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(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Trust Fund 2000-01 Total Activities Percent of Total
2.5.1 Research, Natural Resources Management and Technology Transfer 20 251 797 21 048 14 724 35 772 39%
2.5.2 Women and Population 7 317 (727) 6 590 3 899 10 489 12%
2.5.3 Rural Development 8 537 (163) 8 374 11 921 20 295 16%
2.5.6 Food Production in Support of Food Security in LIFDCs 10 237 (6) 10 231 8 586 18 817 19%
2.5.9 Programme Management 7 564 (308) 7 256 86 7 342 14%
Total (zero real growth) 53 906 (407) 53 499 39 216 92 715 100%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 266  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 53 765  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (1 123)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 52 642  

Objectives and Priorities

576. The major programme will continue to spearhead FAO's work on sustainable development, taking account of follow-up to the World Food Summit (WFS), the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) and associated conventions on natural resource management and conservation. It will also aim to mainstream into FAO's technical work, the concerns and recommendations expected by other major international summits and conferences, including the Fourth World Conference on Women, the Social Summit and the International Conference on Population and Development. Policy inputs to the work of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) will continue to be assured. The major programme also includes a provision for direct support to the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) in Low-Income, Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDCs).

577. The major programme will take account of global trends towards more decentralized patterns of development and the declining roles of governments, with correspondingly greater reliance on private and civil society initiatives. It will ensure that socio-economic and gender issues are given attention by policy-makers. Furthermore, it will seek to strengthen the democratic and participatory base of rural society. Five priorities have been identified for the medium term, in support of capacity-building of member countries and for provision of advice and technical services relating to:


578. The overall change in the programme of work amounts to a reduction of US$ 407,000 mainly as a result of elimination of a general service post related to the population in Programme 2.5.2 and restructuring of the Management Support Unit in Programme 2.5.9. Shifts between programmes include a transfer of US$ 625,000 from Programme 2.5.2, Women and Population, to Programme 2.5.1, Research, Natural Resources Management and Technology Transfer, to provide gender perspectives to the interdisciplinary technical project 251A1, Integrated Use of Information for Sustainable Development and US$ 290,000 from Programme 2.5.3, Rural Development, to this TP to cover land tenure and rural development aspects. A number of transfers of resources from Headquarters to decentralized offices are also effected: US$ 320,000 including an Agricultural Education Officer post from the SDR Division to RAP within Programme 2.5.1; US$ 290,000 including a Rural Development Officer post from the SDA Division to RLC; and US$ 230,000 including a Rural Development Officer post from SDA to SAFR both within Programme 2.5.3. A new Rural Development Officer post is proposed in SDA to provide support to the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Network on Rural Development and Food Security. Funds totaling US$ 200,000 have also been set aside within Programme 2.5.1 to support cross-sectoral activities related to environment and sustainable development.

Programme 2.5.1: Research, Natural Resources Management
and Technology Transfer

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office Research and Technology Development 3 083 (3 083) 0 0% 0% Research Cooperation and Coordination 4 287 (4 287) 0 0% 0% Extension, Education and Communication 6 330 (6 330) 0 0% 0% Natural Resources, Environmental Monitoring and Coordination for Sustainable Development and Food 6 551 (6 551) 0 0% 0%
2.5.1.A1 Integrated Use of Information for Sustainable Development 0 3 696 3 696 18% 0%
2.5.1.A2 Rural Youth and Food Security 0 793 793 4% 25%
2.5.1.A3 Building Partnerships for Improving Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture 0 589 589 3% 8%
2.5.1.A4 Integrated Development and Dissemination of Agricultural Knowledge and Technology for Food Security and Sustainable Development 0 4 233 4 233 20% 25%
2.5.1.P1 Environmental Geo-Information Infrastructure and Services 0 1 653 1 653 8% 0%
2.5.1.P2 Cross-sectoral Mechanisms for Implementation of Agenda 21, International Environmental Conventions, Agreements and Obligations 0 1 199 1 199 6% 0%
2.5.1.P3 Information and Communication Technologies in Support of Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Systems 0 921 921 4% 12%
2.5.1.P4 CGIAR Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Secretariat 0 4 314 4 314 20% 0%
2.5.1.S1 Technical Support Services to Member Nations, the Field Programme, and Other Related Activities 0 3 650 3 650 17% 43%
Total (zero real growth) 20 251 797 21 048 100% 14%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 99  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 21 147  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (596)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 20 551  

579. Programme 2.5.1. brings together important FAO activities on research, extension, human resources development and natural resources and environmental management. It is concerned primarily with strengthening the capacity of national systems dealing with agricultural research, extension, education and communication, and environment and natural resource management. It pursues an integrated approach in the development and dissemination of agricultural knowledge and technology. In particular, the programme places due emphasis on the integration of research and extension, working closely with the centres of the CGIAR and national research systems. The programme hosts both the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Secretariat of the CGIAR and the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) Secretariat. Furthermore, the programme promotes fora for policy makers on biotechnology information and coordinates FAO's technical and policy activities relating to the implementation of major environmental conventions on biological diversity, desertification and climate change. It stresses the development and integrated use of environmental databases and decision support tools such as the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), ARTEMIS and AGROMET for environment analysis, eco-system management and natural resources development. The programme relies extensively on networking modalities and operates in partnership with numerous international and national government organizations, academic research and educational institutions and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs).

