan of Action, especially with respect to commitment 3 relating to sustainable food and agriculture practices. The major programme also makes essential contributions to the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) and both components of the Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases. It supports the development of policy instruments, agreements and regulatory frameworks for genetic resources for food and agriculture, and is host to the Secretariat of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA).

206. Aiming at a holistic perspective based upon systems thinking and the primacy of human welfare, the major programme provides technical services related to crops and livestock, production economics and the commercial aspects of small-scale post-production activities. It coordinates cross-sectoral work in major initiatives such as: the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure for pesticides, the Global Plan of Action (GPA) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA), the Global Strategy for the Sustainable Management and Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources, the Global Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Facility, the Soil Fertility Initiative, the International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID), and the Training and Reference Centre for Food Quality and Pesticide Control at the FAO/IAEA Joint Division. The major programme also hosts the Secretariat for the Committee on Agriculture (COAG); contributes to cross-sectoral programmes on biotechnology, organic agriculture, urban and peri-urban agriculture; and ensures FAO responsibilities as task manager of Chapters 10 and 14 of Agenda 21, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). It also carries out global perspective studies.

207. The major programme's overall goal can be visualized as: "improved production and transformation of bio-physical resources into safe, sufficient and affordable food and other agricultural products contributing to food security, economic development, poverty alleviation and conservation of natural resources". This leads to seven medium-term objectives:


208. Within the proposed allocation, additional resources have been provided for the International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID) in Programme 2.1.1 and for an expert panel on bioethics in Programme 2.1.2. While there are no major shifts of resources proposed between substantive programmes, the transfer of a water resources officer post and associated non-staff resources from RNE to RAP results in a US$ 240,000 reduction in RNE and corresponding increase in RAP.

Programme 2.1.1: Natural Resources

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office
2.1.1.A1 Agricultural Water Use Efficiency and Conservation 0 2 850 2 850 18% 37%
2.1.1.A2 Land Resources, Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Policies and Planning 0 2 458 2 458 15% 22%
2.1.1.A3 Integrated Land, Water and Plant Nutrient Management 0 1 425 1 425 9% 23%
2.1.1.A4 Waterlogging and Salinity Control, Environmental Effects of Irrigation and Reclamation of Problem Soils 0 810 810 5% 24%
2.1.1.C1 Global and National Land and Water Resources Databases 959 (959) 0 0% 0%
2.1.1.P1 Soil Water and Plant Nutrition Management at the Farm Level 1 582 (1 582) 0 0% 0%
2.1.1.P2 Sustainable Management of Land, Water and Plant Nutrition at Community Level 1 261 (1 261) 0 0% 0%
2.1.1.P3 Management and Reclamation of Problem Lands, Salinity Control and Water and Soil Quality Management 1 479 (1 479) 0 0% 0%
2.1.1.P4 National Policies and Strategies for Land, Water and Plant Nutrition 2 046 (2 046) 0 0% 0%
2.1.1.P5 Development of Information and Decision Support Systems on Integrated Land and Water Resources 1 031 (1 031) 0 0% 0%
2.1.1.P6 Improving the Performance of Irrigation Systems 854 (854) 0 0% 0%
2.1.1.P7 Land and Water Information Systems, Databases and Statistics 0 1 410 1 410 9% 12%
2.1.1.P8 Knowledge Management and Partnership Activities 0 1 463 1 463 9% 15%
2.1.1.S1 Direct Support to Member Nations and to the Field Programme including SPFS 0 5 123 5 123 32% 40%
2.1.1.S2 International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID) 0 549 549 3% 20%
2.1.1.T1 Support to the Field Programme and Direct Services to Member Nations 5 579 (5 579) 0 0% 0%
2.1.1.T2 Coordination, Partnerships and Services to Statutory Bodies 691 (691) 0 0% 0%
Total (zero real growth) 15 482 606 16 088 100% 29%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 336  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 16 424  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (784)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 15 640  

209. The programme is concerned with the sustainable use, management and conservation of land and water resources and plant nutrients. The programme structure has been revised in response to the priorities listed above, the lessons learned from piloting the new programme model in 1998-99, and evolving demands. It comprises eight entities: four technical projects (TPs), two continuing programme activities (CPs), most with a strong knowledge generation, management and dissemination content, and two technical service agreements (TSs) in support of field projects and the IPTRID programme. They will require collaboration across disciplines, as well as securing inputs from other divisions within FAO, and/or inputs from partner organizations.

210. The programme will have a stronger focus on two areas: water conservation and water use efficiency in agriculture; and land productivity and conservation. These are in direct response to the resolutions of the World Food Summit and the sixth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) as well as the forthcoming CSD-8. Work in these areas will cover the collection, analysis and dissemination of best practices, with increasing reliance on electronic media, and the exchange of new ideas. Development of new methodologies will be limited to those fields where FAO has a comparative advantage and where there is a clear and expressed need for its involvement.

211. Two interdisciplinary TPs (211A3 and 211A4) address the following issues which concern both water and land management: moisture conservation at field level; salinity control and reclamation of problem soils; integrated land and water management in medium-sized watersheds; and economics of water and fertilizer use.

212. The programme will respond to the increasing demand for services in two ways:

213. Support to field projects and services to Members will continue to absorb a significant proportion of the programme's resources. Technical services will be delivered in the first instance through outposted officers in Regional and Sub-regional Offices, with Headquarters staff providing specialized support or assistance to overcome capacity constraints.

211A1-Agricultural Water Use Efficiency and Conservation

Rationale and Objective

214. Against a backdrop of acute competition for scarce water resources among economic sectors, increasing the efficiency of agricultural water use requires simultaneous improvements in water management, technology, knowledge and capacity building at all levels, from farmers through irrigation agencies to basin and national water resources institutions. Improving the sustainability and productivity of existing and new irrigation schemes requires innovative approaches, an increased role of the private sector, and a framework of national water policies, regulations and economic measures that are conducive to a rational allocation and efficient use of water resources. Recent international meetings such as the sixth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-6) have underlined the pressing need for member countries to take action in this regard. There is a growing demand for technical assistance, capacity building, technology transfer and increased investment. This TP's objective is to promote policies for efficient use and conservation of water in agriculture through improved irrigation technology and water management and related institutional reforms.

Approach and Links

215. This TP has a strong analytical and methodological component, which will translate into a variety of studies and guidelines addressing key aspects of water use and irrigation systems to support advisory services to countries. It will develop tools and procedures for irrigation scheme managers to assess and diagnose the performance at system level, which will be based upon extensive testing in different irrigation systems. The TP will also review design practices used by irrigation agencies in major irrigation countries (China, India, Mexico, Morocco, Egypt, etc.) to disseminate useful information. Actual experience in the privatization of irrigation services will be assessed and guidelines prepared for the promotion of private operators in irrigation equipment manufacturing and servicing. The potential of supplementary irrigation and water harvesting in different agro-ecological zones will be assessed. A manual and a prototype decision support tool for supplementary irrigation will be developed and tested in two countries. A model and guidelines for estimating crop yields for non-optimal water application and timing will be issued. Other activities will include formulation of a methodology for the characterization of wetlands and related management and development options, an overview guide on water policy approaches in different water systems, and a methodology for assessment of water values/costs in transboundary watercourse systems.

216. The TP will support several networks on wetlands management and technologies for irrigation, with the active involvement of Regional Offices, and demonstration sites and irrigation technology centres in several African countries. Training activities will comprise a series of "roving seminars" on the introduction of effective farm irrigation practices and technologies, training courses on water harvesting in four countries, and curriculum development for farmers field schools in on-farm water management. The TP will also have a significant information dimension, with the enhancement of the Computer Program for Irrigation Planning and Management (CROPWAT) which will be used inter alia to develop water allocation procedures under deficit irrigation. Another computerized information system for the management of water, finances, assets, operations and maintenance of irrigation schemes (SIMIS) will be tested under field conditions and made available in user-friendly form to irrigation agencies. A major effort will be made to broaden information available on the FAO Website, including: farm water use, deficit irrigation, water harvesting, local manufacture of irrigation equipment, irrigation scheme improvement and devolved management. Electronic conferences on experience and common practice on international water policy will be organized with active involvement of least developed countries (LDCs). The TP will enlist support from several specialized institutions including ICID and IWMI, as well as other external partners, IUCN, WB, IFPRI.

211A2 - Land Resources, Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Policies and Planning

Rationale and Objective

217. There is considerable variation in land resources potential and availability among regions and countries. In order to meet projected demand, it is estimated that production intensification will contribute approximately 80 percent of the increases in crop production, through increased yields and higher cropping intensities. Government decisions for viable land use, land management and fertilizer policies are vital, and need to take into account locally-specific agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions, while leading to efficient resource utilization by land users matched with market forces. The objective of this TP is to promote policies for soil productivity improvement and sustainable land use and will provide related assistance to countries through: 1) integrated plant nutrition management and soil fertility enhancement; 2) soil management and soil and water conservation technologies; and 3) policies and strategies for land use planning, management and fertilizer use.

Approach and Links

218. Within the framework of the Soil Fertility Initiative (SFI), the TP will develop and test methodologies for the assessment of soil fertility and plant nutrient status, nutrient balance, soil quality and crop yields in two of the participating countries. It will support the design, implementation and monitoring of SFI-linked national action plans. It will undertake the testing and implementation of guidelines on integrated plant nutrition management in training, extension and methods for farmers field schools. A compendium of proven soil fertility management technologies will be issued and facilitate support of the SFI and the SPFS. The FAO Soil Charter will be updated and preparation of a Land Charter will be initiated.

219. The TP will implement several other discrete activities, including an updated version of the Plant Nutrition Management Guide, incorporating case studies in selected countries; a case study in one country on the use of urban wastes for agriculture; the formulation of methodologies for participatory diagnosis and planning of soil and nutrient management for soil productivity improvement and crop intensification at farmer and community level; technical guidelines on integrated land evaluation and land valuation; and user-oriented decision support system software tools, based on multi-criteria optimization for land use analysis. As regards fertilizers, a publication is planned on the overall framework for fertilizer strategies, and studies will be carried out on the availability, characteristics, and agro-economic evaluation of rock phosphate sources, and on lime application. Information dissemination will be served by the following initiatives: the establishment of an Internet network and bulletin board to publicize approaches and exchange experience on land use policies; the compilation of an inventory of traditional and current soil productivity management practices in selected agro-ecological zones and land use systems, including organic farming; and introduction of a user-friendly database on plant nutrient use and fertility for extension staff in SFI participating countries. Contacts with national authorities and NARS will be facilitated through their participation in the network, supported jointly by Headquarters and Regional Offices. External partners will include CGIAR centres, IFA, IFDC and technical assistance agencies.

211A3 - Integrated Land, Water and Plant Nutrient Management

Rationale and Objective

220. Through its focus on integrated approaches, this project supplements the two preceding discipline-oriented projects (211A1 and 211A2) on water use efficiency and soil fertility improvement. It is designed to support national actions in three important areas: 1) to improve rainfed-cropping systems' productivity through the selection and use of appropriate soil moisture conservation methods and soil fertility management in areas with restricted, irregular and distinct seasonal rainfall patterns; 2) to relate the impact of land use on water resources in rural and mountainous watersheds and to identify mechanisms that permit the balancing of costs and benefits accrued to upstream and downstream stakeholders in medium-size watersheds; and 3) to assess the actual and potential productivity of joint water and fertilizer use to facilitate sub-sector analysis, projections and planning by governments, and support by civil society institutions and international organizations. The objectives are, therefore, to assist with soil and water conservation at field level, watershed-based land and water management, and enhanced productivity of water and fertilizer use.

Approach and Links

221. This TP will produce training manuals on appropriate soil management and moisture conservation techniques for use in desertification control and mitigation programmes. It will also produce guidelines and training materials on technologies for improving rainfall capture, infiltration and storage. The TP will be involved with strategy formulation and related testing for land husbandry in specific watersheds, the development of decision support tools, and the preparation of guidelines for land husbandry and steep land management in watersheds. It will publish a report on issues and processes related to the impact of land use on water resources and case studies for upstream-downstream linkages in integrated watershed management, and the results of a study on the productivity of water and fertilizer use. Finally, the TP will elaborate data sets to support analysis, projection and planning work related to irrigated agriculture. External partners will include institutions such as IFPRI and IWMI, as well as IFAD and the WB.

