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MAJOR PROGRAMME 2.3: FISHERIES

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Trust Fund 2000-01 Total Activities Percent of Total
2.3.1 Fisheries Information 6 216 154 6 370 1 821 8 191 16%
2.3.2 Fisheries Resources and Aquaculture 10 714 (80) 10 634 19 224 29 858 27%
2.3.3 Fisheries Exploitation and Utilization 8 435 (360) 8 075 3 913 11 988 20%
2.3.4 Fisheries Policy 9 247 112 9 359 18 135 27 494 24%
2.3.9 Programme Management 5 214 94 5 308 0 5 308 13%
Total (zero real growth) 39 826 (80) 39 746 43 093 82 839 100%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 202  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 39 948  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) 0  
Total (zero nominal growth) 39 948  

Objectives and Priorities

446. Countries need to put their fisheries on a long-term sustainable basis, develop aquaculture and ensure sound fisheries management to give effect to the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and other recent international fishery instruments. FAO has identified five major objectives to assist the membership in these endeavours. The selection of activities which, in the next biennium, will contribute to these medium-term objectives, takes into account specific recommendations of FAO statutory bodies, the high-level panel of external experts in fisheries and the advisory committee on fishery research, among others.

447. First, the major programme will provide Members with extensive analysis and advice, including assessments of the state of world fishery resources and aquaculture, as well as assistance with strategies and technologies for sustainable food fish production. This will be underpinned by work on marine fisheries management, resource and environmental assessment, global monitoring and strategic analysis of resources. Similar work will take place concerning the management of inland fisheries and aquaculture, especially by emphasizing the promotion of responsible inland fisheries and aquaculture development as key contributors to world food security. Another important dimension will be the promotion of sustainable development in the small-scale fishery sector.

448. Second, the major programme will promote appropriate policies and technologies for more effective and efficient use of resources by fisheries and aquaculture industries. This will be done through analysis of current practice and the promotion of sound policy and management. More specifically, FAO will analyze global trends in the social and economic aspects of capture fisheries and aquaculture, and formulate policies and management strategies for the fishery and aquaculture sectors. The major programme will support sustainable aquaculture development policies at both the national and regional levels and, increasingly, improved management of coastal and inland fisheries.

449. Third, the major programme will develop and promote adoption of technical standards and international norms for improved utilization, trade, quality and safety of fishery and aquaculture products. Coordinating and monitoring the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and reporting on progress achieved in its implementation will be a major task. Implementation of the Code goes together with FAO's work to promote global fishery coordination, especially through strengthening of regional fishery bodies and arrangements. The promotion of international fish trade and improved utilization, is to be emphasized including the reduction of discards and increased production from under-utilized fish resources and low value catches, thus reducing this negative impact of fisheries.

450. Fourth, the major programme will assist Members in forecasting emergencies and disasters affecting fisheries and aquaculture, e.g. as they relate to important natural fluctuations in productivity (El Niņo); meteorological disasters (cyclones, floods and hurricanes); pollution (fish poisoning; oil spills); massive food contamination (cholera), or disease outbursts (in aquaculture). This will be supported by the promotion of ecosystem and environmental information, norms and computer tools for better system management and risk forecast.

451. Fifth, the major programme will seek improved access to high quality and timely information in support of responsible fisheries, aquaculture and trade. This includes advice and technical support to Members and regional fishery bodies on fishery statistics and the provision of fisheries statistics and information services. Dissemination of existing and enhanced fisheries information will be effected through the Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS), the development of which will be undertaken in conjunction with partner regional fishery bodies and national institutions.

452. The need to address inter-disciplinary aspects is met through cooperation among divisions in the Fisheries Department, with other departments and with outside partners. In fact, the intent is to consolidate what were primarily informal, but highly productive joint activities in the past. Examples include: statistical development work in cooperation with the Statistics Division (ESS) and the World Bank. The extension of the Aquatic Science and Fisheries Abstracts Database (ASFA) will be undertaken in cooperation with ASFA partners, including UNESCO-IOC. The development of FIGIS and the World Fisheries Atlas will involve all services in the Fisheries Department as well as the Information Division (GII) and GIL/WAICENT and partners such as regional fishery bodies and national centres of excellence.

453. There is no change to the four existing programmes which cover the key substantive areas of the fisheries sector: Fisheries Information; Fisheries Resources and Aquaculture; Fisheries Exploitation and Utilization; and Fisheries Policy. However, activities under each programme have been adjusted to evolving contexts and reformulated in line with the revised programming approach.

Programme 2.3.1: Fisheries Information

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office
2.3.1.1 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information 2 407 (2 407) 0 0% 0%
2.3.1.2 Fishery Data and Statistics 3 809 (3 809) 0 0% 0%
2.3.1.A1 Improved Access to and Dissemination of Information on Responsible Fisheries, Aquaculture and Trade 0 631 631 10% 5%
2.3.1.P1 Provision of Fisheries Information and Statistical Services 0 4 746 4 746 75% 4%
2.3.1.S1 Advice and Technical Support to Member Nations and Regional Fisheries Bodies 0 993 993 16% 16%
Total (zero real growth) 6 216 154 6 370 100% 6%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 135  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 6 505  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) 48  
Total (zero nominal growth) 6 553  

454. This programme provides comprehensive information and statistics on fisheries and aquaculture in an accessible form for Members and the international community. This information is to support analysis, policy making and planning. A major new initiative is to improve access to existing Fisheries Department (FI) information and statistics and make available new information on stock and species status. It will be undertaken through a technical project (231A1) which will rely extensively on extra-budgetary funds. The programme also covers technical advice and assistance with fisheries information and statistics collection, processing and exchange programmes of Members and regional fishery bodies and in support of field projects.