580. The programme structure has been redesigned to reflect the scope and broad diversity of activities. It comprises four technical projects, the same number of continuing programme activities (e.g. covering permanent arrangements such as the jointly-financed TAC Secretariat) and one technical services agreement. The rationale for each constituent entity is further explained below.

251A1 - Integrated Use of Information for Sustainable Development

Rationale and Objective

581. Integrated use of information can be applied to a variety of environmental and rural development issues and is important for the generation of products and tools such as meta-databases, maps, guidelines and methodologies. Users must be able to apply the systems at the national, regional and global levels for meaningful participation in the implementation of environmental conventions, global observing and early warning systems and for monitoring and assessment of the impact of environment, agricultural and rural development programmes. Advances in information technology and computing capacity allow environmental and socio-economic data and information to be processed, analyzed and presented in a more integrated manner than in the past. The objective of this interdivisional project is to provide countries with the required technical tools to address environmental, developmental and land resources problems in the agriculture and rural sectors, especially data and information systems that allow integrated analyses of the environmental, social and economic dimensions.


582. The TP assists member countries to meet their extensive reporting requirements on international environmental conventions and agreements, through supporting protocols, information, training materials and access to the FAO Website. Documents on best practice related to international environmental conventions and agreements and sustainable farming systems will be prepared. Guidelines and training for national reporting on the application of the clean development mechanism will also be delivered.

583. The TP will support global systems of observation, with respect to climate effects on agriculture, through: the issuance of procedures and guidelines for harmonization of terrestrial observation and monitoring methods, the establishment of regional and global terrestrial observation networks of managed ecosystems, contributions to global climate studies from the perspective of agriculture, and the formation of a joint coastal observation programme. The development, testing and validation of criteria and indicators for agro-ecosystems will be pursued, together with an updated Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring Sites (TEMS) meta-database for observation and management of ecosystems and farming. Other methodological work under this TP will address: biodiversity management at agro-ecosystem level, the integration of spatial-temporal data in work on resource dynamics, assessment of energy requirements for the food chain, and the integration of traditional and scientific knowledge in agro-ecosystem management. Comparative studies on organic agriculture will also be undertaken and training materials for data analysis on human resources in relation to production units and food security will be issued. Technical papers will be prepared on data availability to relate household size and composition to farming systems and food security. This work will feed into the preparation of guidelines on agro-ecosystem management approaches, the planned revision of Agenda 21 sustainability indicators and the development of EcoZone 2 software and methodologies.

584. The training component of this TP will aim at extension agents and governmental and non-governmental personnel who will be trained in collection, analysis and use of a wide range of gender disaggregated social and economic data related to improving household and national food security; and at ministerial staff and selected NGOs to be trained in environmental management and environmental impact assessment.


585. This TP, itself an intra-departmental undertaking within SD, will maintain close contact with several other substantive programmes in FAO. Links with UN system agencies such as UNEP, WMO, UN/DESA and ICGEB will consist primarily of needed programme coordination and technical collaboration in areas such as indicators, environmental impact assessment, and training in biosafety. Links with global change programmes such as IGBP, GCOS and GOOS, will relate primarily to the development of large environmental databases and information systems on biodiversity, climate change and desertification. The gender-related component will establish links with the UN and ILO in particular.

251A2 - Rural Youth and Food Security

Rationale and Objective

586. Whereas youth make up a large segment of the total rural population, they are often overlooked by government policy-makers and international development agency strategists. The concern for immediate solutions to problems of national development are often accompanied by the perception that youth are not yet productive and contributing members of society. In addition, young people for the most part, have limited opportunities for participation in decision-making. Where they exist and are functioning well, rural youth programmes enable young people to contribute significantly to food security and sustainable development, and help control the significant out-migration of young people from rural areas, which may cause severe environmental, social, economic and political problems. The objective of this TP is to provide advice on, and support to rural youth programmes enabling large numbers of young people to become active partners in the achievement of national food security goals.

Approach and Links

587. The TP will issue information materials on the situation, needs, interest and aspirations of rural youth to assist national youth policy development, and for use by local review teams, government officials and rural development strategists. This will be accompanied by guidelines on building national networks and effective partnerships among government and non-governmental rural youth organizations and agencies. A global database on networks and rural youth programmes involved with food security and sustainable development will be maintained. Another line of action will be the organization of seminars on participatory strategic planning on rural youth and food security, and the incorporation of rural youth development concerns and issues into agricultural curricula of academic institutions.

588. Practical tools such as rural radio and telecentres will be designed and field tested, aimed at rural primary schools and volunteer groups. Other innovative approaches to reach large numbers of youth with food security messages and educational programming will also be promoted. Also, existing FAO technical materials will be adapted and packaged as necessary, to meet the special educational and training needs of rural youth. One regional workshop on rural youth and food security will be held in collaboration with decentralized staff, and over 1,300 professional rural youth workers trained on food security and sustainable development.

251A3 - Building Partnerships for Improving Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture

Rationale and Objective

589. The so-called "frontier science" projects in biotechnology are mainly in the hands of the private sector of developed countries. Developing countries are primarily in a situation of being "buyers" of technology in this area. Much of that technology is, moreover, not conceived to solve problems of specific interest to developing countries. Developing countries in particular need to be able to evaluate the available technologies and to decide when and which should be utilized by them, taking account of social, political and environmental implications. The objectives of this TP are: to facilitate access to, understanding and application of biotechnology in agriculture by interested countries, and to help in the development of related monitoring and control protocols.