211A4 - Waterlogging and Salinity Control, Environmental Effects of Irrigation and Reclamation of Problem Soils

Rationale and Objective

222. Of approximately 250 million hectares of irrigated lands, 20 to 30 million hectares are damaged by waterlogging and salinization. Reuse and safe disposal of wastewater and drainage water have been neglected in the past, but are important components of comprehensive water management and have the potential to increase water resources available for agriculture and protect the quality of downstream water resources. In addition, soils with specific limitations (e.g. clay, sandy, saline, gypsiferous, acid and peat soils) need cost-effective reclamation and management to achieve their potential productivity. In this context, the objective of this TP is to assist in protecting land and water resources and increasing the productivity of agricultural lands through the control of waterlogging and salinity, safe reuse and disposal of drainage and wastewater, and reclamation and management of problem soils.

Approach and Links

223. The TP will work on decision support systems for the use of saline water for crop production. It will prepare and disseminate a number of guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, for assessment of salinization of irrigated lands, and for construction, operation and maintenance of drainage systems. Publications on the evaluation of the performance of drainage systems and the reclamation and management of problem soils including salt affected soils will also be completed. The TP will support field tests of integrated reclamation and management solutions for problem soils in four countries (salt affected soils in Asia, acid soils in Africa, gypsiferous/calcareous soils in Near East and soil pollution in Eastern Europe). A regional expert consultation on management of problem soils is to be held in South Africa, and several networks will be supported, including a global network on integrated management for sustainable use of salt affected soils, and a sub-regional network on management of problem soils in Southern and Eastern Africa. External partners will include a number of institutions specialized in the above areas, as well as UNEP, IAEA and ILRI.

211P7 - Land and Water Information Systems, Databases and Statistics

Rationale and Objective

224. FAO has, over the years, built geo-referenced databases on land and water resources and use, developed analytical tools and land classification models, and is the lead agency in the agro-ecological zone (AEZ) methodology and related decision support tools which allow the analysis of key issues of land productivity, crop intensification and sustainability. Those models related to population supporting capacity at global, regional, national and sub-national levels have been especially instrumental in calling attention to the opportunities and the limitations of available resources and constraints to food security, agricultural production and development. Comprehensive knowledge of the state of water resources and use, including irrigation, at regional level, is necessary for global, regional and national food security strategy setting. Through this CP, FAO will seek to integrate land and water information with other sectoral information and improved decision support tools and turn them into a coherent and comprehensive information system that allows access to low-cost multi-scale information and multi-purpose analysis in support of decision-making. This effort should be accompanied with monitoring of the status and utilization of land and freshwater resources worldwide, emphasized, as a high priority, by the 15th session of COAG. The objectives are to provide the membership and civil society users at large with up-to-date information and analysis on the global status of land and water resources, and to assist with national information systems and capacity building to use such systems in monitoring of land and water resources.

Approach and Links

225. The information system will include the following major elements: 1) a harmonized Soils and Terrain Database (SOTER) for South America, Africa, Europe and selected countries in the Near East and Asia; 2) a global agro-ecological database integrating soil, terrain and climatic information and linked to land degradation, land use/land cover and population databases (AEZ); 3) the Rural Water Statistical System (AQUASTAT) database updated regularly, with at least five countries fully reviewed each year starting in 2001, and supported by five regional networks for its maintenance; 4) national and regional inventories and digital databases on World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT); and 5) harmonized national and sub-national databases on fertilizer use by crop and fertilizer price.

226. Information dissemination will be facilitated by a variety of means: Internet access, CD-ROMs, workshops, upgraded AEZ methodologies and software tools for AEZ studies at various scales; education material on the Land Resources Information System (LRIS) in multi-media format, etc. The TP will interact with various field projects active in the areas of land and water resources information. A number of external partners will be enlisted for mutual exchange of information and joint development activities.

211P8 - Knowledge Management and Partnership Activities

Rationale and Objective

227. Through this CP, the AGL Division is to act as a service and reference centre on important land, water and plant nutrition issues to guide effective planning and sound management of land and water resources and application of fertilizers. This should enable international, regional and national institutions and agencies to have full access to FAO's knowledge base and to obtain timely advice and reliable synthesized information on all aspects of land, water and plant nutrient management including: resources availability; best practices in soil conservation and management; water management and development and irrigation technology; and plant nutrient management. The CP will be based on a system of continuous updates and electronic dissemination of information. Another asset is AGL's documentation centre, which is the custodian of one of the largest map collections worldwide and will respond to the increasing number of requests for information, documentation and consultation of maps and documents on many issues related to land and water. The objective is to maintain a widely-accessible reference centre and information system on major aspects of land, plant nutrients and water resources management and use in relation to food security and environmental conservation.

Approach and Links

228. The main elements will be the maintenance of a World Soil Reference Centre, the preparation and wide dissemination of synthesis reports on key land and plant nutrient management and policy issues, and the strengthening of the relevant sections of FAO's Internet Website in cooperation with other divisions and external institutions. This CP has a strong external cooperation dimension, as it nurtures effective partnership with international technical bodies on land resources assessments, management and conservation and soil fertility and plant nutrition and ensures close coordination with other UN agencies within the ACC Sub-committee on Freshwater Resources.

211S1 - Direct Support to Member Nations and to the Field Programme including SPFS

229. This technical services agreement covers advisory services in the areas of land, water and plant nutrient development to Members and their institutions; backstopping of the field programme including the SPFS and emergencies and to the Soil Fertility Initiative (SFI).

211S2 - International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID)

230. Agriculture should be able to use less water and produce more. In this context, among other factors, the role of research and technology innovation, adaptation, and transfer in irrigation and drainage is critical. As a joint undertaking, IPTRID builds on the capacities and inputs of six leading international institutions in the field of water development and irrigation. The secretariat function and programme management are assured by FAO. IPTRID's mandate is to enhance the standard of irrigation and drainage research and technology development in countries in order to increase the production of food and agricultural commodities.

231. Under this technical services agreement, the following lines of action will be pursued: 1) identification and formulation of research and development needs, strategies and programmes in up to five countries; 2) facilitating funding for selected/identified research and development needs/programmes in up to eight countries; 3) assisting in the monitoring and evaluation of research and development programmes in up to ten countries; 4) providing for information sharing of research results and technological developments through networking in 20 countries covering four regions; 5) promoting the application of research findings through synthesis of research results, advocacy papers, workshops and seminars; 6) strengthening national capacity in applied research and technology development through thematic networks, workshops for senior research managers and training courses for practicing engineers and technicians; and 7) serving as task manager/secretariat of internationally financed programmes.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 445 0 445 Global 2 868
Regular Programme 15 692 AGL 10 954 370 11 324 Inter Regional 381
Other External Secondments 15 FAOR 13 0 13 Africa 12 245
Secondments to SPPD 8 RAF 964 6 447 7 411 Asia and Pacific 5 677
Secondments to STS 97 RAP 1 090 1 940 3 030 Near East 28 110
Secondments to Trust Funds 274 RLC 334 7 440 7 774 Europe 1 705
World Bank 2 RNE 680 14 053 14 733 Latin America 9 220
Programme of Work 16 088 SAFR 864 0 864    
Trust Fund Activities   SAPA 281 0 281    
Trust Funds 44 118 SLAC 206 0 206    
Trust Fund Activities 44 118 SNEA 257 0 257    
    TCO 0 13 868 13 868    
Programme 2.1.1 Total 60 206   16 088 44 118 60 206   60 206

Programme 2.1.2: Crops

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office Conservation and Management of Plant Genetic Resources 4 036 (4 036) 0 0% 0% Crop Management and Diversification 6 136 (6 136) 0 0% 0% Seed and Planting Material Development 2 295 (2 295) 0 0% 0% Crop Protection 10 964 (10 964) 0 0% 0% Development and Management of Grasslands and Forage Crops 1 637 (1 637) 0 0% 0%
2.1.2.A1 Development of Improved Crops and Cropping Systems 0 4 147 4 147 16% 19%
2.1.2.A2 Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture 0 567 567 2% 18%
2.1.2.A3 Grassland-based Production Systems 0 1 420 1 420 6% 26%
2.1.2.A4 EMPRES - Plant Pests Component 0 1 638 1 638 6% 21%
2.1.2.A5 Mainstreaming IPM to Attain Food Security by Enhancing Essential Ecological Processes 0 1 960 1 960 8% 33%
2.1.2.A6 Conservation, Management and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 0 1 842 1 842 7% 5%
2.1.2.A7 Sustainable Seed Production and Seed Security 0 2 000 2 000 8% 0%
2.1.2.A8 Information for Plant Production and Protection Decision Making 0 1 115 1 115 4% 15%
2.1.2.P1 Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) 0 2 743 2 743 11% 22%
2.1.2.P2 Pesticide Management 0 2 049 2 049 8% 24%
2.1.2.P3 Migratory Pest Management 0 1 779 1 779 7% 18%
2.1.2.P4 Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA) Policy Support 0 2 579 2 579 10% 0%
2.1.2.S1 Technical Services to Members on Crop Production 0 1 525 1 525 6% 66%
Total (zero real growth) 25 068 296 25 364 100% 20%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 285  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 25 649  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (706)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 24 943  

232. The programme will address enhanced and sustainable crop production, reduction of losses due to pests, conservation and use of plant genetic resources and sustainable seed production. The breadth of disciplines and responsibilities of this key programme has led to its restructuring in terms of eight TPs, four CPs, and one TS for direct support to member countries on crop production issues. Cross-sectoral activities include the Global Plant and Pest Information System (GPPIS), and the application of biotechnology and biosafety to key aspects of the programme. The programme entities covering plant protection, genetic resources and seed production all have technical assistance components.

233. As regards crop production, priority areas will be: improved crops and cropping systems, crop diversification, urban and peri-urban agriculture and grassland-based production systems, especially the application of improved genetic materials and biotechnology. Specific activities will focus on sustainable cropping and grassland systems, crop diversification, broadening the genetic base of crops, and incorporating organic agriculture methods where appropriate. Regional and global networking and information will be facilitated through support to the International Rice Commission (IRC) and to networks and working groups on fruit, vegetable and root crops, industrial crops, cereals and grasslands.

234. The priorities for plant protection are to reduce losses due to pests and limit the spread of pests to new areas, protect human health and the environment, and limit phytosanitary barriers in international movement to what is justified. Continuing activities include support for the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the phytosanitary standard-setting agreement recognized by the World Trade Organization (WTO), and regional plant protection commissions in Asia and the Caribbean. Within the remit of IPPC, harmonization of testing protocols and international movement of genetically modified organisms will be addressed. Work on pesticides will include: the implementation of the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides; together with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Secretariat of the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade. Integrated Pest Management will be pursued through the IPM Facility, a multi-disciplinary cooperative project among multilateral and bilateral agencies and donors, and through FAO's field programme. FAO will continue to service regional and interregional fora on desert locust control, and provide information on the locust situation. EMPRES will pursue catalytic activities on early warning, early control and research on migratory pests.

235. Work in plant genetic resources will comprise support for the implementation of the Global Plan of Action on PGRFA and assistance to the Inter-governmental Technical Working Group on PGRFA of the CGRFA, and to Members in policy development for conservation and utilization of PGRFA. Contributions will be made to the FAO-Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) work programme on agro-biodiversity. The World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) will be used as the basis for preparation of an updated report on the State of the World's PGRFA.

236. Sustainable seed production and seed security will be addressed through guidance to countries in strengthening programmes and policies for seed and planting material production and supply, including seed legislation and regulations, and mechanisms for restoring seed production and supply following natural or man-made disasters.