231A1 - Improved Access to and Dissemination of Information on Responsible Fisheries, Aquaculture and Trade

Rationale and Objective

455. This TP has been conceived in a context of great stress on most major resources and a worldwide concern about the state of the resources and some of their non-sustainable uses. For yet under-utilized stocks, the risk of over-utilization is amplified by globalization of trade in fish and fishery products. The international legal framework for fisheries has been substantially improved, but a web of complex provisions complicates their simultaneous implementation. The risk of misinformation is very high and the performance of present fisheries production and management systems is questioned. Therefore, there is a need for information which is verifiable, integrated and delivered in a timely fashion. As the recognized leader in the collection, processing and dissemination of information on a worldwide scale, FAO is positioned to meet this need. The main objective is to improve access to, and disseminate good quality and timely information in the most appropriate formats, in order to serve the information needs of governments, industry, NGOs, the media, and other potential users in support of responsible fisheries, aquaculture and trade.

Approach and Links

456. The major output is the development of a Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS), eventually accessible through the Internet. This will require initially a prototype user interface and core module subsets of maps, photos, images, references, glossary files to be integrated in FIGIS. All major databases (on global catches, aquaculture production, fishers, trade in fishery products, fleets, food balance sheets, etc.) will be incorporated into FIGIS. Prototype databases on industrial fishing vessels fishing on the high seas and (GIS-based) databases on major fish stocks and the state of resources will also be created and integrated in FIGIS. Species identification sheets will be partially completed and corresponding information put under digital format, including GIS maps. It is intended to closely associate the regional fisheries bodies in this major development.

231P1 - Provision of Fisheries Information and Statistical Services

Rationale and Objective

457. In order to meet the demands of governments, international fishery agencies, research and private institutions and the public, as well as the information needs of the Organization in the discharge of its normative and other roles, this CP covers core work on statistics and other important information. It is necessary to ensure that data are comprehensive, timely, comparable and accessible to all in an efficient manner, including the use of modern dissemination methods. As some of the living aquatic resources do not fall under national jurisdiction, the role that FAO plays as a depository of global fishery data is all the more important. FAO also needs to promote standards that ensure international comparability, and contribute to enhanced methods of statistical data collection and processing. The objective is to allow for easy and cost-effective access by governments and the international community to aquatic sciences and fisheries information and to validated fishery and aquaculture statistics for the analysis of trends in world aquatic living resources. These statistics will also cover industries based on their exploitation and production, the contribution of fishery products to food security, as well as the intake of nutritional elements of important dietary value.

Approach

458. The established range of published outputs will continue including: Yearbooks of Fisheries Statistics (commodities, capture production and aquaculture production); statistical bulletins (apparent fish consumption, fisher statistics, fishing fleets statistics). These will be supplemented by the issuance of guidelines on collection of fishery commodity statistics, an updated handbook of fishery statistics (Web version) and Species Classification Lists. Electronic means of dissemination will continue to expand.

459. Methodologies and guidelines for information collection and resource sharing will be developed together with computer software for: survey planning, capture fishery, and aquaculture data collection, exchange, dissemination and analysis, including new modules for industrial fisheries, biological data, aquaculture production and structural statistics. This will assist with planned support to national and regional fisheries information networks and advice on management of fisheries libraries and information centres.

460. As regards the Aquatic Science and Fisheries Abstracts Database(ASFA), widening of the geographical coverage of the database will be sought by enlarging its partnership. The ASFA bibliographic database will be maintained and ASFA advisory board and editorial meetings will be held.

Links

461. This CP involves a wide range of cooperative arrangements (through consultations, harmonization of respective databases and joint activities) particularly with regional FAO and non-FAO fisheries bodies. Other partners are EUROSTAT, ILO, UNESCO-IOC, OECD, UN and UNEP.

231S1 - Advice and Technical Support to Member Nations and Regional Fisheries Bodies

462. This technical services agreement covers direct support to countries, individually or through regional bodies, to provide them with appropriate methodological and operational tools and improve the collection, processing, dissemination and exchange of fisheries information and statistics. Support to training courses and workshops on fishery information and statistics collection and processing is also to take place.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 271 0 271 Global 3 094
Regular Programme 6 220 FAOR 40 0 40 Inter Regional 1 047
Secondments to Trust Funds 100 FI 5 663 1 047 6 710 Africa 714
World Bank Other 50 RAF 85 0 85 Asia and Pacific 751
Programme of Work 6 370 RAP 141 0 141 Near East 913
Trust Fund Activities   RLC 0 482 482 Europe 568
Trust Funds 1 821 RNE 48 292 340 Latin America 1 104
Trust Fund Activities 1 821 SAFR 43 0 43    
    SAPA 35 0 35    
    SLAC 44 0 44    
Programme 2.3.1 Total 8 191   6 370 1 821 8 191   8 191