Approach and Links

590. The TP will support exchange of information and serve inter-country cooperation through the organization of expert consultations and of an electronic forum for policy-makers coupled with the establishment of two regional biotechnology networks. It will assist with the design of a joint inter-country project and of bio-safety legislation in two countries. The TP will also faciliate the harmonization of regulations at regional level and the effective functioning of regulatory bodies in selected countries. Training on risk assessment will be carried out. Internal links are to be maintained with technical project 251A4, to enable participation of NARS in biotechnology networks. External partners will include the ICSU and CGIAR institutions (joint participation in workshops and consultations) and ICGEB (where FAO will help with national regulations and legislation and ICGEB will train the concerned regulatory bodies for risk assessment).

251A4 - Integrated Development and Dissemination of Agricultural Knowledge and Technology for Food Security and Sustainable Development

Rationale and Objective

591. The long-term solution for improving agricultural performance in countries lies largely in the transformation of the agriculture sector through effective national agricultural research, extension, education and communication systems capable of generating, adapting and disseminating productivity enhancing technologies. The resulting process of technology innovation must be seen as a continuum to ensure sustained interaction of all elements involved in research planning, technology generation, adaptation, validation, transfer, dissemination and utilization. This integrative and holistic approach requires the full participation of all stakeholders. This TP's objective is to enhance policies and provide guidelines and tools for improving integrated agricultural knowledge and technology development and dissemination.

Approach and Links

592. The TP will produce guidelines for performance evaluation and impact assessment for the three sectors of extension, education and communication. It will also review policy aspects as related to these sectors and formulate recommendations for selected countries. This work will benefit from case studies conducted for comparative analysis of innovative approaches and best-practice arrangements. Criteria and guidelines for technology assessment and transfer will also be formulated, and mechanisms explored to ensure effective linkages between relevant public and private institutions active in research, extension, education and communication. As regards training, national and/or regional institutional capacity-building workshops will be organized and guidelines disseminated on cost-effective and operationally efficient systems of extension, education and communication. Besides close links with the NARS, external partners will include ISNAR, UNESCO and the WB.

251P1 - Environmental Geo-Information Infrastructure and Services

Rationale and Objective

593. Accurate, up-to-date, geo-referenced environmental information from ground and satellite sources are essential elements of food security assessments and policy, as well as environmental management at national, regional and global levels. This continuing programme activity implemented by the SDR Division, in collaboration with other relevant technical divisions and external partners, is the FAO focal point for the acquisition, integration, analysis, dissemination and maintenance of such data for both operational and developmental uses. It covers geographic information systems, remote sensing and ground-based agro-meteorological and other environmental observations to address a variety of issues related to environment and natural resources management, food production and food security, coastal zone monitoring, desertification, biodiversity, energy and climate change. The objective is to ensure the continuous generation, provision and maintenance of cross-sectoral, geo-referenced data and information bases, including analytical tools and methodology guidelines, to serve internal (FIVIMS, GIEWS) and external users.

Approach and Links

594. The main information systems maintained under this CP include: the FAO agro-meteorological database and related (global, regional, national) historical series; the African Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Information System (ARTEMIS); the Geographical Information System (GIS) (global, regional, national) databases, with related cartographic and thematic map products and reports; the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) meta-database, developed with a networked approach based on related inter-agency agreements; and landcover and other environmental databases (e.g. AFRICOVER, REIMP, ICAM). Besides wide dissemination of software tools, manuals and guidelines, access to these databases through the FAO Website will continue to be enhanced.

595. The CP will develop tools and manuals for new environmental assessments and earth observation information data to support applications in user divisions and member countries, including in response to the information requirements of the environmental conventions. It will also work on operational decision support tools and models for environmental assessments, natural resources management, agricultural research and land tenure. It will produce guidelines for the integration of ground-based, remote sensing and socio-economic data and information in geo-referenced format in support of environmental monitoring and natural resources assessment.

596. The CP will keep active links with those field projects which can make profitable use of the above information and tools. Maintenance and further expansion of its databases will entail continued close cooperation with a broad range of external partners (e.g. ESA, EUMETSAT, GTOS, IGBP, NASA, UNEP, UNESCO, WMO, etc.)

251P2 - Cross-sectoral Mechanisms for Implementation of Agenda 21, International Environmental Conventions, Agreements and Obligations

Rationale and Objective

597. FAO is responsible for supporting the implementation of a number of key areas of the international environmental conventions, agreements and obligations including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD). In this context, member countries, international organizations and NGOs are seeking technical assistance and advice on issues emanating from the conventions that need to be addressed and integrated into national policies and environmental and natural resources management practices. The objectives of this CP are to assist countries and key stakeholders in meeting their obligations under the international environmental conventions, facilitate agreements, ensure a coherent and integrative approach within FAO and facilitate synergy between the existing environmental conventions.

Approach and Links

598. This CP has a substantial component of regular reporting and advisory services to the various convention secretariats and advisory bodies, as well as participation in meetings of the Conference of Parties, technical advisory bodies, expert groups and important inter-sessional meetings. Coordination within FAO is assured through three interdepartmental working groups on the biological diversity, climate and desertification conventions.

599. Conceptual or technical contributions in the form of methodologies, tools, guidelines, and reports will be prepared to address emerging key issues concerning trade, technology development, etc. Cross-cutting issues and integrated approaches in the implementation of international agreements and conventions with bearing on FAO's mandate will be pursued. Workshops will be organized and methodologies and tools developed to assist member countries in implementing the conventions or meeting their reporting obligation. Technical guidelines will also be prepared to address commonalities between the three conventions and to facilitate national reporting on the implementation of the conventions. Besides direct contact with the convention secretariats, including the outposting of FAO staff to the CBD and CCD Secretariats, other external partners are the GEF, IFAD, UNEP, UNESCO, WWF and WRI.