212A1 - Development of Improved Crops and Cropping Systems

Rationale and Objective

237. Present crop production levels are insufficient in many regions and there is often a wide gap in yields between farmers' fields and research stations. The decline in productivity occurring in some regions of the world is also of major concern. Current cropping systems are still sub-optimal and may have a detrimental impact on the environment, especially under shifting cultivation. This technical project will, therefore, contribute to the goals of Members to improve income opportunities and food security through intensification and diversification under sound environmental conditions. Its objective is to enhance livelihoods and incomes of farm families, through intensified crop production and improved cropping systems.

Approach and Links

238. This TP addresses a broad variety of crops and problems related to the management of cropping system. Inter-country cooperation and information exchange will be facilitated by convening meetings and expert consultations. Besides the International Rice Commission (IRC) and its attendant steering committee and working groups, a global expert consultation will be convened on the yield gap and productivity decline in intensive rice production. Other meetings will be held on: maize, under-utilized Andean crops; participatory breeding; international cooperative research for root crops breeding and agronomy; home-garden strategy development; mushroom production and under-utilized fruit crops. The TP will support several networks dealing inter alia with industrial and field crops, various species of fruit crops; biotechnology and broadening of the genetic base, in cooperation with the Regional Offices. Under these networks a number of workshops and symposia will be convened and technical newsletters issued.

239. The TP will support pilot tests and demonstrations of new plant types and improved technologies and assist in the wide dissemination of trial results. It will also assist with specific crop strategy or programme development on potato production in tropical Africa, small-scale mushroom growing, cassava, cashew-nut, and subsistence horticulture. Support to training will involve the preparation of manuals and guidelines on: sustainable cropping systems for the African Savannah; promising rice varieties for different ecologies in West Africa; irrigated rice production for extension workers; breeding for marginal lands; identifying production problems in irrigated wheat; field constraints to rice production and specialty rice; the application of biotechnologies; and exchange of vegetative material. A number of training courses will also be organized. The TP will maintain databases on key crops and cropping systems including maize, wheat, sorghum, horticultural crops, grain legumes and rice under various agro-ecological conditions. Electronic means of dissemination will be enhanced. Close cooperation will be maintained with CGIAR centres actively involved with the above crops or cropping systems.

212A2 - Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture

Rationale and Objective

240. The rapid urbanization in all regions has resulted in an increased demand particularly for fresh fruit and vegetables, while uncontrolled growth of the cities is leading to poverty and malnutrition problems. Horticulture, within and around the cities, has been an expanding activity for many of the unskilled migrants, women and youth. Home-gardening on small plots, road sides, terraces and patios has been undertaken both to feed the family and also to sell through street vendors. Small and medium-size market gardens have specialized in commercial production of vegetables, fruits and root crops for sale in cities. However, in most cases, city farming initiatives lack supervision and guidance and are expanding in a haphazard fashion, with farmers squatting on any available piece of land. Moreover, the uncontrolled use of agro-chemicals and doubtful irrigation water has on many occasions led to public health problems. COAG recognized the important contribution of urban and peri-urban agriculture to improved food security, nutrition and livelihoods. This technical project will assist countries in expanding and diversifying urban and peri-urban production systems, while ensuring sustainable use of natural resources and adequate decision support mechanisms. The objective is to support the intensification and diversification of urban and peri-urban agriculture as a contribution to improved food security and livelihood for the urban poor.

Approach and Links

241. The TP will seek to establish a comprehensive knowledge base on horticultural crops, production technologies and cultivar performances in urban and peri-urban environments. It will also develop sample project prototypes to foster small-scale investment initiatives for urban and peri-urban horticulture and organize symposia on specialized technologies for efficient and safe intensified horticultural crop production technologies in open field and under greenhouse cultivation. This effort will be accompanied by regional project formulation workshops (e.g. greenhouse crop technologies in the Balkan countries and high quality vegetable production in small island states). Crop protocols and guidelines will be issued aiming at the production of high quality and safe horticultural produce, including organic systems, as well as training of certification procedures for labeling according to international standards. Training activities will include regional workshops to build planning capacity for integrated development of urban and peri-urban agriculture and the development of training modules for the production of "safe" vegetables, small-scale floriculture, protected cultivation in the humid tropics, and simple soil-less culture techniques. Meetings of regional cooperative networks will be supported, e.g. in Latin America (Aguila) and in Africa (Coraf), in cooperation with decentralized offices. External partners will include a number of research institutions and NGOs active in promoting this type of production.

212A3 - Grassland-based Production Systems

Rationale and Objective

242. Many of the grasslands of the world occur in marginal areas and, through inappropriate use, have become degraded, with subsequent loss of biodiversity and productivity. In higher potential areas, there is a need to produce growing quantities of fodder either for winter/summer feed or to support the animal component of integrated crop-livestock systems. Many countries require assistance in addressing the needs of herders, nomads and small farmers, particularly in marginal areas. The objective of this TP is to enhance the uptake of technologies for sustainable grassland utilization in arid and fragile ecosystems, and integrate fodder production into agricultural systems in high potential areas.

Approach and Links

243. The TP will support various networks, particularly in terms of working group studies and information exchange for specific ecologies. Range rehabilitation demonstration pilot areas will be established through projects in the Near East, and pasture-crop rotation demonstrations organized in selected countries. Guidelines will be issued on key topics including grassland resource assessment, production from low-input grasslands, hay production, winter forage production in selected Asian countries, silage production for the tropics, and forage and fodder trees for peri-urban smallholder dairy farmers. Reports and publications will be prepared on fodder tree utilization, specific pasture-crop rotations, major grasslands, forage seed production in East Africa, cactus as forage, and cold resistant alfalfa with the cooperation of the concerned Regional Offices. Training courses on forage seed production and on pasture evaluation will be organized for extension workers. A grass/legume and fodder tree database and country forage profiles will be placed on the FAO Website to facilitate dissemination of information to member countries. External partners will include several CGIAR centres (ICARDA, ICRAF, ILRI) as well as IFAD, UNEP and UNESCO.

212A4 - EMPRES - Plant Pests Component

Rationale and Objective

244. This TP will continue the valuable work of the plant pest component of EMPRES, especially for the control of locusts. It will seek to meet countries' requirements for early warning on possible invasions and introductions of transboundary plant pests as well as assistance where capacities for early reaction are inadequate. It will also coordinate the responses of affected countries and promote cooperation. The objective is to minimize the risk of transboundary plant pest emergencies through the development and strengthening of early warning systems, early reaction and research.

Approach and Links

245. The TP will assist in upgrading communication systems in locust-affected countries and improving reporting procedures on the introduction of non-migratory pests. In-depth reviews of the desert locust control capacity of selected countries will be pursued, with a view to enhancing contingency planning processes. Improved methodologies on selected aspects of desert locust surveys will be introduced and the capacity for pesticide residue analysis in the Red Sea region will be assessed.

246. Research support activities will include field trials using biocontrol agents against desert locust populations in the Red Sea area, and field trials with barrier treatments. The correlation between actual composition of desert locust habitats and total spectral reflectance will be analyzed and improved methods of quantitative assessment of locust populations developed. Plant protection officials will be further trained on surveillance and reporting systems. Information dissemination will be pursued through the monthly publication of bulletins on non-migratory pests and the development of a desert locust database, with prototypes to be made available to interested countries. Besides direct contact with affected countries through the commissions, committees and other inter-country cooperation mechanisms under the auspices of FAO, this TP will enlist the cooperation of academic institutions and bilateral assistance agencies interested in locust control. Extra budgetary resources are provided by a variety of donors.

212A5 - Mainstreaming IPM to Attain Food Security by Enhancing Essential Ecological Processes

Rationale and Objective

247. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) makes food production intensification more sustainable, and is the most widely practiced means of establishing farmers field schools to implement other components of food security. National IPM programmes involve policy reforms that make the agricultural sector more competitive by encouraging abolition of unproductive subsidies and promoting human resources development. In addition to optimizing progress towards plant protection goals, IPM is a leading example of knowledge and science-based agricultural practices. This TP's objective is, therefore, to support the identification, analysis and enhancement of critical agro-ecological processes including predation, competition, pollination, co-evolution, mutualism, and herbivory, particularly in relation to plant protection based on local decision-making, and to facilitate related policy and institutional changes.

Approach and Links

248. This TP is closely linked to and mutually supportive of the Global IPM Facility, which is cosponsored by WB, UNDP and UNEP and hosted at FAO Headquarters. The facility involves extra-budgetary core funds of approximately the same magnitude as the resources allocated to this TP. Other FAO-supported or executed IPM field projects provide technical inputs and opportunities in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

249. This TP will undertake case studies and develop new participatory methods for the analysis of essential agro-ecological services used by farmers in IPM decision-making and by national IPM programmes as part of their core strategies related to predation, pollination, etc. It will issue guidelines for national plant protection personnel involved in food security interventions and longer-term plant protection strategy design, implementation and evaluation. The TP will have a strong training orientation, including formulation of training curricula for national plant protection and food security personnel on applying IPM-situated pest population dynamics and pathosystem epidemiological methods, and training of plant protection and regulatory personnel on herbicide resistant crops and pilot IPM programmes for major weeds. Additional activities include: the application of practical weed population ecology by farmers field schools in a range of representative agro-ecosystems; improved biological control in practical IPM systems; development and application of a Code of Conduct for exotic biocontrol; the provision of guidance to conventions and protocols through participatory IPM; and a number of studies of specific components of IPM.

212A6 - Conservation, Management and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

Rationale and Objective

250. This TP will strengthen FAO global system on Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) which includes the development of the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS); the Global Plan of Action (GPA) on Plant Genetic Resources; the report on the State of the World's PGRFA; the international network of ex-situ collections under the auspices of FAO; and the global and regional crop-related networks. This CP will concentrate on facilitating the implementation of priority activities of the rolling GPA in the areas of conservation, use and capacity building, including the updating of the report on the State of the World's PGRFA which will also provide the basis to further develop the WIEWS. Assistance will also be provided to countries in developing regional, national programmes, networks and projects in order to upgrade their capacity to preserve and utilize PGRFA in a sustainable manner, in collaboration with other agencies and in line with the Twenty-ninth FAO Conference decisions. Progress and achievements will be reported to the regular sessions of CGRFA.

Approach and Links

251. The TP will work on all components of the global system. Information dissemination and exchange will be enhanced through the availability of WIEWS and Seed Information System (SIS) on the World Agricultural Information Centre (WAICENT) and regular issues of technical publications including the FAO/IPGRI Newsletter. The second (updated) report on the State of the World's PGRFA will be issued. The TP will pursue strengthening of the global, regional and crop-related networks, as well as the international network of ex-situ collections. Support will also be given for developing methods for dynamic in-situ management of PGRFA populations through such activities as case studies of on-farm management of genetic resources and guidelines for the management of PGRFA in protected areas. Training will also be supported. Collaboration will be ensured with IPGRI, other concerned CGIAR centres and NGOs.

212A7 - Sustainable Seed Production and Seed Security

Rationale and Objective

252. The supply of quality seeds and planting materials, including the distribution of improved varieties, is a key factor for increasing agricultural productivity and food security and is one of the priority activities of the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Countries need to put in place effective seed policies and programmes and ensure complementarity between governmental, parastatal, commercial, and small-scale enterprises in plant breeding, improved seed production, and seed distribution. This TP's objective is to support the formulation of global seed policy and programmes by member countries required for well-functioning national seed production and supply sectors.

Approach and Links

253. Technical and policy advice to countries will be facilitated by the holding of consultations, and by support to inter-country cooperative networks in Africa, Near East and North Africa, and Asia and the Pacific. Manuals on modern seed technology for sexually reproduced crop species, guidelines for improved on-farm seed production and training manuals on laboratory seed testing will be published. The FAO's Quality Declared Seed Scheme will be updated. Regarding seed security, it is intended to establish a Seed Security Consultative Group and make operational a Southern African Development Community (SADC) Seed Security Network. Several FAO field projects are aimed at assisting countries to enhance their seed sectors and they will be closely linked with the activities of this TP. Seed security is a major component of all field projects dealing with seed and planting materials improvement and production. External partners include NARS, at country level, and the crop-related centres of the CGIAR, at the international level.