Programme 2.3.2: Fisheries Resources and Aquaculture

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office
2.3.2.1 Marine Resources 4 858 (4 858) 0 0% 0%
2.3.2.2 Inland Resources and Aquaculture 5 856 (5 856) 0 0% 0%
2.3.2.A1 Promotion of Responsible Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture 0 1 483 1 483 14% 18%
2.3.2.A2 Increased Contribution of Aquaculture and Inland Fisheries Production to World Food Security 0 1 164 1 164 11% 25%
2.3.2.A3 Marine Fisheries Resources Identification and Biodata 0 1 020 1 020 10% 7%
2.3.2.A4 Monitoring and Reporting on Global Marine Resources and Relevant Environmental and Ecological Changes 0 1 457 1 457 14% 9%
2.3.2.A5 Resources Assessment and Management of Marine Fisheries 0 1 053 1 053 10% 4%
2.3.2.P1 Global Monitoring and Strategic Analysis of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture 0 1 878 1 878 18% 6%
2.3.2.S1 Advice on Marine Resources and Environmental Issues and Aquaculture Development 0 2 579 2 579 24% 13%
Total (zero real growth) 10 714 (80) 10 634 100% 12%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) (25)  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 10 609  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) 48  
Total (zero nominal growth) 10 657  

463. The programme assists Members in ensuring the sustainable contributions of aquaculture and inland fisheries to food supplies, food security and general economic growth. It also aims at conserving the ecosystems on which these contributions are based. This is to be achieved in the first instance through guidelines and direct advice to Members on improved management practices in marine and inland fisheries and aquaculture. The work includes advice on conservation and rehabilitation of inland and coastal habitats and resources, including their integrated development and management. Further, the programme will provide technical advice for the expansion of sustainable marine fisheries of under-used resources, where compatible with existing resources and ecosystem productivity. Advice is also provided on the expansion of sustainable aquaculture (particularly in food-deficit countries) through the efficient use of resources, sustainable intensification and by integration with agricultural programmes. Finally, the programme will continue to provide strategic data on, and analysis of the performance, trends, principal issues and potentials of the marine and inland fisheries and aquaculture sub-sectors.

464. There is to be a more explicit focus on ecosystem problems in the marine environment, an area of public concern and a necessary condition for fisheries sustainability. In the areas of inland fisheries and aquaculture increased attention will be given to implementation of more cohesive and closely integrated projects. The total work programme comprises five technical projects, one continuing programme activity covering FAO's monitoring responsibilities and one technical services agreement.

232A1 - Promotion of Responsible Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture

Rationale and Objective

465. This technical project is to operate in a context of significant challenges for inland fisheries and aquaculture in most countries. There is a broad need for improving resource use efficiency and management and protection of resources and environments on which these sectors are based. This TP is to enhance technical cooperation between fisheries/aquaculture stakeholders and other resource users at national, regional and global levels, and thus contribute to the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The objective is to promote sustainable use of fisheries resources, including aquatic genetic resources, and the reduction of environmental and biodiversity impacts from inland fisheries and aquaculture activities.

Approach and Links

466. This TP will, in the first instance, spearhead a major effort of preparation and dissemination of methodologies and guidelines for prevention of habitat degradation and rehabilitation of inland fish habitats. This work will include studies and analyses on: eco-regional assessment and management for sustainable inland fish production; aquatic animal pathogen transfer risk assessment; genetic conservation areas and geneparks; and aquatic animal quarantine and health certification in selected countries. Advice for sustainable intensification of freshwater aquaculture production will build on specific studies and analyses, e.g. on land, water and feed and nutrient use in aquaculture and on best practices in shrimp culture. The issuance is foreseen of methodologies and guidelines for the precautionary approach to aquaculture (and inland fisheries) and guidelines for sustainable intensification of freshwater aquaculture production in LIFDCs. Two sessions of the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) will be held and a number of reports will be issued under the aegis of this inter-agency mechanism (e.g. State of the Marine Environment). This TP will also provide contributions to the Convention on Biodiversity and the Commission on Sustainable Development, including FAO regular reporting to the CSD on freshwater resources (ACC Sub-committee on Water). Other partners are NACA and OIE (joint work on an international aquatic animal health code and manual).

232A2 - Increased Contribution of Aquaculture and Inland Fisheries Production to World Food Security

Rationale and Objective

467. The growth in global aquaculture production, and the significant potential of inland fisheries, offer good prospects for increased production and enhanced supplies of fish. However, there is a continued need for appropriate technologies and avenues to sustainably increase fish production through aquaculture and inland fisheries, which FAO is to address through this technical project. The objective is to assist countries in increasing aquatic production through sustainable development of aquaculture and inland fisheries for national food security and rural development, both in inland and coastal areas.

Approach and Links

468. A number of studies and analysis will be made of key aspects of aquaculture and inland fishery production, including: coastal polyculture systems in selected countries, and marine ranching. Methodologies and guidelines will be issued on seed production of selected species for sustainable aquaculture production, transboundary species movements, and for sustainable inland fishery production. A manual on genetic improvement technologies will also be prepared and training in genetic technologies organized. The TP will also support regional and inter-regional coordination, information exchange, and training on aquatic animal health management and disease control strategies. Associated activities will include the preparation of methodologies for primary health care in small-scale rural aquaculture development and for evaluation of economic losses due to diseases in aquaculture and culture-based fisheries. Promotion of regional cooperation in rural aquaculture development in Asia, Africa and Latin America is to be undertaken with the assistance of decentralized offices. External partners include ICLARM, IOC and NACA.

232A3 - Marine Fisheries Resources Identification and Biodata

Rationale and Objective

469. The difficulties in identifying species and providing basic and reliable information on their biology and ecology are a major problem, mainly in developing regions. The correct identification is a prerequisite to rationalization of all fishery or fishery-related activities. This project has, therefore, the objective of contributing reliable information for species identification and essential data of marine exploited species to Members and the international community at large.