251P3 - Information and Communication Technologies in Support of Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Systems

Rationale and Objective

600. The new Internet-based information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become a crucial force in world economic and social development. If applied in effective and innovative ways, they can significantly assist countries in addressing major obstacles in key sectors, such as agriculture and natural resources management for improved food security. This CP will, therefore, deal with the application of ICTs in support of research, extension and education systems in member countries, building on FAO's extensive agricultural information in WAICENT databases and the Organization's field-tested experience in applying communication for development methodologies, approaches and strategies to the information and knowledge needs of rural communities, farmers, extension agents, researchers, educators, government planners, NGOs and other actors in development. The objective is to develop and promote the application of innovative, cost-effective and sustainable information and communication technologies, for the improvement of national agricultural research, extension and education systems.

Approach and Links

601. ICT applications will be developed for the Research, Extension and Education (REE) components of community telecentres in selected countries through pilot projects. Similarly, pilot Farm Information Networks (FARM-Net) linking farmer organizations to REE institutions, NGOs and production service agencies will be developed and tested together with Virtual Extension Research Communication Networks (VERCON) linking REE stakeholders. Guidelines covering benefits, impacts, institutional arrangements, training requirements, etc. will be prepared for establishing and extending FARM-Net and VERCON and will be discussed at workshops. Methodologies for assessing information needs of REE systems and users will also be developed and disseminated to member countries. In addition, software tools and CD-ROM based distance-learning training materials will be developed for applying the adapted content of databases to REE systems, and indicators formulated to monitor and assess the impact of information dissemination and training efforts. Besides strong cooperation with the GIL Division, external partners will include ITU, UNESCO and the WB.

251P4 - CGIAR Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Secretariat

Rationale and Objective

602. The jointly-funded TAC Secretariat is hosted by FAO. It supports the formulation of CGIAR centres' activities towards the common goals of poverty reduction, enhancement of food security and protection of the resource base, and furnishes scientific, technical, policy, institutional, administrative and logistical support to the Technical Advisory Committee. The objective is to enable TAC to discharge its functions of providing independent scientific advice on priorities and strategies, resource allocation, and review of quality of scientific achievements for the whole CGIAR system.

Approach and Links

603. The support provided to TAC will focus in particular on: 1) recommendations on CGIAR priorities, strategies and resource allocations, including the annual review of CGIAR research agendas and financing plans; 2) strategic studies on selected topics including: locus and level of poverty, the 2010 portfolio of international public goods, and the role of the CGIAR in strengthening NARS; 3) conducting six to eight external programme management reviews of individual CGIAR centres; and 4) organization of TAC meetings and dissemination of documents as generated by the above. Close links will be maintained with the CGIAR Secretariat in Washington, D.C., USA and the centres themselves. Impact assessment and evaluation is planned to be added to TAC's functions.

251S1 - Technical Support Services to Member Nations, the Field Programme, and Other Related Activities

604. This technical services agreement covers direct advice and technical backstopping in the areas of research, extension, education, communication, rural youth, and cross-sectoral issues related to the environment and the management of natural resources for sustainable agricultural development.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 604 0 604 Global 11 279
Regular Programme 17 369 AGD 344 0 344 Inter Regional 1 288
TAC 2 999 FAOR 15 0 15 Africa 10 493
Secondments to SPPD 4 RAF 565 6 323 6 888 Asia and Pacific 4 356
Secondments to STS 3 RAP 410 2 866 3 276 Near East 4 226
Secondments to Trust Funds 673 REU 546 0 546 Europe 1 477
Programme of Work 21 048 RLC 339 1 462 1 801 Latin America 2 653
Trust Fund Activities   RNE 517 2 665 3 182    
Trust Funds 14 724 SAFR 260 0 260    
Trust Fund Activities 14 724 SDA 290 0 290    
    SDD 197 330 527    
    SDR 15 996 539 16 535    
    SDW 625 441 1 066    
    SLAC 340 0 340    
    TCO 0 98 98    
Programme 2.5.1 Total 35 772   21 048 14 724 35 772   35 772

Programme 2.5.2: Women and Population

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office Women in Agriculture and Rural Development 5 247 (5 247) 0 0% 0% Population 2 070 (2 070) 0 0% 0%
2.5.2.A2 Inter-relations between Gender, Population and Food Security 0 1 660 1 660 25% 11%
2.5.2.A3 Gender and Conservation and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources 0 1 002 1 002 15% 15%
2.5.2.P1 Promotion of Gender and Population in Policies, Legislation and Civil Institutions 0 2 791 2 791 42% 30%
2.5.2.S1 Technical Support to Member Nations and the Field Programme for Women in Development 0 1 137 1 137 17% 38%
Total (zero real growth) 7 317 (727) 6 590 100% 24%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 1  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 6 591  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (35)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 6 556  

605. Programme 2.5.2 addresses the cross-sectoral issues of gender and population, as they bear upon sustainable development and food security. In particular, it offers a range of policy advisory services, training and tools and methodologies for human resources development, and gender-disaggregated data collection and analyses. These activities take account of specific gender and population issues in order to contribute to enhancing household food security, and advancing economic and social progress for rural women, as well as men. The programme also ensures that gender and population concerns are reflected in policies, legislation and institutional measures, through the dissemination of policy guidelines, technical papers, and training materials for capacity building in these areas. The conservation of the natural resource base is enhanced by the formulation and dissemination of guidelines and the implementation of training programmes on participatory and gender sensitive management of natural resources.