212A8 - Information for Plant Production and Protection Decision Making

Rationale and Objective

254. This project is designed to develop an innovative, Internet-focused decision support and information management system on crop production and protection. Participants will be able to influence information delivery and access, as the project is to be implemented with shared responsibility for collection, validation and access. The objective is to make information on crop production and protection and related decision-making tools accessible to Members.

Approach and Links

255. A network of plant production and protection specialists will be set up as the backbone for providing inputs into the system. The resulting databases will serve a broad range of users involved in both operational and normative work. Guidelines will be updated and training for editors and users organized on a regional basis. Links will be maintained with other databases of the Plant Production and Protection Division (AGP).

212P1 - Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)

Rationale and Objective

256. This continuing programme activity supports the implementation of the International Plant Protection Convention, and will facilitate the international movement, including trade, of plant material and agricultural products, while assisting the membership in maintaining adequate protection of national plant resources and biodiversity from the introduction and spread of harmful pests. The objective is to secure common and effective action to prevent the spread and introduction of pests affecting plant products and to promote measures for their control.

Approach and Links

257. This CP will involve a series of important meetings, including two meetings each of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures, and the Committee of Experts on Phytosanitary Measures; six expert working groups; and two technical consultations among regional plant protection organizations. It will continue to support FAO regional plant protection commissions in Asia and the Pacific and in the Caribbean and on-going publication of international standards for phytosanitary measures, pest status and outbreak reporting, and other IPPC mandated information sharing. The latter will be facilitated by a dedicated section of the FAO's Internet Website, the issuance of the IPPC Newsletter, and the maintenance of a directory of contact points in national and regional plant protection organizations. In addition to a network of contacts with the concerned national institutions, close liaison will be ensured with WTO and other interested international organizations. Internally, coordination will take place with Codex in international standard setting and harmonization of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures.

212P2 - Pesticide Management

Rationale and Objective

258. This CP will service the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides. Support for the Interim Secretariat of the Rotterdam Convention (jointly executed by FAO and UNEP) for the application of Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (Article 9 of the Code) is part of this CP. Progress in the implementation of the Code so far can be appreciated through the following indicators: 1) provision of guidelines on pesticide management and their subsequent adoption by national authorities (linked to the 2nd questionnaire on the Code, 1996); 2) the description of high quality standards for pesticides (more than 360 "old" standards and 5 "new" standards in 1999); 3) the estimation of pesticide residue levels (more than 2,400 maximum residue limits (MRLs) adopted by Codex in 1998); 4) the identification of hazardous pesticides to qualify for the PIC Procedure (22 pesticides listed in 1998); and 5) relieving the hazard of obsolete pesticides (1,200 tonnes disposed of in Africa up to 1998). The objective of the CP is to reduce risk associated with the use of pesticides and thus assist in protecting human health and the environment.

Approach and Links

259. The CP will support government consultations on the revision of the Code of Conduct, disseminate a draft revised version of the Code, and publish it in final form. It will also disseminate the recommendations from regional awareness workshops on the Rotterdam Convention, organized in cooperation with the Regional Offices. The operational procedure for a specific pesticide to become a PIC chemical will be kept under review and guidelines on pesticide management will be published. Other methodological activities will include: the definition of standards for pesticide product quality; the evaluation, description and publication of pesticide specifications; the publication of reports on pesticide degradation behaviour in agricultural produce and the environment; and dissemination of recommendations of the panel of experts on pesticides registration requirements. The estimation of international MRLs will remain an on-going responsibility, in line with the recommendations of the joint meetings on pesticide residues. The development of an information system on pesticides under the PIC Procedure, including government decisions and the decision guidance documents will assist with the above range of activities. As regards obsolete pesticides, the CP will work on procedures for assessing the build-up of obsolete pesticides in developing countries in cooperation with the Regional Offices in the Near East, Africa and Latin America, and disseminate information and methodologies to governments on disposal. External partners will include UNEP, ILO, UNIDO, WHO and OECD.

212P3 - Migratory Pest Management

Rationale and Objective

260. This CP complements the above TP (212A4) by covering the "permanent" responsibilities entrusted to FAO for supporting information exchange and collaboration among the affected countries on migratory pests, coupled with sensitization of the international donor community. The objective is to facilitate regional and inter-regional cooperation and coordination on the management of migratory pests, to reduce crop losses caused by such pests, in particular by locusts.

Approach and Links

261. Together with TP 212A4, this CP will sustain a flow of current information to all interested parties through monthly bulletins on the desert locust situation including forecasts, the issuance of special alerts on critical desert locust situations and of summaries of situations concerning other locust outbreaks. Guidelines and methodologies will be refined for use in management of desert locust and other migratory pests. Desert locust population fluctuations will be analyzed, and supportive databases maintained. The CP will promote cooperation in desert locust management through policy decisions agreed by consensus, and in servicing of established consultative mechanisms. This will also include efforts to reach consensus on desert locust research priorities and collaborative research projects to be implemented. Training on desert locust management will target inter alia national survey and forecasting officers. Technical advice will be provided to development projects on migratory pest management (e.g. USAID and LOCUSTOX projects). External partners will include bilateral assistance agencies.

212P4 - Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA) Policy Support

Rationale and Objective

262. The CP comprises two components. The first component, implemented by the Secretariat for the Commission on Genetic Resources, is to support intergovernmental discussion and negotiation of policy instruments, agreements and regulatory frameworks for genetic resources for food and agriculture and related technologies, including on access and benefit-sharing; to assist with specific action programmes; and to keep under continuous review all matters relating to FAO's policies, programmes and activities in this field. The Commission has established two subsidiary sectoral Intergovernmental Technical Working Groups (ITWGs) on Farm Animal Genetic Resources and on Plant Genetic Resources. Entity 213A5 supports the ITWG on animal genetic resources.

263. The second component, which deals specifically with plant genetic resources, is under the responsibility of the relevant technical unit, AGPS. It supports the ITWG on PGRFA. It complements TP 212A6, which focuses on operational activities. Its objective is to support countries in the coordination and development of regional and national policies for the conservation and sustainable utilization of PGRFA, including to address genetic erosion, within the framework of the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources. This component covers follow-up and implementation of CGRFA decisions and recommendations.

Approach and Links

264. The first component will support negotiations for the development and monitoring of relevant international agreements, such as the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources (being revised in harmony with the CBD, and for the realization of Farmers' Rights) and the sectoral frameworks, which include reports of the State of the World's Animal and Plant Genetic Resources, the rolling Global Plan of Action on PGRFA and the Global Strategy for the Sustainable Management and Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. The Commission also develops codes of conduct, including on Genetic Resources Collecting and Transfer, and Biotechnology. The CGRFA Secretariat is also to support FAO's bioethics activities. It will maintain close liaison with national and regional institutions and civil society organizations concerned with genetic resources policy, with IPGRI and relevant international organizations, including CBD, WTO and UPOV.

265. The second component will assist all stakeholders in promoting and facilitating the implementation of the GPA, and will provide assistance to countries in developing projects, in cooperation with other agencies. One meeting of stakeholders and donors will be supported. Under this component, guidelines and briefing documents for countries will be prepared on policy for access to, and the use of PGRFA, and on other matters arising from the revised International Undertaking. It will pursue work on criteria and indicators for monitoring implementation of the GPA; methodologies for the incorporation of GPA objectives into the programmes of international organizations; and compilation of best practice, based on the results of case studies. Support will also be provided to the joint work programme on agro-biodiversity with the CBD. National plant genetic resources services, the CBD, the CGIAR (IPGRI), NGOs and funding organizations will be the main external partners. The ITWG on PGRFA will be serviced in close collaboration with the CGRFA Secretariat.

212S1 - Technical Services to Members on Crop Production

266. This technical services agreement covers the provision of direct advice on plant production issues and backstopping of FAO field programme, including SPFS and emergencies, both aiming at strengthened national and international programmes.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 687 0 687 Global 12 046
Regular Programme 25 092 AGD 1 591 1 677 3 268 Inter Regional 9 331
Secondments to SPPD 32 AGP 18 111 20 389 38 500 Africa 35 557
Secondments to STS 30 FAOR 19 0 19 Asia and Pacific 49 596
Secondments to Trust Funds 210 RAF 880 11 841 12 721 Near East 132 972
Programme of Work 25 364 RAP 1 263 27 258 28 521 Europe 18 423
Trust Fund Activities   REU 175 0 175 Latin America 13 351
Trust Funds 245 912 RLC 702 10 682 11 384    
Trust Fund Activities 245 912 RNE 892 9 672 10 564    
    SAFR 247 0 247    
    SAPA 232 0 232    
    SLAC 302 0 302    
    SNEA 263 0 263    
    TCO 0 164 393 164 393    
Programme 2.1.2 Total 271 276   25 364 245 912 271 276   271 276

Programme 2.1.3: Livestock

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office Livestock Information Systems, Policy and Planning 4 211 (4 211) 0 0% 0% Peri-Urban and Intensive Production and Supply Systems 2 148 (2 148) 0 0% 0% Mixed Farming Systems 3 600 (3 600) 0 0% 0% Pastoral and Extensive Grazing Systems 1 660 (1 660) 0 0% 0% Domestic Animal Genetic Diversity 2 322 (2 322) 0 0% 0% Transboundary Animal Diseases 3 274 (3 274) 0 0% 0%
2.1.3.A2 Contribution of Livestock to Food Production and Security 0 2 336 2 336 14% 19%
2.1.3.A3 Contribution of Livestock to Poverty Alleviation 0 1 673 1 673 10% 10%
2.1.3.A4 Protection and Enhancement of Natural Resources in Livestock Systems 0 1 447 1 447 8% 19%
2.1.3.A5 Sustainable Utilization and Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources 0 1 797 1 797 10% 19%
2.1.3.A6 Monitoring and Control of Production Limiting and Zoonotic Diseases 0 2 740 2 740 16% 14%
2.1.3.A7 EMPRES - Livestock 0 2 340 2 340 14% 5%
2.1.3.P1 Global Livestock Information 0 2 725 2 725 16% 16%
2.1.3.S1 Support Services to Member Nations and the Field Programme 0 2 223 2 223 13% 34%
Total (zero real growth) 17 215 66 17 281 100% 17%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 78  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 17 359  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (749)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 16 610  

267. Due to its dynamic expansion, livestock production offers unprecedented opportunities to contribute substantially to food security and poverty alleviation. At the same time, concerns, which need to be addressed, relate to the integrity of natural resources, including farm animal genetic resources, and to public health. The programme has been redesigned in terms of constituent entities to reflect more explicitly these opportunities and challenges. The programme will comprise six time-bound TPs and one CP. The latter will operate as the hub of information and livestock policy and system analysis activities. Support to the field programme is consolidated under one TS.

268. There is a move from the previous livestock systems oriented presentation to projects centred on development issues. This is to reflect more explicitly the contribution of livestock to achieving food security through: enhanced productivity and intensification of animal production (213A2), income generation through animal production with emphasis on short-cycle species (213A3), protecting the natural resource base used in livestock production (213A4), and conserving and better utilizing the animal genetic resources available (213A5).

269. The activities related to animal health are split between a multi-faceted technical project (213A6) on the control and monitoring of emerging and endemic diseases, and the EMPRES livestock project on transboundary diseases (213A7). The findings of the recently conducted EMPRES external review led to a two-pronged approach to AGA's animal health work: 1) health management and livestock productivity issues, and 2) limiting the disruptive impact of epidemic diseases.

270. The new programme structure, while facilitating discipline-based work, will also allow to integrate the management and effective delivery of well defined animal health services, with animal production and product processing. The projects on EMPRES-livestock and on sustainable utilization and conservation of animal genetic resources will maintain high priority. Activities of the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) are covered under a specific component of project 213A6 and work on peri-urban production systems is integrated into the pertinent projects.