Approach and Links

470. The project will promote a network of world experts and establish links to databases on species information. This should feed into reliable information on species identification, and data on potentially or actually exploited marine species and related fisheries. It will provide advice on composition of fish stocks and catches and contribute data to biodiversity studies and to other Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) or Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) concerned with marine ecosystems and to other FAO projects requiring such information. It will also provide inputs on species identification to the project under Programme 2.3.3 on discards and bycatch (guides and manuals). Encyclopaedia and species information will be placed on the fisheries pages of the FAO Website. Guides and catalogues of living marine resources will be published.

232A4 - Monitoring and Reporting on Global Marine Resources and Relevant Environmental and Ecological Changes

Rationale and Objective

471. Regularly updated reviews of the State of World Fishery Resources, prepared as information papers, for the Committee on Fisheries (COFI) are now also available on the FAO Website. This work will be continued and enhanced with greater input from sources outside FAO, building on a broader information base, including relevant environmental and ecosystem changes reflecting exploited resources and their impact on the marine habitat. The basic format is expected to become standardized and used for other purposes, e.g. to register resource information in the case of fisheries where certification is sought. The objective is to satisfy needs of governments, NGOs and the fishing industry for an authoritative document summarizing in a broad fashion major trends and events relative to world fishery resources, including recent concerns with the impact of human activities on the marine fishery production system and habitat and ecosystem considerations.

Approach and Links

472. On the methodological side, improved forecasting techniques will be sought, together with the analysis of regional ocean climate effects. The major output will be the publication Review of World Marine Fishery Resources, which will be accessible from the FAO Website. This TP will also provide input to the major State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) document and other assessments relevant to world and regional fish stocks and fisheries. Contacts will be maintained with other UN system agencies dealing with environmental and ocean matters.

232A5 - Resources Assessment and Management of Marine Fisheries

Rationale and Objective

473. Countries require technical standards, international norms and guidelines in making policy adjustment to their fisheries sectors. This TP will support resource management strategies based on what is an appropriate Total Allowable Catch (TAC), to maintain sustainable yields at particular harvesting levels, taking account of biological characteristics of the resource and the effects of environmental factors. The TACs that are set through this process should explicitly consider decision-makers' attitude to risk of and thus the objectives and risk preferences of relevant stakeholders. This type of planning rests at the core of effective fisheries management, where virtually all major clients for related FAO services are deficient in their capacity to set rules for operational fisheries management at a level sufficient to ensure national policy objectives are achieved. The objective is to improve Members' capacity to undertake stock assessment and implement appropriate fishery management practices.

Approach and Links

474. The main lines of activity will be the preparation of reports, analyses, assessments and guides in response to specific demands from Members, and the production of manuals, technical papers and case studies on alternative approaches to the management of marine fishery resources and on the influence of economic and environmental conditions on fisheries performance. The TP will also support inter-country consultations and provide referral services for existing skills in and methods of operational management. Links are mostly with fisheries authorities in countries, as well as with external partners such as the EU and bilateral assistance agencies.

232P1 - Global Monitoring and Strategic Analysis of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture

Rationale and Objective

475. There is high demand for strategic information on the status of resources, levels of production, and development trends and prospects in inland fisheries and aquaculture. Many countries need assistance in improving their information frameworks on inland fisheries and aquaculture, building on their own extensive information collections and analytical capacities. The main objective of this CP is to assist governments, development agencies, the private sector and the NGO community in decision-making at global, regional, national and farm levels for sustainable development of inland fisheries and aquaculture.

Approach and Links

476. Two major activities will be: 1) to provide analyses and interpretation of global, regional and national trends in inland fisheries and aquaculture developments; and 2) to maintain and update aquaculture and inland fisheries databases and information systems, and disseminate information (e.g. species introduction and stock enhancement). The first task will also involve the development of guidelines on criteria and indicators for aquaculture sustainability in selected countries and regions, and studies on improved inland fisheries management including rehabilitation and conservation efforts, in selected countries. Inputs to the work of the FAO bodies interested in inland fisheries and aquaculture (e.g. EIFAC, GFCM, etc.) will be given due attention, and expert meetings will be organized. The second task will also cover the coordination of technical information exchange among governments, private sector associations and NGOs, within and between regions, in association with decentralized offices. External partners include ICLARM, NACA and IOC.

232S1 - Advice on Marine Resources and Environmental Issues and Aquaculture Development

477. This technical services agreement groups the broad range of advisory assistance to Members and support to field projects relating to the substantive aspects of fisheries addressed by Programme 2.3.2.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 309 0 309 Global 3 821
Regular Programme 10 525 FI 9 065 159 9 224 Inter Regional 1 842
Secondments to SPPD 32 RAF 286 7 959 8 245 Africa 9 613
Secondments to STS 31 RAP 437 4 408 4 845 Asia and Pacific 6 051
Secondments to Trust Funds 46 RLC 126 163 289 Near East 6 252
Programme of Work 10 634 RNE 84 5 055 5 139 Europe 908
Trust Fund Activities   SAFR 111 0 111 Latin America 1 371
Trust Funds 19 224 SAPA 42 0 42    
Trust Fund Activities 19 224 SLAC 174 0 174    
    TCO 0 1 480 1 480    
Programme 2.3.2 Total 29 858   10 634 19 224 29 858   29 858