606. The four programme entities (two TPs, one CP and one TS) have been designed in this light.

252A2 - Inter-relations between Gender, Population and Food Security

Rationale and Objective

607. This technical project addresses the inter-relations between gender and population particularly relevant to the attainment of food security, as stated in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. There is need for national capacity-building for policy-makers, government officials and civil society agents active in this area. This is consistent with the advice of the High Level Panel of Experts on Sustainable Development, which emphasized the importance of spatial distribution (including migration) and the relation of population dynamics with food security. The objective is to improve national capacity at all levels of government and civil society to address the policy implications of the linkages between gender, population, food security and the environment.

Approach and Links

608. The TP will focus on the preparation of technical papers, training materials, guidelines and policy notes on pertinent issues of the inter-linkages between gender, population and food security, including spatial distribution, changing age structure, gender and health aspects (HIV/AIDS) of food security. Technical papers will also be prepared in response to topics determined by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Technical Support Services (TSS) system. Support will be given to a network on socio-cultural research on population and a number of training activities undertaken. Besides the UN and UNFPA, external partners will include ILO, UNESCO, UNIFEM and WHO.

252A3 - Gender and Conservation and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources

Rationale and Objective

609. Policy-makers and development specialists are not sufficiently aware of the linkages between gender, population and environmental sustainability. Men and women often have different skills and knowledge about sustainable agricultural practices. Moreover, national environment action plans and other national and international legislation and policies may impact significantly on men's and women's management of natural resources at local level. Recognition must be given to gender issues in the development and implementation of these agreements and legislation. This TP will help governments and key partners to identify the linkages between men's and women's unique knowledge and skills as preservers of the environment, and identify best practices for enhancement of food security and rural livelihoods. The objective is to enhance understanding at all levels of the linkages between gender, the environment and the sustainable use of natural resources and reflect them in programmes and policies.

Approach and Links

610. This TP will undertake the pilot testing of the Socioeconomic and Gender Analysis Programme (SEAGA) guidelines on gender-sensitive and participatory management of plant genetic resources. It will conduct case studies on gender and conservation of natural resources, especially plant and animal genetic resources management, and related training of development workers. A network on gender, environmental conservation, biodiversity, and indigenous knowledge systems will be established and an inter-regional meeting convened to exchange experiences on approaches and strategies. Inventories of key actors in gender and natural resources conservation will be carried out in one country each in Africa, Asia and Latin America, in cooperation with decentralized offices. In addition to links with a number of field projects active in natural resources conservation, external partners will include IPGRI and ICRISAT.

252P1 - Promotion of Gender and Population in Policies, Legislation and Civil Institutions

Rationale and Objective

611. While the priorities and needs of both men and women must to be addressed in rural development and overall policies, this is especially true of rural women who have to continue providing food for their families despite limited access to productive resources, legal obstacles, and at times discriminatory attitudes. FAO is committed to mainstreaming gender concerns into its programmes and policy advice to countries. One such mainstreaming mechanism is the Socioeconomic and Gender Analysis Programme (SEAGA), which supports training designed to increase awareness of socio-economic, gender, and population issues, and to build capacity for analysis of these issues in the context of agricultural and rural development. The objectives of this CP are to improve planning and decision-making in governments, the private sector and civil society, to remove any discrimination by gender, age and/or socio-cultural characteristics, and build the capacity of development practitioners and stakeholders in the use of population and gender analysis methodologies.

Approach and Links

612. This CP will spearhead the coordinated follow-up to the implementation of the FAO Women in Development Plan of Action, the Beijing Platform for Action, and the Cairo Programme of Action, including reporting to FAO and UN bodies. Support will be provided to countries in developing the women-in-development components of national action plans integrating gender sensitive programmes into national policies, and increasing the awareness of policy-makers of the contributions of rural women to development. Another permanent task is to foster gender mainstreaming in FAO programmes. Advice will also be provided on the inclusion of gender in national educational curricula. Information materials on household division of labour and guidelines on impact assessment will be disseminated. Regional level training of trainers will be carried out on the use of SEAGA methodologies and tools, in cooperation with decentralized offices, and regional and national seminars and expert consultations convened on key gender issues. Close contacts are maintained with UN organizations dealing with gender issues.

252S1 - Technical Support to Member Nations and the Field Programme for Women in Development

613. This technical services agreement covers direct advice to Members and support to women-in-development projects and gender mainstreaming in the field programme, including the SPFS.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 181 0 181 Global 3 079
Regular Programme 5 298 FAOR 15 0 15 Inter Regional 1 287
Secondments to STS 5 RAF 329 90 419 Africa 2 410
Secondments to Trust Funds 108 RAP 411 1 740 2 151 Asia and Pacific 2 420
UNFPA 1 179 REU 210 0 210 Near East 466
Programme of Work 6 590 RLC 327 0 327 Europe 296
Trust Fund Activities   RNE 321 57 378 Latin America 531
Trust Funds 3 899 SDW 4 796 2 012 6 808    
Trust Fund Activities 3 899            
Programme 2.5.2 Total 10 489   6 590 3 899 10 489   10 489