213A2 - Contribution of Livestock to Food Production and Security

Rationale and Objective

271. Increased outputs per animal (or per hectare of land) can be achieved by more effective utilization of resources. In practice, this means intensification and more efficient integration of plant and animal production while the market linkages for inputs and products need to be strengthened. The main constraint to livestock production at community and farm level is the inadequate access to inputs, services, training and reliable markets. The trend from family self-sufficiency towards market-oriented production is most prominent in Asia, but growing in importance in parts of Africa (the highlands and sub-humid sub-Saharan areas), as a result of population pressure and tsetse eradication. In Latin America, there are pastoral and agro-silvo-pastoral systems which have high potential for sustainable development. In the Central and Eastern European countries, a major issue is the transformation process aimed at harmonization with the EU. The TP will focus on intensified resource management and integration of production and processing. It will also address aspects of technology transfer, business and service management, and capacity building in public and private livestock production and health services. In addition, the TP will endeavour to enhance the utilization of the genetic potential of domestic animals through the design of breed improvement schemes appropriate to local and regional conditions. The overall objective of this programme entity is to generate strategic guidelines, support national services to sustainably increase livestock production and supply of food of animal origin.

Approach and Links

272. The TP will analyze the potential to produce significant marketable surpluses of animal products in connection with various systems, e.g. the intensive integrated back-yard or contract production systems in Asia and in Latin American silvo-pastoral systems. This work will also cover case studies and workshops to establish the key success elements of private milk or meat processing and marketing groups or associations. The methodological segment of the project will provide documents or guidelines on: feeds and feeding systems; small-scale integrated cattle and buffalo systems in rural tropical areas in Asia; processing technologies for safe marketing of animal products (based on studies in Central America, Caribbean and Near East); work animals and nutrient recycling in association with intensified crop, cattle and buffalo systems (Asia, East Africa); correlation between product quality and animal feeding (of particular relevance to Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe); checklists for preparing livestock components in investment projects; enhanced country-based use and improvement of livestock breeds adapted to changing production environments, and on conserving those unique breeds which are at risk.

273. The Regional Offices will participate in the above assessments and studies, as well as in supporting networks (e.g. four active networks - buffalo, small ruminants, rabbits, and animal housing - in the Near East region). The preparation of training materials will include a model training kit for integrated commercial family dairy herd management in the Asia and Near East regions, and model legal, managerial and operational arrangements for monitoring of production, storage and distribution of livestock products, highlighting quality control and product safety. This TP has external links with the concerned international agricultural centres of the CGIAR and NARS.

213A3 - Contribution of Livestock to Poverty Alleviation

Rationale and Objective

274. An estimated 80 percent of rural households in developing regions keep one or more short-cycle species (poultry, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.) to provide for income generation, food supply and to hedge against risks. Breeds are available that have adapted to a wide range of local conditions and which integrate well into mixed farming. Productivity, however, is usually well below potential, although proven technologies and practices to increase it are available. The project aims to identify opportunities to enhance the genetic basis of indigenous breeds. In addition, both on- and off-farm and peri-urban livestock product preservation and value-added processing can contribute to employment and satisfy the projected growing demand for animal products over the next two decades, a potential which, if properly exploited, could lift millions of people above the poverty line. This requires a pro-active enabling environment of support services and skills, as well as effective information and experience. The overall objective of this project is to generate a comprehensive set of strategic guidelines and associated support material and services to enhance short-cycle species production systems and related small-scale processing.

Approach and Links

275. The initial phase of this project will assess the contributions of short-cycle species to poverty alleviation, examine outstanding issues, explore solutions and their implications to provide a basis for rational decision-making. The contribution of genetic improvement of domestic animals to poverty alleviation will be determined and field tested in several areas. An expert consultation is to be held. User-targeted information and documentation on analyses, strategies, plans and systems will be evaluated and widely disseminated. The project will also investigate appropriate institutional arrangements for the poor livestock farmers to contribute to marketable livestock production. External partners will include international and national research institutions and bilateral assistance agencies.

213A4 - Protection and Enhancement of Natural Resources in Livestock Systems

Rationale and Objective

276. Rising demand for high value animal protein will cause a greater pressure on natural resources. Grazing land is presently threatened with degradation and water resources are becoming scarce in many regions and more biodiversity will be lost if appropriate policies are not put into place. These pressures are being exacerbated by a strong shift towards industrial forms of production, e.g. more specialized and concentrated production in vertically integrated production chains with a generally growing importance of monogastrics as better converters of concentrate (grain-based) feed at the expense of ruminants. In addition, livestock systems occupy more than half of available land and thus livestock production systems will play a critical role in world climate change, both as contributors to emissions and as mitigators (e.g. carbon fixation). Industrial livestock systems are currently highly dependent on fossil fuels. This projected increase in pressure and shifts in the livestock sector require a new set of paradigms for government officials, non-governmental organizations and international institutions. This project targets the problem areas in the interaction between livestock and natural resources. It addresses the close interaction between government policies and the environmental impact of livestock production. Its major objective is to develop and support the application of strategies which reduce conflicts over scarce feed and water resources and conserve land and bio-diversity.

Approach and Links

277. The TP will conduct a comprehensive analysis of resource degradation and its socio-economic implications in critical areas. This will be supported by component studies on biophysical aspects (e.g. nutrient overload), socio-economic and technical aspects (e.g. alternatives to reduce nutrient excretion, alternative housing design, waste treatment and utilization, nutrient recycling). Also, studies will be undertaken on livestock-associated resource pressures and conflicts in various production systems including: human edible feed and energy efficiencies, non-methane gaseous emissions, carbon sequestration, fossil fuel use. Finally, a preliminary assessment and monitoring of nutrient balances in small holder farming systems will be carried out. It is intended to set up communication structures of a consultative nature (e.g. discussion fora, networks and national committees) on pastoral and silvo-pastoral systems and general livestock-environment issues leading to a global network. The project will provide training-support materials and a series of analytical, planning and monitoring tools on major livestock-environment issues. It will also provide institutional support for the establishment of silvo-pastoral demonstration units. The main external partners will be ILRI, ICARDA, ICRAF, IFPRI, WB, UNEP and the multi-donor Livestock-Environment Initiative.

213A5 - Sustainable Utilization and Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources

Rationale and Objective

278. The value of the majority of the animal genetic resources (AnGR) related to domesticated farm animal species important to food and agriculture production is poorly understood. Interest so far has concentrated on a very small number of breeds worldwide, frequently without due consideration to the impact of local production environments on the breeds' ability to survive, reproduce and produce. At the behest of its Governing Bodies, FAO is to lead and coordinate the development and further evolution of a strategic framework for country use in upgrading AnGR management activities: i.e. survey, monitoring and description; use and development, and maintenance of, and access to these biological resources. Sustainable utilization and conservation are critical elements in the strategic framework for the Sustainable Management and Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources which is being shaped by FAO to assist countries in the management of farm-related AnGR. These are also fundamental objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which most countries have now ratified for implementation. Rapidly developing molecular and reproductive biotechnologies also have important implications for utilization and conservation action by countries. This project, therefore, aims at further developing the strategic framework for AnGR and assisting country implementation of key elements for sustainable utilization and conservation of unique genetic resources of the important farm animal species.

Approach and Links

279. The project addresses the broad range of specific information required by countries to develop cost-effective policies, plans and programmes. These requirements relate to: (i) understanding the reasons for erosion of AnGR and the value of conservation efforts; (ii) planning and implementing breed improvement activities for those livestock resources currently important for food security as well as a spectrum of other needs of communities; (iii) maintaining, to meet possible future needs, those unique AnGR which are of limited current interest to farmers; and (iv) accessing and sharing the benefits of AnGR in a broad array of production environments.

280. The forum function is to be exercised principally by the Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on AnGR (ITWG-AnGR) of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) and the Commission itself, which the TP will service and support in further developing the global strategy and its constituents, as well as the AnGR element of the joint FAO/CBD programme. Two meetings of the panel of experts on AnGR will also be convened. The coordination and mobilization of AnGR conservation efforts will include training of focal points for a further 35 countries. This process will be aided by preliminary comprehensive guidelines and a decision support system on AnGR for in-country use and for an AnGR surveying and monitoring system together with an emergency response system to be drafted and negotiated with countries. National conservation strategies for animal genetic resources will be formulated. Animal breed improvement strategies and schemes are addressed in conjunction with programme entities 213A2 and 213A3. Efforts will continue to identify extra-budgetary resources to support a substantial portion of these outputs.

281. The major information output will be the preparation of the report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for the preparation of which guidelines will be elaborated and support structures established at regional and local levels. Other major publications will be the Animal Genetic Resources Information Bulletin (six issues), and the third edition of the World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity. The special information system on animal genetic resources established by the Initiative for Domestic Animal Diversity (Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS)) is dealt with under programme entity 213P1. Other important activities will be the development of agreed criteria for and global monitoring of the measurement of domestic animal diversity and establishment of a monitoring mechanism and production of global statistics on the use of artificial insemination and embryo transfer in major species. Close links are to be maintained with other entities under the livestock programme, WAICENT and the joint FAO/IAEA Division. External partners will include CGIAR institutions active in AnGR and UNEP, in addition to the UN/CBD.

213A6 - Monitoring and Control of Production Limiting and Zoonotic Diseases

Rationale and Objective

282. Countries need to address the key constraints imposed on livestock production by the major endemic diseases and the increasing impact of zoonoses on human health and trade. This implies effective disease intelligence, institutional strengthening of veterinary services, international coordination and collaboration, the development of sound strategies and policies for animal disease management, and facilitating the sustainable and productive use of animal and other natural resources in an integrated manner. This TP's objectives are, therefore, to strengthen national capacity for disease intelligence, as well as to advise countries on animal disease management strategies.

Approach and Links

283. A number of studies and assessments will be carried out, including the analysis of the relationships between antibiotic usage in medicated feeds, livestock production (feed conversion and gains) and antibiotic resistance patterns in gastrointestinal flora. The TP will issue guidelines, e.g. on the characterization of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-virus isolates for improved disease control, and standards and protocols for diagnosis and management of parasite resistance. The TP will also be active in supporting inter-country cooperation in the areas of trypanosomiasis and tsetse research and control activities. This will include the coordination of pilot testing, validation and extension of new vaccines against priority endemic diseases of small ruminants under extensive rearing systems, and support to an international collaborative network, with regional reference centres, for information exchange and promotion of integrated parasite control. Annual meetings of the FAO working group and the FAO industry contact group on parasite resistance will be convened. External partners include OIE, PAHO and WHO.

213A7 - EMPRES - Livestock

Rationale and Objective

284. This TP covers the animal diseases component of EMPRES. It addresses the epidemic diseases which have the potential to cause serious production losses, constrain international trade in livestock and livestock products, and threaten food security. In order to reduce and eventually eliminate the threat posed by transboundary diseases, the TP assists countries in building their own surveillance/early warning systems, establishing contingency plans, and building a global information system for disease monitoring. It also plays a role in promoting research on disease control and eradication methods. The objective of this component of EMPRES is to assist with effective national and regional control and eradication strategies (early warning systems, contingency planning) and contribute to global information for the prevention and control of major epidemic livestock diseases.

Approach and Links

285. The TP operates through five complementary lines of action: 1) promotion of coordinated surveillance and early warning system at national, regional and global levels, including through an hierarchical GIS-based database (in programme entity 213P1); 2) facilitation of emergency planning by member countries to prevent and/or limit the spread of transboundary animal diseases; 3) technical leadership for coordination of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP), with a view to attaining global rinderpest freedom by the year 2005, and internationally verified global freedom from rinderpest infection by the year 2010; 4) promotion of regional strategies for the progressive control of strategically important diseases, particularly foot-and-mouth disease and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP); and 5) support to research by the reference laboratories and collaborating centres, and to maintenance of the system for the regular dissemination of disease information, disease alerts and risk analysis.

286. Activities to be undertaken include: regular issuance of the EMPRES transboundary animal diseases bulletin, both in hard copy and on the FAO Website; the organization of regional meetings to establish networks and workshops to assist countries and regional organizations in implementing emergency preparedness planning; support to national animal disease intelligence capabilities; and development of in-country risk models to facilitate trade.