Programme 2.3.3: Fisheries Exploitation and Utilization

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office
2.3.3.1 Fish Production 3 903 (3 903) 0 0% 0%
2.3.3.2 Fish Utilization and Marketing 4 532 (4 532) 0 0% 0%
2.3.3.A1 Reduction of Discards and Environmental Impact from Fisheries 0 931 931 12% 4%
2.3.3.A2 Sustainable Development of Small-scale Fisheries 0 1 068 1 068 13% 21%
2.3.3.A3 Increased Production from Under-utilized Aquatic Resources and Low-value Catches 0 1 082 1 082 13% 2%
2.3.3.A4 Consumption, Safety and Quality of Fish Products 0 966 966 12% 11%
2.3.3.A5 Promotion of International Fish Trade 0 1 208 1 208 15% 5%
2.3.3.S1 Support and Advice in Fishing Technology, Fish Utilization and Trade 0 2 820 2 820 35% 5%
Total (zero real growth) 8 435 (360) 8 075 100% 7%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) (2)  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 8 073  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) 23  
Total (zero nominal growth) 8 096  

478. The five constituent projects (233A1 to 233A5) are designed to support the improved utilization, trade, quality and safety of fishery products, sustainable fish production and increased utilization of fish for human food. Cross-cutting themes are the contribution of fisheries to food security, the well-being of small-scale fishing communities and the integration of gender into fisheries development actions. A guiding principle in all activities will be the implementation of relevant articles of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, both for the industrial and small-scale fisheries sectors.

479. In addition to provision of advice on request of governments, the programme will continue collaboration with other international bodies and support to the field programme. This covers in particular work on improved safety and working conditions; the provision of technical advice on credit; databases on fish trade, fishing fleets, gear and fish technology; and support to technological research and training institutes.

480. Three areas will receive more emphasis in the coming biennium. The first is the environmental impact of fishing operations, in particular of certain types of gears. A reduction to this effect will help reduce wastage, rebuild stocks and increase biodiversity. The second area of increased emphasis is product safety, involving more active advisory services to Members, leading to improved safety in the industry and quality in the product, benefiting both producers and importers. Finally, more work is foreseen on the impact of multilateral trade agreements on international fish trade.

233A1 - Reduction of Discards and Environmental Impact from Fisheries

Rationale and Objective

481. The quantities of discards from fisheries operations are not accurately known, but various estimates indicate that they are significant, probably in the order of 20 million tonnes. Reduction of discards can be achieved by avoiding capture of unwanted catch in the first place, or by making use of the unavoidable catch presently discarded. Avoiding capture of juveniles from commercially valuable food-fish species is regarded as particularly important. Fishing operations may in some cases have a negative impact on the environment, e.g. when fishing gears damage the bottom habitat and when non-fish species like mammals, birds and reptiles are killed by the fishing gear. The objective of this TP is to contribute to a sustainable increase in global fish production by reducing discards and capture of juveniles and to minimize any negative environmental impact through: a) use of selective technology and environmentally friendly practices; b) increased utilization of unavoidable bycatch; and c) the introduction of appropriate management frameworks, where required.

Approach and Links

482. The TP will seek in the first instance to improve data on global discards and bycatch, in particular through more effective methodologies of reporting on discards and bycatch, and continuing identification of fisheries with major discard/bycatch problems. A network of experts with competence in the interaction of seabird and longline fisheries is to be established, and assistance provided upon request for the formulation of national plans of action for reduction of incidental catch of seabird in longline fisheries in countries facing the most acute problems. A report will be issued on pilot demonstrations of improved bycatch utilization systems and work will proceed on effective technologies for bycatch handling on-board and transfer to shore. Market opportunities for increased utilization of bycatch will also be explored. A publication will be issued setting out the results of a global study on environmental impact of various fishing activities, whereas the environmental impact of shrimp fisheries is to be assessed in at least ten countries from four tropical regions. Major external partners in this work will include UNEP and GEF.

233A2 - Sustainable Development of Small-scale Fisheries

Rationale and Objective

483. A range of constraints prevents the artisanal fishing sector in many countries from fully achieving its economic and social potential. This project responds to Members' expressed needs by providing technical and managerial information and training materials, guidelines, and participatory methodologies which can be locally applied to develop and manage artisanal fish production and processing on both a profitable and sustainable basis. The TP will support national implementation of sections of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries dealing with artisanal fisheries both inland and marine, as well as providing guidelines and technical advice pertinent to the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) programme of action. The objective is to enhance the contribution of the small-scale fisheries sector - both inland and marine, with special attention to the SIDS group - to food security and employment through the promotion of appropriate technologies, commercial practices, methods and approaches which aid capacity-building, institutional strengthening, and sustainability.

Approach and Links

484. In the first instance, a database on demographic/population characteristics of coastal fishing communities will be developed for use by fisherfolk associations, NGOs, and concerned government agencies. As regards safety issues, methodologies for local identification of artisanal sea safety problems will be formulated and participatory local sea safety programmes will be supported and field-tested in several countries. At the same time, advice will be provided on adoption of equipment and methods for longer-range fishing. Training support activities will include a manual on participatory extension methods to be field-tested and revised; the issuance of regional guidelines on fishing boat design, construction and equipment; and distance-learning courses on infrastructure for small ports and landing sites. As regards socio-economic aspects, case studies of on-going micro-credit programmes and mutual insurance programmes in fishing communities will be conducted and a Workshop on Design of Participatory Micro-credit and Mutual Insurance Policies and Programmes will be convened. Other aspects to be addressed are the inspection and certification of small fishing vessels (case studies of existing practices), the analysis of government and local community level approaches to coastal disaster preparedness and mitigation, and the organization and dynamics of successful landing site management committees. Together with decentralized offices, attention will also be given to strengthening the capacity of fish technology institutes to support utilization of catches from the small-scale sector. External partners include IMO, ILO (particularly for work on sea safety), and bilateral assistance programmes.