Programme 2.5.3: Rural Development

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office Land Tenure 1 833 (1 833) 0 0% 0% Rural Institutions and Participation 4 392 (4 392) 0 0% 0% Partnership and Alliances for Food Security 2 312 (2 312) 0 0% 0%
2.5.3.A1 Access 21: Land Tenure Institution Building for Food Security and Sustainable Rural Development 0 1 976 1 976 24% 14%
2.5.3.A2 Improved Rural Institutions and Services to Eliminate Hunger and Poverty - Partnerships and Alliances 0 2 696 2 696 32% 20%
2.5.3.A4 Promotion of Participatory Approaches and Methods to Support Food Security and Rural Development 0 872 872 10% 12%
2.5.3.P1 Management and Coordination of the ACC Network on Rural Development and Food Security 0 705 705 8% -1%
2.5.3.S1 Technical Support Services to Member Nations and the Field Programme 0 2 125 2 125 25% 44%
Total (zero real growth) 8 537 (163) 8 374 100% 22%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 70  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 8 444  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (296)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 8 148  

614. Programme 2.5.3 covers assistance to Members in implementing differentiated rural development policies and programmes. It has three major areas of priority: 1) institutional arrangements that ensure improved access to productive assets, with special reference to land; 2) improved rural institutions that foster sectoral contributions to poverty alleviation and rural employment generation; and 3) effective, gender-sensitive participation of rural populations in all aspects related to agriculture, forestry and fisheries. The programme also provides the Secretariat for the ACC Network on Rural Development and Food Security and its 75 National Thematic Groups. It will provide tools and disseminate best practices for Members to develop policies covering interrelated components of land tenure dynamics, regularization and administration, land markets and reform processes. It is also concerned with strengthening decentralized capacities of public, private sector and civil society institutions, with particular emphasis on reaching disadvantaged rural groups (e.g. small farmers, agro-pastoralists, the landless and disabled). Participatory approaches are emphasized.

615. The programme is organized into five entities to reflect the above considerations, three technical projects, one continuing programme activity covering the ACC Network on Rural Development and Food Security, and one technical services agreement.

253A1 - Access 21: Land Tenure Institution Building for Food Security and Sustainable Rural Development

Rationale and Objective

616. A key factor of agricultural development and food security is the existence of adequate institutional arrangements to determine who has rights and access to rural resources (land, water, trees, wildlife, and so forth), for how long and for which purposes. Such institutional arrangements for property rights need to ensure more equitable access by women and men to natural resources through land reform and functioning land markets. Land administration should be improved to take account of mortgage-secured credit for investment and good governance of land and natural resources. This TP's objective is to enable Member Nations to develop and adopt policies, programmes, best practices and tools for land tenure to facilitate access to land, ensure user rights and improve land markets.

Approach and Links

617. This TP will support a comprehensive awareness - and capacity-building programme based on dissemination of policy papers and guidelines, seminars, E-mail discussions and the development of indicators. This programme is to take account of region-specific concerns related to: 1) land tenure planning in peri-urban areas and agrarian structure diagnostics in Latin America and Africa; 2) valuation, taxation systems and regularization of common property resources held by indigenous populations in Asia and Africa; and 3) temporal transfers and mortgage-secured credit in Eastern Europe. An umbrella framework will be initiated for demonstration projects aimed at improved access to land by the rural poor and ensuring an adequate gender perspective. Assistance will be provided to national authorities concerning demographic issues of land tenure, tenure and sustainability of natural resources use; design and registration of cadastre systems; land taxation, land transfer and mortgages; market-assisted land reform; and consolidation of holdings. The decentralized offices will take part in the capacity-building activities, and substantive inputs will be sought from other Programmes (2.1.1 - land management, 2.1.2 - cropping systems, 2.5.1 - research and extension, 2.5.2 - gender). External partners will include centres of excellence and professional bodies active in land tenure and agrarian reform issues.

253A2 - Improved Rural Institutions and Services to Eliminate Hunger and Poverty - Partnerships and Alliances

Rationale and Objective

618. Current trends of trade liberalization and deregulation, heightened fiscal constraints and decentralization of government services require the restructuring of public institutions and the transformation of civil society institutions to ensure differentiated policy orientations at district/state and local levels that recognize the diversity of rural households. Public institutions must provide effectively service delivery within the context of decentralization. Civil society institutions and the private sector must become more efficient in the use of productive resources, and in providing services and market outlets to cater for the needs of increasingly diverse rural populations. The objective of this TP is to support policies and institutional change to ensure differential rural development approaches, especially for poverty alleviation of marginalized groups.

Approach and Links

619. This TP will develop methodologies for assessing the nature and extent of decentralization and distribution of responsibility between the various services and levels and their involvement in decision-making processes and for monitoring. In addition, it will issue guidelines for dissemination and use in countries on: the transfer of capacities from line ministries to local government authorities and civil society organizations, functional analysis and assessment of rural public institutions and human resources, the vertical integration of farmer business organizations into enterprises to compete more effectively in global markets, and assessment of household needs and effectiveness of institutional support for income-generating activities leading to differentiated development policies for rural poverty alleviation. Country studies will lead to: a typology of mixed institutions and chambers of agriculture to enhance partnership between public and private sectors, and a typology of decentralization processes and rural institutions (with country profiles produced in selected countries in all regions). Applied research will also be undertaken on the role of urban and peri-urban agriculture for income generation, food security and poverty alleviation, focusing on the role of informal and formal institutions, and a comprehensive needs assessment for institutional change and differentiated rural development and poverty alleviation policies at the macro, meso and micro levels with particular reference to Southeast Asia, Southern Asia, Southern Africa and Central America.