287. As regards other diseases, GREP technical consultations will be convened to review progress towards eradication and adherence to the GREP blueprint and to advise on measures required. The TP will carry out epidemiological evaluation of incidence and distribution of disease in key countries and analysis of factors contributing to the persistence or spread of infection. This will be accompanied by the preparation of promotional and technical materials for GREP. A CBPP control strategy for Africa will be developed and monitored through regular international consultations. Technical support will be provided to regional FMD control programmes and a new epizootics commission will be established for Southern Africa. Besides links to other livestock activities and AGE (Programme 2.1.5) for joint work on diagnostic methods, external partners include OAU/IBAR, OIE, PAHO and WHO, particularly as regards global disease notifications, shared databases and coordination of strategies for effective prevention and progressive control of transboundary animal diseases.

213P1 - Global Livestock Information

Rationale and Objective

288. Decision-making on livestock development is currently hampered by insufficient information and awareness of the extent and causes for negative and positive impacts of livestock on public goods and what may be expected of any change in policy. The complexity of the interaction between livestock and other sectors requires improved information flows. Clarifying the interactions between livestock, crops, natural resources, pathogens and people, in quantitative and geographical terms, would enable national authorities to target the limited assistance available more effectively, to direct their livestock production and health policies more precisely according to established priorities and to help avert potential disasters (irreversible degradation and erosion, epidemics, droughts, famines, etc.) and promote sustainable livelihoods of both the rural and urban poor. The objectives of this continuing programme activity are: 1) to facilitate widespread use, also in social, environmental and ethical terms, of accurate and current information and related analysis by decision-makers, scientific and technical staff in governments, academic and research institutions, NGOs and the private sector; 2) to analyze at various levels development trends; and 3) to provide advice, based on such information and system analysis.

Approach and Links

289. The programme of work includes three main areas:

213S1 - Support Services to Member Nations and the Field Programme

290. This technical services agreement covers advice to the membership and backstopping of the field programme, including SPFS and emergencies, in relation to the wide range of livestock production and health issues addressed by Programme 2.1.3.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 477 0 477 Global 7 780
Regular Programme 17 046 AGA 13 804 732 14 536 Inter Regional 2 883
Other External Secondments 12 AGD 52 50 102 Africa 7 954
Secondments to STS 53 FAOR 20 0 20 Asia and Pacific 14 234
Secondments to Trust Funds 170 RAF 392 4 879 5 271 Near East 3 168
Programme of Work 17 281 RAP 783 11 857 12 640 Europe 901
Trust Fund Activities   REU 103 0 103 Latin America 3 901
Trust Funds 23 540 RLC 680 2 411 3 091    
Trust Fund Activities 23 540 RNE 333 1 909 2 242    
    SAFR 371 0 371    
    SEUR 266 0 266    
    TCO 0 1 702 1 702    
Programme 2.1.3 Total 40 821   17 281 23 540 40 821   40 821

Programme 2.1.4: Agricultural Support Systems

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office Farming Systems Development 3 747 (3 747) 0 0% 0% Agricultural Engineering 2 005 (2 005) 0 0% 0% Post-Harvest Management 1 517 (1 517) 0 0% 0% Food and Agricultural Industries 3 458 (3 458) 0 0% 0% Marketing 2 788 (2 788) 0 0% 0% Rural Finance 1 880 (1 880) 0 0% 0%
2.1.4.A1 Small Farm Competitiveness 0 1 540 1 540 10% 17%
2.1.4.A2 Meeting Urban Food Needs 0 1 407 1 407 9% 25%
2.1.4.A3 Increasing the Efficiency of Services to Producers 0 1 410 1 410 9% 20%
2.1.4.A4 Agri-business Development 0 1 006 1 006 7% 28%
2.1.4.A5 Database Development and Information Systems 0 1 105 1 105 7% 16%
2.1.4.A6 Farm Economics and Decision Support 0 860 860 6% 25%
2.1.4.A7 Agricultural Engineering, Ergonomics and the Environment 0 436 436 3% 22%
2.1.4.A8 Agricultural Marketing and Rural Finance Support Products and Outreach 0 1 452 1 452 9% 27%
2.1.4.P1 Small-scale Agro-industries and Post-harvest Systems Analysis 0 1 148 1 148 7% 13%
2.1.4.S1 Technical Support to Field Projects and Direct Support to Member Nations 0 4 944 4 944 32% 36%
Total (zero real growth) 15 395 (87) 15 308 100% 26%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 275  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 15 583  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (721)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 14 862  

291. The programme assists Member Nations in promoting entrepreneurship in agriculture, agri-business and agricultural support services in order to enhance the production and marketing of food and other agricultural products and to improve rural livelihoods. This requires an enabling environment for growth of rural enterprise, and income and employment generation, while ensuring full involvement of women, effective safety nets for the poor and protection of the natural resource base. The programme also aims to provide a forward-looking response to commercialization, liberalization and urbanization trends affecting agriculture globally.

292. In this context, priorities include:

293. Renewed emphasis is to be placed on integrated environmental, natural resources and conventional farm economics particularly in relation to farm commercialization and sustainable production systems intensification. As a consequence, there will be reduced advocacy and methodology development for the farming systems approach. In the fields of agro-processing and post-harvest management, there will be substantial continuity in supporting agro-industrial development through application of innovative technologies and development of apiculture and sericulture. In the area of agricultural engineering, environmental and gender issues will continue to be addressed, as well as issues relating to farm power and conservation farming. In the areas of marketing and rural finance, the programme will continue to address the need for effective and efficient banking and marketing services supporting the commercialization of agriculture, and will develop specialized support products to improve access to and quality of services.

294. The programme has been reoriented to take account in particular of the recommendations in the Programme Evaluation Report 1998-993, and the medium-term objectives of Major Programme 2.1. In order to foster a multidisciplinary approach, work has been organized into five interdisciplinary problem-solving technical projects, three other technical projects, one continuing programme entity, and one technical service entity - all with explicit linkages to other Agriculture Department (AG) divisions.

214A1 - Small Farm Competitiveness

Rationale and Objective

295. Going beyond past concerns with food self-sufficiency, small farmers throughout the world should now produce specifically for markets and rely on markets for critical inputs. This change largely reflects a response to rapid urbanization and new marketing opportunities. Linked to the added pressures of market liberalization and globalization, small farmers have new opportunities, but also face immense threats. Public organizations need to provide an enabling environment supporting innovation, investment and improved business management for market-oriented agriculture. This TP is to pursue an integrated approach covering inter-linked aspects affecting small farm competitiveness, e.g. production-marketing linkages, farm diversification and enterprise choice, rural finance and investment, post-harvest technologies and more efficient use of farm power. Actions taken to improve small farm competitiveness, productivity and incomes contribute to poverty alleviation and reduce food insecurity. The objective is to promote market-oriented farm production and support small farmers in increasing their productivity, efficiency and farm/household incomes.

Approach and Links

296. Through this project, strategies for improving farm competitiveness will be identified to assist governments, NGOs and farmer organizations in priority setting and programme design. Extension guidelines on using market information and market-oriented farm planning will be developed and put to use in selected countries. Improved market and management information systems will lead to increased farm productivity and efficiency. A number of studies will be undertaken on improved production - post-production linkages; village-level processing (assessment of both economic and technical aspects); and more efficient use of farm power. The impact of commercialization on women farmers will be assessed. Worldwide, there is likely to be expanded and more effective use of contractual arrangements for inputs and marketing, particularly in Asia and Latin America. In this connection, technical documents and a bulletin on contract farming will be issued. In Africa, as well as elsewhere, the TP will support improved capacity for investment planning and management, by both farmers and local financial institutions, in particular through studies on levels of investment required for small farmers and entrepreneurs in specific regions. Manuals will be published on increasing rural savings mobilization, safeguarding of savings deposits and developing better practices for agricultural lending. These will be coupled with training aids for bank staff and a guide on strengthening of financial management skills of farm households. Staff in Regional and Sub-regional Offices will participate in the formulation and implementation of the above outputs, particularly as relate to guidelines, manuals and training.

214A2 - Meeting Urban Food Needs

Rationale and Objective

297. Demographic trends and the reality of urban poverty, require improved food marketing systems which aim at ensuring urban food security, while securing higher farmer incomes. This involves focusing closer attention on building efficiency into the marketing chain. Countries require considerable assistance to address the impact of rapid urbanization on national food systems. The objective of this TP is to provide the basis for government and municipal authorities to identify changes needed in order to improve the efficiency of food supply and distribution operations within urban areas.

Approach and Links

298. The TP will further develop a multi-disciplinary methodology of increasing efficiency in the marketing chain for use by both municipalities and central governments as a means to identifying required changes. In addition, the TP will investigate a number of important aspects of the rural-urban food connection, such as the role of farmer incentives and supply responses, building on the work envisaged for project 214A1. It will undertake case studies dealing with enterprise development, models, resources and opportunities. This work will lead to training support activities primarily for applying the methodology mentioned above, but also in related areas such as the preparation of guidelines on waste management in cities and recycling opportunities, market infrastructure and market management. External partners include universities as well as national research institutions and bilateral assistance agencies.

214A3 - Increasing the Efficiency of Services to Producers

Rationale and Objective

299. The efficient functioning of input supply services and product marketing services is essential for the development of market-oriented agriculture. In many countries, particularly those which have recently undertaken structural adjustment programmes, these services were provided by the public sector in the past. Governments are now divesting themselves of these services and letting the private sector take them over. Also, in many countries, both the input supply sector and/or the marketing sector are under-developed. Assistance is required to set up an enabling policy environment and strategies and programmes need to be defined to develop the private sector. This project will tackle these issues through analyses of specific situations and proposing generic policy frameworks, strategies and specific actions to improve services to farmers. It is targeted at policy makers, government officials, donors and ultimately, providers of services and farmers themselves. The project will initially concentrate on a group of countries in Africa. The objective is to assist better performance of the agricultural sector in countries, through increased efficiency of input-output systems and the private and government services pertaining thereto.

Approach and Links

300. The TP will seek to provide tailored advisory services to governments on the identification of market infrastructure needs and the design and management of this infrastructure; the development of marketing support services, such as marketing information and marketing extension; and the role of the state in provision of banking services. Policy advice will be underpinned by various studies on the extent and impact of privatization, constraints to service provision at farm level and the potential for farmer, trader and processor associations. Practical guidelines on the role of government and the private sector in farm input supplies, marketing, mechanization, and banking services will be prepared and disseminated. The TP will also provide information on raw materials with market potential for processing, on the range of food products for which markets are developing, and on available technologies. Workshops on privatization issues and training material for entrepreneurs will complete the work programme. The decentralized offices will be closely associated in this work.

214A4 - Agri-business Development

Rationale and Objective

301. Inter-dependent activities in rural communities, from farm supply through farming, processing and marketing to distribution to consumers require efficient coordinating mechanisms that can hold a commodity system together and allow it to adjust to technological, social and economic changes. There is a considerable need for technical, financial and economic assistance including information flows to encourage the development of profitable agri-business enterprises - and result in greater employment and earnings in rural areas. The objectives of the project are to support the commercial development of integrated agriculture systems and to enhance the role of private entrepreneurs in rural and peri-urban communities.

Approach and Links

302. Advice to countries on the promotion of agri-business will build on a blend of policy studies and published materials under this TP. An assessment of the benefits of cooperative mechanisms on private, small-scale agro-industrial development (industrial parks), will be made, while studies on improving returns from root crops from the international starch markets, will be carried out in selected countries. Publications will deal with modern food industry innovations and an enhanced role of the private sector in improving profitability of value-added products. Training material will be prepared for local credit institutions on agri-business financing, and simple training materials for the post-harvest sector tested in conjunction with academic institutions in Africa. An international meeting will be held on efficiency in the post-harvest sector, including improved agri-business opportunities, accompanied by regional consultations on rural agri-business development, in collaboration with Regional Offices. External partners will include IFAD, WB and bilateral assistance agencies.

214A5 - Database Development and Information Systems

Rationale and Objective

303. This TP is to cover information and data collection and dissemination relevant to farm power, machinery, tools, equipment and post-harvest techniques, farm resources and production systems and banking services. The objective is to enhance availability to the membership of up-to-date information on key agricultural support services and factors pertaining to agri-business development.