233A3 - Increased Production from Under-utilized Aquatic Resources and Low-value Catches

Rationale and Objective

485. While production from capture fisheries has been stagnating, there are under-utilized resources as well as low-value catches, which can contribute to increased food security and employment. Moreover, aquaculture production can only partly fill the gap between demand and supply and requires fishmeal as a feed ingredient. The global potential of capture fisheries includes certain non-conventional resources, which can add to global production but have remained under-utilized until now. Low-value catches constitute another source of food and employment. From the present production by capture fisheries about one third is used as raw material for the fishmeal and oil industry. Generally, these are cheap and nutritious small pelagic fishes such as sardines and anchovies, part of which can be utilized for direct human consumption.

486. The objective is to generate policy changes in Member Nations through specific technical advice towards increased production from under-utilized aquatic resources and increased utilization for human consumption of low-value catches.

Approach and Links

487. The TP will assist cost-effective fishing technologies, on-board handling and vessel design methods for harvesting of small pelagics, small crustaceans (e.g. krill) and mesopelagic resources. In like vein, it will review past and present experiences in the handling, storage and processing of under-utilized species and low-value catches and the economic/social aspects and associated legal framework in relation to selected geographical areas and species. Other activities will be the issuance of a report on testing and demonstration of the production of selected products, and the completion of a set of pre-feasibility studies and sensitivity analyses of products from selected under-utilized species and low-value catches. The TP will liaise with various national and international institutions active in these areas.

233A4 - Consumption, Safety and Quality of Fish Products

Rationale and Objective

488. Safety and quality of fish products is gaining strategic importance for many countries in the light of the globalization of fish trade. In recent years, major markets for fish products have either adopted or are adopting new regulations with a preventive approach towards safety and quality. Developing countries, in particular, are increasing their share of markets and need to comply with these regulations for the benefit of consumers in export and domestic markets, and thus require substantial assistance in this regard. Another potential development stems from the fact that fish oil is one of the richest sources of essential fatty acids and could be produced and incorporated into food products from low value resources in the fishing industry, and could therefore, improve nutritional levels of such vulnerable groups as low-income, pregnant women. The objectives are to meet national requirements for improved safety and quality of fish products and promote increased consumption of fish oil.

Approach and Links

489. The TP will organize an international meeting on hazards and risks associated with tropical and sub-tropical fish products, the proceedings of which will be widely disseminated. It will seek to identify important missing information in this area and issue recommendations on research needs. Suitable food products containing fish oil will be identified for potential large-scale production. Storage and acceptability testing of these products, as well as pilot production experiments will be encouraged and supported. External partners include UNICEF, UNIDO, WFP and WHO.

233A5 - Promotion of International Fish Trade

Rationale and Objective

490. Net export revenues from fish trade are of importance particularly to developing countries. An increase in fish trade and export revenue contributes to increased food security in many regions. By providing information and analysis on trends in international fish trade, FAO can greatly facilitate the participation of developing countries and also where required safeguard their interests. This TP's objective is, therefore, to promote increased participation of developing countries in international fish trade, including through their use and active membership of the FAO-supported Fish Marketing Information Services (INFONetwork).

Approach and Links

491. The TP will organize conferences on fish trade and commodities (to be supplemented by E-mail consultations). The main task will be the coordination of INFONetwork and backstopping of regional marketing information projects such as EASTFISH and INFOYU. The GLOBEFISH databank will continue to be expanded and GLOBEFISH published outputs widely disseminated (including through the FAO Website). Assistance will be provided to FAO bodies that serve as International Commodity Bodies for the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) and oversee CFC-sponsored fisheries projects. External partners include WTO, ITC, CITES and OECD.

233S1 - Support and Advice in Fishing Technology, Fish Utilization and Trade

492. This technical services agreement covers FAO advice and direct assistance to Members and to field projects in the areas of fishery technology, fish utilization and trade.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 235 0 235 Global 2 219
Regular Programme 8 001 FAOR 40 0 40 Inter Regional 700
Secondments to SPPD 24 FI 7 219 3 099 10 318 Africa 1 831
Secondments to Trust Funds 50 RAF 128 255 383 Asia and Pacific 1 554
Programme of Work 8 075 RAP 21 0 21 Near East 1 322
Trust Fund Activities   RLC 8 0 8 Europe 3 514
Trust Funds 3 913 RNE 162 159 321 Latin America 848
Trust Fund Activities 3 913 SAFR 30 0 30    
    SAPA 85 0 85    
    SLAC 147 0 147    
    TCO 0 400 400    
Programme 2.3.3 Total 11 988   8 075 3 913 11 988   11 988

Programme 2.3.4: Fisheries Policy

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office
2.3.4.1 Fisheries Policy and Planning 4 133 (4 133) 0 0% 0%
2.3.4.2 International Coordination and Liaison 5 114 (5 114) 0 0% 0%
2.3.4.A1 Coordination and Monitoring the Implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries 0 1 195 1 195 13% 28%
2.3.4.A4 Promotion of Fisheries Management in Coastal Fisheries 0 820 820 9% 23%
2.3.4.A5 Promotion of Appropriate National/Regional Policies for Sustainable Aquaculture Development 0 627 627 7% 9%
2.3.4.P2 Global Analysis of Economic and Social Trends in Fisheries and Aquaculture 0 1 209 1 209 13% 4%
2.3.4.P3 Economic and Social Analysis of Fishery and Aquaculture Policy and Management 0 914 914 10% 2%
2.3.4.S1 Promotion and Strengthening of Regional Fisheries Bodies and Arrangements and Field Programme Support 0 4 594 4 594 49% 38%
Total (zero real growth) 9 247 112 9 359 100% 25%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) 102  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 9 461  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) 0  
Total (zero nominal growth) 9 461  