620. The training component of this TP will comprise the testing and adaptation of field manuals and the organization of workshops on: 1) participatory approach to assessing the linkages of household income strategies with local institutions; 2) restructuring of public institutions and strengthening professional organizations for rural development in South-East Asia; 3) strategies for successful institutional reforms in Eastern and Central Europe; and 4) cooperative management in Spanish-speaking countries. An interactive database and E-mail list on integration of rural disabled into agro-industry systems will also be developed. The TP will be implemented in close cooperation with other FAO programmes and external partners such as WB, IFAD, IFAP, ICA, ILO and WOCCU. Inputs to SPFS projects will be made on participation aspects.

253A4 - Promotion of Participatory Approaches and Methods to Support Food Security and Rural Development

Rationale and Objective

621. Participatory approaches should ensure that small farmers, vulnerable sectors of the population and the rural poor are more fully involved in the planning, implementation and monitoring of development programmes affecting them. This TP takes account of new institutional environments emerging in developing countries which require the introduction of innovative, more participatory approaches, methods and tools to facilitate the delivery of development services through decentralized public, private or civil society organizations. It will also serve the needs of FAO's SPFS and other priority technical cooperation programmes which require effective use of methods and tools to facilitate a more proactive participation of the intended beneficiaries. FAO's policy advisory services at national and regional levels will also benefit from recourse to participatory approaches tailored to different policy levels. The objective is to facilitate mainstreaming of participatory approaches in national food security and rural development programmes and FAO's own programmes.

Approach and Links

622. The TP will sensitize FAO units in integrating participatory approaches into their programmes, with emphasis on the SPFS. This will include extensive use of in-house coordinating mechanisms on participation, the preparation of training materials, the convening of a Headquarters-based (FAO/IFAD/WFP) consultation on Operationalizing the Use of Participatory Methods to Support Sustainable Livelihoods, funded by extra-budgetary resources, and the organization of regional workshops, with participation of SPFS country teams. Methodological and promotional activities will include: the identification of indicators for assessing and monitoring the degree and quality of participation in projects and programmes with attention to equity and sustainability aspects; and the organization of an electronic conference on stakeholder analysis and complementary methods to assess the costs and benefits of participation in diverse types of projects and programmes. Supportive activities will consist in the establishment of an electronic information centre of FAO's expertise on participatory approaches for agricultural and rural development, the maintenance of an on-going annotated inventory of FAO normative work on participatory approaches and field-level activities using participatory methods, and the issuance of a CD-ROM covering FAO's publications on participatory approaches to agricultural and rural development. Collaboration with external partners will be ensured, in particular through the ACC Network on Rural Development and Food Security (covered by the following entity).

253P1 - Management and Coordination of the ACC Network on Rural Development and Food Security

Rationale and Objective

623. The ACC Network on Rural Development and Food Security was established in 1997, as the UN inter-agency mechanism for follow-up to the World Food Summit. It is a two tiered mechanism, comprising country-level thematic groups and a global network to bring together UN agencies, governments and civil society together to promote rural development and food security. The national thematic groups are to be reinforced in line with the UN reform process. It will also be important to reflect rural development and food security concerns in the preparation and implementation of global exercises such as the Common Country Assessments and UNDAF. The secretariat responsible for management of the Network is located in SDA. The objectives of this CP are to catalyze government efforts to implement the World Food Summit Plan of Action and rural development and food security programmes and reinforce ties, information exchange and collaboration between UN organizations and other stakeholders to foster complementarities and synergies.

Approach and Links

624. The CP will provide support to the country level thematic groups through backstopping missions by SDA staff and staff from other divisions, and the preparation of guidelines, technical issue papers and training materials on participatory methods and approaches. E-mail conferences will be organized and dedicated pages constantly updated on the FAO Website on selected rural development issues. A database for monitoring ongoing activities of the thematic groups will be established. Besides UN system partners and government authorities, active participation of NGOs will be sought.

253S1 - Technical Support Services to Member Nations and the Field Programme

625. This technical services agreement regroups direct advice and support to Members and backstopping of the FAO field programme, with particular emphasis on mainstreaming of poverty alleviation measures and participatory approaches.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 242 0 242 Global 2 421
Regular Programme 8 208 FAOR 13 0 13 Inter Regional 128
Secondments to STS 86 RAF 313 3 553 3 866 Africa 5 181
Secondments to Trust Funds 80 RAP 432 2 395 2 827 Asia and Pacific 3 832
Programme of Work 8 374 RLC 540 3 665 4 205 Near East 2 096
Trust Fund Activities   RNE 0 1 499 1 499 Europe 912
Trust Funds 11 921 SAFR 271 0 271 Latin America 5 725
Trust Fund Activities 11 921 SDA 6 261 80 6 341    
    SEUR 302 0 302    
    TCO 0 729 729    
Programme 2.5.3 Total 20 295   8 374 11 921 20 295   20 295

Programme 2.5.6: Food Production in Support of Food Security in LIFDCs

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office Food Production in Support of Food Security in LIFDCs 10 237 (10 237) 0 0% 0%
2.5.6.A1 SPFS Formulation 0 1 839 1 839 18% 0%
2.5.6.A2 SPFS Implementation 0 7 268 7 268 71% 0%
2.5.6.P1 Coordination and Monitoring 0 1 124 1 124 11% 0%
Total (zero real growth) 10 237 (6) 10 231 100% 0%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 92  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 10 323  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (13)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 10 310  

626. Programme 2.5.6 covers assistance to Members in formulating and implementing the Special Programme for Food Security (SFPS), including the South-South Cooperation initiative launched within the framework of the SPFS.