Approach and Links

304. Databases and information systems covered by this TP relate to: (i) production, trade, national inventories and use of farm machinery and equipment; (ii) the global situation of farm power resources (human, animal and mechanical); (iii) agricultural engineering institutions and suppliers of agricultural equipment; (iv) information on the integrated post-production sector (INPHO); and (v) key data on the outreach of formal financial institutions in rural areas. This effort is to be accompanied by assistance in improving country-level capacity for collecting, managing and effectively using farm-level data and will be undertaken in cooperation with Regional Offices. Dedicated pages on the FAO Website and electronic newsletters will facilitate access to this wealth of information by a broad range of users. An international directory of agricultural engineering institutions will also be placed on the Internet and a chapter on farm power and mechanization developed for inclusion in the global perspective study Agriculture Towards 2015/30. Links will be maintained with WAICENT and with cooperating institutions networked with FAO for the generation and validation of selected data.

214A6 - Farm Economics and Decision Support

Rationale and Objective

305. In parallel with the increasing use of participatory appraisal tools for farm and community level diagnosis and planning, there is a complementary need for farm-level economic analysis. Due to inadequate national capacity for analyzing and effectively using farm-level economic data, technical interventions may not be profitable to farmers, and programmes and policies developed with little basis for evaluating farm-level impact. In line with progress in decentralization, farmers and farm communities are being empowered, but many experience difficulties with planning and priority-setting based on real economic trade-offs. Extension agents often cannot help since most have had little or no training in farm management analysis or planning. This project will address the above issues, in pursuing the objective of improving farm-level economic analysis and planning and decision-making capacity by farmers and organizations providing support to farmers.

Approach and Links

306. This project will assist in capacity-building for government officials, NGOs and farmer organizations, particularly in analyzing and effectively using farm-level economic data. Farmers themselves, in several countries, will keep records to support decisions leading to higher farm income and productivity. Regional Offices will assist with needs assessments of farmer record-keeping and accounting, as well as defining training requirements in their respective regions. In addition, farmers, NGOs and farmer organizations will be provided with training materials in order to reinforce planning processes, both individually and at the local community level. Publications will include a field guide on farm data collection and analysis (pertinent to the implementation of the SPFS); a guide to integrated economic and environmental accounting; various accounting and budget modules for farmers field schools; manuals on participatory community planning; and the farmer agricultural resources management (FARM) handbook. The supportive analytical component of the project will cover country studies for integrated economic and environmental accounting, as well as farmer typology studies in selected countries. Consultations will be organized to incorporate farm management in agricultural extension. An AGS bulletin on farm management data collection and analysis will be issued. Links will be maintained with regional projects active in the preceding areas, as well as with a number of national institutions.

214A7 - Agricultural Engineering, Ergonomics and the Environment

Rationale and Objective

307. This TP is to deal with three important problem areas affecting the agricultural sector in developing regions. In the first instance, it will address the insufficient standards and legislation in many countries concerning safety in the design, manufacture and use of agricultural machinery and equipment (leading to a great number of accidents and other adverse effects); secondly, widespread inappropriate pesticide application practices with serious consequences both for the health of the operator as well as for the environment; and finally, inappropriate tillage systems which lead to increased soil erosion and degradation. The TP will, therefore, pursue several objectives: the promotion of appropriate machinery and equipment standards and practices including attention to gender aspects; the safe application of pesticides; and appropriate tillage practices.

Approach and Links

308. The TP will actively support national programmes to redress the above deficiencies, through dissemination of guidance and information. It will formulate and help countries implement improved and comprehensive standards and legislation for farm machinery and farming tools. It will issue updated guidelines and a code of practice for environmentally sound tillage practices, with associated training programmes. Information on safe pesticide application and on gender issues in agricultural engineering will also be disseminated. The TP will link with national authorities and research and development institutions active in these areas.

214A8 - Agricultural Marketing and Rural Finance Support Products and Outreach

Rationale and Objective

309. The commercialization of agriculture and of related upstream and downstream activities necessitates effective banking and marketing services. Many countries require substantial assistance to ensure a pro-active outreach of such services to farming communities and to give effect to national initiatives based on existing and new products. The TP's objective is, therefore, to assist with strengthened marketing and improved financial services for agriculture.

Approach and Links

310. The successful, FAO-developed MicroBanker system will be further promoted, with the issuance of a new Windows version and training of over 50 support personnel to facilitate its broader use in countries. In addition, the FAO Agrimarket II market information software will be disseminated. As powerful instruments of inter-country cooperation, regional associations for rural finance and marketing will continue to receive support, in cooperation with the Regional Offices. Meetings of the Scheme of Agricultural Credit Development (SACRED), and technical rural finance consultations will be held. Information and training manuals on agricultural marketing and rural finance will be published, including two issues of Rural Finance Research in Progress. In addition to close links with the above associations, external partners will include ILO, UNCDF, WB, WOCCU (for regional consultations), and the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) for joint activities on MicroBanker.

214P1 - Small-scale Agro-industries and Post-harvest Systems Analysis

Rationale and Objective

311. In line with the gradual shift from subsistence to commercial farming, the post-production system composed of the post-harvest and agro-industry sectors, has a major role to play in the socio-economic development of many countries. Viable agro-industrial development must be in harmony with resources available, produce materials or goods for which buoyant markets exist and ensure that the entrepreneurs involved can make a reasonable living. Easy to understand technologies are essential as well as information, experience, equipment and/or models and methods that will enable the post-production entrepreneurs to take advantage of market prices and to plan for the future with confidence, contributing to food security and economic well-being. This continuing programme activity is to fill existing gaps in technology application and knowledge in the small-scale rural agro-industry and the post-harvest sectors. The overall objective is the promotion of, and support for an effective post-production sector in rural and/or peri-urban areas.

Approach and Links

312. The CP will have a strong methodological component, including the promotion of improved evaluation procedures for post-production equipment; dissemination of a practical framework for integrated analysis of the post-harvest system; and sharing of information on food-processing and fibres technology developments. Guidelines will be issued on: the prevention and control of diseases affecting the silk worm and the honey-bee; the effective use of agro-residues and waste; and approaches to industrialization on a small-scale. A compendium of post-harvest technologies, as well as the results of studies on natural bioactive agents for use with pest control and degradative enzymatic activities, and of the analysis of functional characteristics of selected commodities, will be published. Training manuals and associated information packages will be disseminated. External partners will include UNIDO, WB and other organizations carrying out complementary activities.

214S1 - Technical Support to Field Projects and Direct Support to Member Nations

313. This technical services agreement covers provision of advice on farm management, mechanization, rural agro-industries, post-harvest management, marketing, rural finance and agriculture insurance. It also includes backstopping of the field programme, including SPFS and work on emergencies, and will be carried out in association with regional technical teams.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 448 0 448 Global 3 766
Regular Programme 15 154 AGS 10 868 302 11 170 Inter Regional 302
Secondments to SPPD 14 FAOR 15 0 15 Africa 6 884
Secondments to STS 31 RAF 1 177 2 893 4 070 Asia and Pacific 6 845
Secondments to Trust Funds 109 RAP 869 3 720 4 589 Near East 2 122
Programme of Work 15 308 RLC 658 1 391 2 049 Europe 2 979
Trust Fund Activities   RNE 476 441 917 Latin America 3 363
Trust Funds 10 953 SAFR 242 0 242    
Trust Fund Activities 10 953 SAPA 261 0 261    
    SEUR 294 0 294    
    TCO 0 2 206 2 206    
Programme 2.1.4 Total 26 261   15 308 10 953 26 261   26 261

Programme 2.1.5: Agricultural Applications of Isotopes and Biotechnology

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office Contribution to Improvement of Crop and Livestock Productivity 1 696 (1 696) 0 0% 0% Contribution to Crop Protection and Control of Animal Diseases 2 178 (2 178) 0 0% 0% Contribution to Consumer and Environmental Protection and Reduction of Food Losses 1 269 (1 269) 0 0% 0%
2.1.5.A1 Sustainable Improvements in Crop Productivity and Resource Management 0 2 099 2 099 41% 0%
2.1.5.A2 Sustainable Improvements in Livestock Productivity 0 1 430 1 430 28% 0%
2.1.5.P1 Training and Reference Services for Food and Pesticide Control 0 1 625 1 625 32% 0%
Total (zero real growth) 5 143 11 5 154 100% 0%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 535  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 5 689  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) 0  
Total (zero nominal growth) 5 689  

314. This programme is implemented jointly with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and includes research, training and other services from the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory at Seibersdorf, near Vienna. It operates through support and coordination of research networks, technical cooperation projects, training courses and information exchange and dissemination, involving personnel of National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) and beneficiary groups. Objectives are set and activities implemented in close coordination with other agricultural Programmes from 2.1.1 through 2.1.4 and Programme 2.2.1, Nutrition, and in collaboration with a variety of global and regional partners, particularly the International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs).

315. Activities under the three constituent entities (two TPs and one CP) integrate nuclear and related biotechnologies with other approaches. They aim to assist Members to identify, pilot test and promote the wider adoption of practices which intensify and diversify production systems and improve food quality and safety, while ensuring efficient and environmentally sound resource management.

316. Support to biotechnology will be pursued through networks, training and advice in formulating and implementing activities which involve molecular markers, monoclonal antibodies and in vitro culture to characterize and improve plant genetic resources, diagnose EMPRES livestock diseases and control major insect pests. Likewise, support is provided to national food control systems through training, reference services and databases for monitoring and developing practices which promote compliance with Codex Alimentarius standards relevant to food moving in trade. To support increased activities in these areas, resources were shifted from lower priority areas such as animal nutrition, food irradiation and environmental contamination with radionuclides.

317. The resources allocated by IAEA to this programme from its regular budget are approximately US$ 24 million including the Seibersdorf Laboratory, and technical services being provided to projects and training courses within the IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme are valued at approximately US$ 30 million.

215A1 - Sustainable Improvements in Crop Productivity and Resource Management

Rationale and Objective

318. Support and coordination of research and development activities within and between Members is essential both for gaining a better understanding of the processes and practices which underpin the production and transformation of resources into food and agricultural products, and for developing and promoting concepts, strategies and technologies for manipulating these to improve crop productivity, conserve natural resources and enhance product quality and export opportunities. It is also important from the standpoint of building up assets which strengthen the position of the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) to engage effectively in priority areas of the Organization's work, and increasingly in the future, with private sector entities. This TP supplements the normative and operational activities of Programmes 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 by strengthening the capacity of the NARS and plant protection bodies to respond to some of the major challenges faced by Members in both diagnosing constraints and finding sustainable solutions to problems in the areas of resource management, crop production and related issues. It utilizes the significant opportunities offered by nuclear technologies and their spin-offs for providing more precise and specific diagnostic and monitoring methodologies for analysis of constraints and developing improved practices.

319. This TP has three components. One integrates isotopes and neutron moisture probes with other methods to address key issues of sustainability with respect to source, availability, uptake and loss of major nutrients, and the overall water balance in soil-plant systems, focusing on the identification of major edaphic, environmental and agronomic constraints to enhanced productivity through monitoring soil erosion and nutrient and water fluxes in defined cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The second responds to the need for strengthened plant breeding and characterization capacities in countries as outlined in the GPA on PGRFA and, in particular for stronger integration of modern biotechnologies. It employs radiation and chemical mutagens combined with molecular marker and in vitro techniques to upgrade and enhance genetic diversity in well adapted local cultivars and landraces, as well as characterize, identify and clone genes for improving yields and quality of food and industrial crops. The third component addresses the increasing requirement of Members for technically and environmentally sound technologies to reduce crop losses and insecticide use and facilitate trade in agricultural commodities through area-wide and biological insect pest management approaches. It focuses on the sterile insect technique (SIT) against fruit flies and other major plant pests, complementing other Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches and being species-specific, mitigating concerns about adverse effects of chemicals on biodiversity. This technique will be integrated with others to establish pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence, and to strengthen plant protection capacities at both national and international levels for addressing technical barriers associated with sanitary and phytosanitary issues.