493. This programme addresses the social and economic aspects of capture fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the analysis of policies and management strategies for the fishery and aquaculture sectors. It will involve economic interpretation of global information on production, technology development, status of aquatic resources, preservation, processing, trade and consumption. The influence of international economic and social developments as well as the natural factors affecting fisheries resources will be analyzed. Work will include medium and long-term projections of demand and supply of fish and fish products, as well as the maintenance of databases on fishery management and essential fishery issues. Policies and management strategies will be examined in the context of (among others) the management and measurement of fishing capacity, monitoring, control and surveillance of fisheries, as well as the economic and social implications of alternative fisheries management approaches.

494. The programme plays a key role in fostering international cooperation in fisheries. It serves as the focal point for supporting FAO regional fishery bodies and for enhanced cooperation and collaboration with other agencies and organizations within the UN system, with non-FAO regional fishery bodies, with Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) outside the UN system and with a wide range of International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs). Continued emphasis will be placed on the strengthening of cooperation between FAO and non-FAO bodies. The programme will actively encourage the ratification or accession of countries to recently adopted international fisheries instruments and the effective implementation of these instruments. The Fishery Policy and Planning Division (FIP) will provide the administrative secretariat for the Committee on Fisheries (COFI), the Advisory Committee for Fisheries Research and those FAO regional fishery bodies serviced by Headquarters.

495. Technical assistance projects are expected to expand as several new externally funded projects are contemplated. These will address management in coastal fisheries, especially in the Adriatic Sea, technical support to the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the Support Unit for International Fisheries and Aquatic Research.

496. Two continuing programme activities (234P2 and 234P3) cover important, on-going analytical work for the benefit of the membership, and one technical services agreement (234S1) is to support, on the one hand, FAO regional fisheries bodies; and on the other, the field programme. These three entities are complemented by three technical projects of more specific scope.

234A1 - Coordination and Monitoring the Implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries

Rationale and Objective

497. Implementation of the Code embodies a major effort by countries to foster food security and livelihoods in rural areas, rehabilitate their natural resources and food production systems, promote national and international frameworks for fish and aquaculture production, ensure that fishery products meet national and international standards, and enhance the conservation, management and sustainable intensification of fisheries. In this context, this TP is to monitor the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and coordinate FAO's support to this process, including advice on the structural changes required in the fisheries sector to place it on a long-term sustainable footing.

Approach and Links

498. The main activity is the preparation of reports to COFI and the UNGA on progress in the implementation of the Code. This will be accompanied by reports on the Code of Conduct for ten sessions of FAO and non-FAO regional fishery bodies. The TP will also involve the preparation of reports on the SIDS programme for COFI and sessions of other bodies. It will maintain and update a page dedicated to the Code on the FAO Website and facilitate two regional workshops concerning the adaptation of the Code. Finally, the promotion of a network of fisheries training institutions and training of country teams on implementation of the Code (TRAINFISH) will be pursued. This TP will have links with most other substantive fisheries programmes.

234A4 - Promotion of Fisheries Management in Coastal Fisheries

Rationale and Objective

499. This TP responds to the considerable need for assistance by many countries which wish to enact balanced fisheries management plans in their coastal areas. Initially the project will focus on Africa and South Asia. The objective is to assist fisher communities to achieve a sustainable equilibrium, balancing the needs to engage in capture fisheries as a source of livelihood against the need to preserve natural resources.

Approach and Links

500. The TP will promote simplified, locally managed systems for gathering (and partially analyzing) information needed for fisheries management and will test them in the field. This will be accompanied by case studies of existing fisheries management problems and methods in four cooperating test zones, feeding into the process of developing coastal fisheries management plans for the cooperating test zones. Another activity will be the development, application and on-going evaluation of methods for local stakeholder participation in co-management regimes with central fisheries authorities. Initial field tests of proposed centre/periphery interface structures will be carried out. Proposals - specific to fisheries - will be made for simple procedures to assess and monitor fishing capacity at fisher village level, and distance learning courses organized on management of small-scale ports and landing sites.

501. A number of reports will be issued on: pilot, action research projects, applying simple procedures for assessing and monitoring fishing capacity at fisher village level; institutions in fishery communities for which pilot scale activities are undertaken; and regional economic and social policies influencing management of coastal fisheries in selected regions. FAO Regional and/or Sub-regional Fisheries/Aquaculture Officers will be involved in the formulation, implementation and monitoring of outputs in their respective areas of responsibility. The TP will work closely with FAO and non-FAO technical assistance projects, initially in West Africa and South Asia.

234A5 - Promotion of Appropriate National/Regional Policies for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

Rationale and Objective

502. While aquaculture is widely recognized as having the potential to contribute to the substantial additional amounts of fish needed to maintain per caput consumption at present levels, past efforts by governments both to develop and manage aquaculture have often been ineffective. In some regions like Africa, aquaculture is still largely undeveloped. This project will have as immediate target groups, the relevant decision-makers in the public and private sectors and will seek to provide them with accurate, balanced and relevant information on the implications of alternative aquaculture strategies, thereby facilitating the implementation of effective national and regional aquaculture policies. Initially, the project will focus on selected regions of Africa and South Asia. The objective is to promote an increase in culture and consumption of, and trade in, cultured fish, crustaceans and molluscs.