Rationale and Objective

627. Food security is defined as access by all people at all times to the food needed for a healthy and active life. To achieve this goal, three conditions have to be met, namely: 1) ensuring adequacy of food supply or availability; 2) ensuring stability of supply; and 3) ensuring access to food.

628. Despite sustained efforts by governments and the international community, today there are over 800 million people in developing countries, about 20 percent of their total population, who are chronically undernourished, lacking sufficient food to live healthy and active lives. Millions more live in conditions that expose them to risk. Although impressive advances have been made in agriculture, food production in many developing countries has failed to keep pace with the demand from a rapidly growing and increasingly urban population, giving rise to alarming forecasts for the future. According to current estimates, by the year 2025 the world's population will have risen from the present 5.7 billion to 8.3 billion, with most of the increase being in developing countries.

629. Most of the world's hungry live in Low-Income, Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDCs). Over 80 in number, LIFDCs are located mainly in the developing world, and half of them are in Africa. These countries do not produce enough food to meet their needs and do not generate sufficient foreign exchange to pay for food imports. Many of these countries are heavily indebted and chronically dependent on food aid.

630. Among the basic causes of the high incidence of chronic undernutrition and food insecurity are: 1) low productivity in agriculture, associated with policy, institutional and technological constraints; 2) high seasonal and year-to-year variability, which is often linked to insufficient water or inadequate water control for crop and livestock production; 3) scarcity of off-farm employment opportunities; and 4) inadequate and uncertain incomes in both rural and urban areas. These causes are closely interrelated; they are also root causes of poverty.

631. The SPFS, launched after its unanimous approval by the FAO Council in 1994, aims at assisting the Low-Income, Food-Deficit Countries to increase food production and productivity on a sustainable basis; reduce year-to-year variability of production; and improve access to food. Its objectives include: increasing net income of small farmers, generation of rural employment, reduction of poverty with due consideration for social equity and gender-sensitivity.

Approach and Links

632. The SPFS follows a phased approach, namely Phase I (previously entitled Pilot Phase) and Phase II (previously Expansion Phase). Phase I consists of four interrelated components addressing: small-scale water harvesting, irrigation and drainage systems; intensification of sustainable plant production systems; diversification of production, including artisanal fisheries, aquaculture and small animals; and analysis of socio-economic constraints to food security. Phase II, the macro-economic phase of the SPFS, consists of assistance to governments to prepare a food security and agricultural policy programme, an agricultural investment programme; and the preparation of feasibility studies of bankable projects.

633. A particular feature of the programme is South-South Cooperation (SSC). Under this initiative, more advanced developing countries send field technicians and experts to specific recipient countries for two or three years, during which they work directly and live with the rural communities involved in the programme. The number of experts required is determined on a case-by-case basis, but must be adequate to achieve a critical mass with site coverage of all agro-climatic regions of the country.

634. The programme comprises three entities, two technical projects and one continuing programme activity.

256A1 - SPFS Formulation

635. This TP covers the organization of exploratory missions (to establish a basis for the implementation of country activities) and formulation of SPFS National Programme Document (NPD) and National Plan of Operations (NPO) for Phase I activities at the country level. The NPD and NPO are formulated by national teams under technical supervision by FAO. Moreover, this TP provides for the joint FAO/Cooperating Government South-South Cooperation formulation mission to the recipient countries; with the main task of identification and agreement on SSC arrangement including expertise required, financial considerations and preparation of a Tripartite Agreement.

256A2 - SPFS Implementation

636. It is expected that the Phase I of the SPFS will be operational in over 70 countries. A major portion of the budget is allocated to this TP which supports implementation of the various components of Phase I in selected countries, and possibly the extension of Phase I, as well as the preparation and initiation of Phase II where pilot projects have demonstrated the feasibility of such action. This TP also supports the implementation of South-South Cooperation within the framework of the SPFS. The Regular Budget contribution is to be supplemented by extra-budgetary support. While some US$ 8.6 million has been conservatively estimated as trust fund delivery in 2000-01, recent indications are that further approvals of some US$ 22 million in extra-budgetary support for Phase I implementation may be forthcoming. A further estimated amount of US$ 10 million is expected to be provided by donors directly to the recipient countries in support of the implementation of the SPFS. Recipient countries also make substantial contributions from their own resources.

256P1 - Coordination and Monitoring

637. This CP covers the work of the Coordination and Monitoring Unit in the Field Operations Division (TCO) for oversight of the development and implementation of the Special Programme, including the South-South Cooperation initiative. It provides the secretariat to the internal management and coordination structure, in particular the Special Programme Implementation Committee, the Special Programme Joint Committee (chaired by the Director-General) as well as the external Oversight Panel.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 89 0 89 Global 2 714
Regular Programme 10 231 PBEC 300 0 300 Inter Regional 908
    RAF 0 3 994 3 994 Africa 7 718
Programme of Work 10 231 RAP 0 1 841 1 841 Asia and Pacific 3 846
Trust Fund Activities   RLC 0 1 669 1 669 Near East 501
Trust Funds 8 586 TCI 707 50 757 Europe 542
Trust Fund Activities 8 586 TCO 9 135 1 032 10 167 Latin America 2 588
Programme 2.5.6 Total 18 817   10 231 8 586 18 817   18 817

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