Approach and Links

320. This TP supports coordinated research networks with NARS and IARCs to identify and pilot test improved practices for controlling soil erosion; managing organic nutrient sources from crop residues and composts; and managing water and nutrients in agroforestry systems, in rainfed arid and semi-arid areas, and in tropical acid soils. It will also backstop national and regional projects in Africa (biofertilizers), Latin America and the Caribbean (sustainable management of cropping systems), and Asia and the Pacific regions (fertigation and agroforestry), and an inter-regional project (sustainable use of salt-affected lands and saline groundwater). A Soils Newsletter will be published. Guidelines will be issued on deficit irrigation scheduling (with Programme 2.1.1), on the use of irradiated sewage sludge for increasing soil fertility and environmental protection and on the application of effective soil conservation measures. Improved methods will be developed for measuring nitrogen availability from organic sources and standardized and validated methodologies for measuring soil erosion at the watershed level using environmental radionuclides. Training of national personnel will be undertaken on the applications of nuclear techniques for sustainable land management through inter-regional/regional training courses (Asia and the Pacific region) and individual fellowships. An international Symposium on the Use of Nuclear Techniques in Integrated Soil, Water and Nutrient Management will be convened, and a manual issued on the same subject.

321. The TP will also convene an international Symposium on Mutated Genes in Research and Crop Improvement, and maintain databases on: the linkages and mapping data associating DNA markers with agronomic characters; officially released mutant varieties; and protocols for enhancing biodiversity through mutation treatments. Guidelines will be issued on the application of DNA markers in genome analysis and breeding, and on the use of induced mutations for modification of oilseed and industrial crops. Methods for the identification and isolation of genes for salinity tolerance in rice, through doubled haploid assisted mutagenesis, will be investigated.

322. The TP will support coordinated research networks with NARS and IARCs to use mutation induction, in vitro culture, and molecular methods for crop improvement. The objective is to raise yields; to enhance adaptability to drought and salinity of underutilized and neglected crops; to characterize and isolate relevant genes for seed crop improvement; to create desired biodiversity in banana and other tropical fruit crops; and to identify key factors determining root characters of agronomic significance. Backstopping of national and regional field projects and training of national personnel will take place in these areas.

323. Finally, as regards pest management and control, the TP will support field projects on integrated use of SIT, inherited sterility and supportive methods for control or eradication of medfly, Anastrepha fruit flies, date moth, diamond back moth, codling moth and oriental fruit fly. It will provide technical advice on the design of biofactories, mass production, aerial release and area-wide strategies and operations of SIT, furnish medfly strains to mass rearing facilities for use in area-wide field programmes, and conduct feasibility studies for construction/operation of medfly mass rearing facilities. Networks, training and information dissemination on SIT and other control and eradication techniques will be supported. Insect Pest Control Newsletters will be issued and a Website established, linked to the Global Plant and Pest Information System (GPPIS) under Programme 2.1.2 for exchange on area-wide approaches to insect pest management.

215A2 - Sustainable Improvements in Livestock Productivity

Rationale and Objective

324. Intensification of livestock production systems brings with it the combined challenges of more effective feed and genetic resource utilization, breeding management and disease control - particularly those of a transboundary nature and impacting on trade. Addressing these challenges requires sound policies and action at national and international levels to develop, adapt and foster the application of appropriate livestock production and protection - enhancing technologies and strategies. At the centre of these efforts are the NARS, veterinary regulatory authorities and the OIE which look to FAO to support, coordinate and synthesize experience and knowledge relating to technology generation and field application and linking this to setting of guidelines and standards for production and trade in the context of the sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and technical barriers to trade (TBT) agreements. This TP supports these roles, complementing several activities undertaken by Programme 2.1.3 through integration of nuclear and related biotechnologies within national programmes for improved decision support on resource and disease management and synthesis of results and experiences for feedback into the normative work of the Organization.

325. This TP has three components. One deals with the issue of utilization of local feed resources within peri-urban and mixed crop-livestock production systems and in particular how to upgrade and use these effectively to address the constraints on milk yield imposed by low reproductive efficiency. With the inevitable trend towards increased use of artificial insemination (AI), it concentrates on identification and removal of constraints to feeding and reproductive management at both farmer and AI service levels using hormone radio-immunoassays as diagnostic and monitoring tools. The second component fosters the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for area-wide management of tsetse flies and Old and New World Screwworms. Its rationale stems from the prediction by the World Bank of a general spread of insect pests due to global climate change and increased international trade; the successful use of SIT against the New World Screwworm in Central America and Libya and its potential for use in the Near East region against the Old World Screwworm; and the recognition by international technical and advisory bodies like the PAAT of the need for area-wide and biological approaches to combat tsetse and trypanosomosis in Africa. The third component recognizes that progressive control and eradication of the major infectious diseases requires effective diagnosis and surveillance, where support focuses on the transfer and use of immunoassay and molecular-based methods for EMPRES diseases, as well as creating capacity for sustainable and quality assured local supply of reagents. It will also provide technical services for the development of standards by the OIE and to regional bodies like OAU/IBAR for implementation of the Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign.

Approach and Links

326. This TP will support a number of coordinated research networks: with NARS and ILRI, to identify and utilize locally available feed resources to increase livestock productivity; with NARS, ILRI, PAHO and OAU/IBAR on improved diagnosis and surveillance of EMPRES diseases (rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, Newcastle disease and foot-and-mouth disease) using ELISA and molecular methods; with concerned NARS on tsetse rearing automation, improved tsetse attractants and tsetse genetics. It will backstop national and regional field projects involving local feed resource utilization and artificial insemination service improvement, linked to developing national and regional capabilities to produce and distribute radio-immunoassay kits. Other field projects assisted will include national veterinary laboratories in monitoring control and eradication of EMPRES and other livestock diseases through the use of ELISA and molecular methods; and projects on integrated use of the SIT against screwworm and tsetse flies. Training of national personnel, through workshops or fellowships, will take place on: the use of radio-immunoassay for progesterone measurement to assess reproductive performance and purine derivative assays to evaluate locally available feed resources; the use of ELISA and molecular methods for the diagnosis and surveillance of EMPRES and other livestock diseases; and the principles of and specific methods used in integrated area-wide control and eradication programmes of tsetse and screwworm flies.

327. On the methodological side, the Joint Division will prepare guidelines for utilizing purine derivatives in urine to evaluate the contribution of microbial protein to ruminant nutrition and improve diet formulation; standardized and fully validated methodologies for evaluating tannins in a variety of plants, standardized protocol for a simplified monoclonal antibody-based RIA kit to measure progesterone in milk and blood of livestock, and guidelines for quality assurance procedures in support of radio-immunoassay for hormone measurement. Concerning animal health, it will produce guidelines on the use of PCR for diagnosis of rinderpest and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, standard operating procedures for veterinary laboratory activities involving serology and infectious disease diagnosis, guidelines on surveillance of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia for countries proceeding down the OIE Pathway, and guidelines for data compilation and presentation to OIE for international recognition of freedom from rinderpest and rinderpest virus. As regards control and eradication campaigns, it will prepare guidelines on monitoring of trypanosomiasis control and eradication programmes (using GIS-based socio-economic, disease incidence and land use data), and on the integration of supportive technologies for planning and implementation of area-wide SIT operations. It will also develop molecular methods for tsetse and screwworm population genetics and screwworm genetic sexing, and updated standard operating and quality assurance procedures for mass production of tsetse and screwworm flies.

328. Information collection and dissemination activities will comprise various newsletters (Animal Production and Health, Insect Pest Control, etc.) and Internet pages linked to the appropriate sections of the FAO Website. Within the framework of the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT), computerized decision-support packages will be disseminated for the appraisal, implementation and evaluation of trypanosomiasis control/eradication programmes (DAVID), as well as a computerized system for laboratory sample tracking (LABINFO), linking to the EMPRES computerized veterinary service management system (TADINFO) under Programme 2.1.3.

215P1 - Training and Reference Services for Food and Pesticide Control

Rationale and Objective

329. Global trade in food and agricultural commodities is the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulation in major importing countries as food safety hazards are better understood and can be traced to source. Rejections and detentions of food, especially those exported by developing countries, are common due to contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, mycotoxins, pesticide and veterinary drug residues and toxic metals. The objective of this CP is to provide decision support on the use of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of food and agricultural commodities, and to strengthen analytical capability of national food control laboratories through training, methodology and quality assurance services for food contaminants and residues, and the provision of effective information transfer on validated analytical methods for food contaminants through the Internet.

330. It responds to the needs to strengthen compliance with international standards and codes of conduct for plant, animal and consumer protection. Through food irradiation and nuclear and related analytical methods, it aims in particular at strengthening national capabilities for compliance with Codex standards and guidelines covering food contaminants and residues, with the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods, and with the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides.

Approach and Links

331. Under this CP, secretariat services will be provided to the FAO/IAEA/WHO International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation and other normative bodies. In addition, advice will be provided on compliance with ISO 25 guidelines and OECD criteria for good laboratory practices, including standard operating procedures. Other normative activities will address validated analytical methods for testing pesticide product quality and ensuring compliance with specifications, guidelines on use of irradiation as a public health measure to control food-borne diseases and on production of safe, shelf-stable and ready-to-eat food through high dose irradiation processing. Manuals will be prepared on screening and confirmatory methods for food residues and contaminants and for sampling, validation and quality control methods.

332. Complementary information collection and dissemination activities will include: Food and Environmental Protection newsletters and Internet pages linked to Programmes 2.1.2 and 2.2.1. Databases will be maintained on clearances of irradiated food items/classes, authorized irradiation facilities and packaging materials for food irradiation, together with an International Food Contaminant and Residue Information System (INFOCRIS) containing inter alia information on sampling and quality assurance procedures, validated analytical methods and reference materials relevant to monitoring residues and contaminants in food covered by the Codex standards (pesticides, veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, micro-organisms, radionuclides and toxic metals). INFOCRIS will be linked to systems maintained by Programmes 2.1.2 and 2.2.1. The CP will also assist the field programme through: support to networks, involving NARS and food control laboratories, to validate and harmonize simpler and less expensive screening and confirmatory methods for assuring compliance with Codex standards relating to residues and contaminants in food. Training of managers and scientists from national food control laboratories will be provided on sampling and analytical methods (again via workshops or individual fellowships); and backstopping of national and regional projects to strengthen capacities for compliance with Codex standards, principles and guidelines on food residues and contaminants, and on the use of irradiation for quarantine treatment of fruit and vegetables and enhancing the hygienic quality of animal products.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 23 0 23 Global 5 154
Regular Programme 5 154 AGE 5 131 77 5 208 Inter Regional 0
    SAFR 0 70 70 Africa 460
Programme of Work 5 154 TCO 0 390 390 Asia and Pacific 0
Trust Fund Activities           Near East 0
Trust Funds 537         Europe 77
Trust Fund Activities 537         Latin America 0
Programme 2.1.5 Total 5 691   5 154 537 5 691   5 691

Programme 2.1.9: Programme Management

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office Departmental Direction 4 998 (4 998) 0 0% 0% Divisional Direction 3 157 (3 157) 0 0% 0% Regional and Sub-regional Offices 3 377 (3 377) 0 0% 0%
2.1.9.S1 Departmental Direction 0 3 626 3 626 34% 0%
2.1.9.S2 Divisional Direction 0 3 146 3 146 29% 0%
2.1.9.S3 Regional and Sub-regional Direction 0 4 007 4 007 37% 99%
Total (zero real growth) 11 532 (753) 10 779 100% 37%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) (22)  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 10 757  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (91)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 10 666  

333. This programme covers the management of the immediate office of the Assistant Director-General (AGD) and the offices of the Division Directors in the Agriculture Department (AG). It includes a substantial share of secretariat support to the Committee on Agriculture. Furthermore, AGD has been assigned responsibility for field programme and project review, with support from Programme 3.3.2. The share of the costs of the offices of the Regional Representatives which are of relevance to Major Programme 2.1 are also included.

3) C 99/4


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