Approach and Links

503. Work will comprise investigation of national and international market potential, the assessment of the economic viability and sustainability of selected technologies, together with production feasibility studies and the formulation of draft policy and development strategies in relation to the following species: tilapia in Sub-Saharan Africa, catfish in Central Africa, selected species in South Asia. While links will be maintained with other entities dealing with aquaculture, the main external partner will be ICLARM.

234P2 - Global Analysis of Economic and Social Trends in Fisheries and Aquaculture

Rationale and Objective

504. This CP forms part of FAO's mandate to make available information on, as well as assess, the global state of food and nutrition, agriculture, forestry and fisheries. The objective is to enable decision-makers to have access to current, accurate and neutral analysis of major trends and likely developments in world fisheries and aquaculture.

Approach and Links

505. The main outputs will include the major publication of the State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2000 (SOFIA); technical reports on Asian Financial and Economic Crises: Their Impact on World Fisheries, and Exploratory Calculations on Demand and Supply of Fish in 2015. This will be supported by the constant updating of about 150 country profiles and the development of medium and long-term series of fisheries and aquaculture performance data and indicators. This CP has close links with all fisheries programmes, and consultations with external institutions with interest in fisheries.

234P3 - Economic and Social Analysis of Fishery and Aquaculture Policy and Management

Rationale and Objective

506. Policies and regulatory measures for managing and protecting fisheries resources and other associated aquatic habitats need to be based on sound economic and social analyses, especially regarding: 1) the use of economic incentives/disincentives to guide the behaviour of private industry towards optimal resources exploitation; 2) the economic and social implications of alternative management approaches and techniques and development paths; and 3) the needed institutional changes in government agencies to achieve sectoral management and development through cost-effective means and measures. The objective is to promote improved economic and social analysis leading to sound policies and better institutional arrangements including inter-sectoral coordination, as well as improved assistance policies by bilateral and multilateral development agencies.

Approach and Links

507. Planned outputs include a report to COFI on the implementation of an international instrument on the management of fishing capacity, together with technical guidelines on the measurement of fishing capacity and on systems for cost-effective monitoring, control and surveillance. Case studies will be carried out on the economic and social implications of the transition to responsible fisheries and on technical and financial assistance requirements. Policy options will be developed for the management of highly migratory and straddling fish stocks. A set of costs and earnings studies and bio-economic analyses of selected marine capture fisheries and assessment of the present impact and/or potential role of economic incentives/disincentives on economic performance and on fishing capacity and fishing effort, will lead to a synthesis report on economic performance and the role of economic incentives/disincentives for marine capture fisheries. Similar work is planned for several coastal aquaculture systems. Finally, the pilot implementation of sustainability reference systems (SRS) of capture fisheries and aquaculture will be initiated in four coastal/river basin areas. Links will be maintained, as required, with other programme entities of the fisheries major programme.

234S1 - Promotion and Strengthening of Regional Fisheries Bodies and Arrangements and Field Programme Support

508. This technical services agreement covers advice and support to meetings of regional fisheries bodies and support to field projects and direct advice to Members, as relate to the issues addressed by Programme 2.3.4, including a component aimed at strengthening coordination in the Adriatic.

2000-01 Estimates by Funding Source, Unit and Region (US$ 000)
Funding Source Organizational Unit Region
Fund Total Unit Programme Trust Total Region Total
      of Work Fund      
Programme of Work   AFIP 243 0 243 Global 4 407
Regular Programme 9 123 FAOR 40 0 40 Inter Regional 1 885
ISP 55 FI 6 697 1 751 8 448 Africa 15 241
Other External Secondments 12 RAF 778 13 050 13 828 Asia and Pacific 1 059
Secondments to SPPD 33 RAP 301 0 301 Near East 612
Secondments to STS 20 RLC 217 0 217 Europe 3 388
Secondments to Trust Funds 61 RNE 98 197 295 Latin America 902
World Bank Other 55 SAFR 601 0 601    
Programme of Work 9 359 SAPA 49 0 49    
Trust Fund Activities   SLAC 335 0 335    
Trust Funds 18 135 TCO 0 3 137 3 137    
Trust Fund Activities 18 135            
Programme 2.3.4 Total 27 494   9 359 18 135 27 494   27 494

Programme 2.3.9: Programme Management

(All amounts in US$ 000)

  Programme Entity 1998-99 Programme of Work Programme Change 2000-01 Programme of Work Percent of Total Regional Office
2.3.9.1 Departmental Direction 2 968 (2 968) 0 0% 0%
2.3.9.2 Divisional Direction 1 482 (1 482) 0 0% 0%
2.3.9.3 Regional and Sub-regional Offices 764 (764) 0 0% 0%
2.3.9.S1 Departmental Direction 0 2 396 2 396 45% 0%
2.3.9.S2 Divisional Direction 0 1 927 1 927 36% 0%
2.3.9.S3 Regional and Sub-regional Direction 0 985 985 19% 99%
Total (zero real growth) 5 214 94 5 308 100% 18%
Cost Increases (zero real growth) (8)  
Total (zero real growth - recosted) 5 300  
Programme Change (zero nominal growth) (119)  
Total (zero nominal growth) 5 181  

509. This programme covers the immediate office of the Assistant Director-General, Fisheries Department, the offices of Division Directors and the costs for management of the regional fisheries activities at the Regional and Sub-regional Offices.

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