Smooth loofah

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I. GENERAL

COMMON NAME

Smooth Loofah

BOTANICAL NAME

Luffa cylindrica

FAMILY

Cucurbitaceae

OTHER NAMES

Dish cloth gourd, Sponge gourd, Rag gourd, Vegetable sponge; Thinga, Turai, Dhundal, Mozhuku, Peerkankai (India); Ketola, Mains (Malaysia); Pikku, Pichukku (Sri Lanka); Loffa, Sponge gourd, Patola (Philippines); Shui kwa (China) (Herklots).

CULTIVATION CONDITIONS

The loofah grows in tropical Asia and China. It tolerates a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, although excessive rainfall during flowering and fruiting period can cause damage to the yield (Tindall).

MAJOR PRODUCING

China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Hong Kong, Brazil, Caribbean.

DESCRIPTION AND YIELD

The fruits, between 1 and 2 ft long, become dry and fibrous. It is estimated that one plant, on average, will produce 20-25 fruits. The black seeds inside the fruit contain 37- 46% oil (Ecky, Tindall).

MAIN USES

The vegetable produces a number of different commodities. The fruit is often eaten fresh by local populations. More importantly, however, the internal tissue is extracted to produce the domestic loofah, during this process the seeds are often extracted and used to produce an edible oil (Herklots).

 

II. AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS

CULTIVATION

The crop is grown from seed, sown in ridges measuring 75-90cm. Seeds may also be sown in containers and then trans planted at a later date (Tindall).

Planting in Hong Kong takes place between mid May and mid September. In Japan the season takes place earlier, from March until April (Tindall).

Major pests; The plant is sometimes attacked by the Daccus spp. whose larvae tunnel through the fruit, contaminating it with rotting organisms (Tindall).

Diseases noted to affect the vegetable are, Powdery mildew and Downy mildew.

HARVESTING PERIOD

Harvesting usually takes place 100-120 days after sowing.

 

III. PROCESSING

The seeds used for oil extraction are often taken from the fruit during the manufacture of loofahs. The mature fruit is left on the vine to dry in the sun.

After a few days the outer layer is removed and the remaining fibrous skeleton is rested in water. The pulp can then be removed by hand, before the fruits are rested again. Drying then takes place, at which time the oil seeds are removed for extraction. Loofahs are bleached in the sun before being packed for export (Herklots). No information has been encountered on the methods used to extract the oil.

MAJOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF OIL

Palmitic acid 9.6%
Stearic acid 18.9%
Oleic acid 6.9%
Linoleic acid 64.6%

(Source: Ecky)

EQUIPMENT

Drying equipment, tanks or containers to hold water for resting stages.

There is a lack of identifiable information for the following areas: GENERAL, production; AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS, varieties and harvesting methods; POST HARVEST, pretreatment, preservation, storage methods and equipment; PROCESSING, processing methods, by products, nomenclature of products and equipment; OIL EXTRACTION, oil composition, processing methods, nomenclature of products, by products and equipment.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANON, "Under Exploited Tropical Crops with Promising Economic Value", pp.94-99, National Academy of Sciences, 3rd Print, 1977.

BUCHER, H. "Useful Plants of Neotropical Origin and Their Wild Relatives", SpringerVerlag, 1989.

ECKY, E.W. "Vegetable Fats and Oils", pp.709-712, Reinhold Publishing Corp, 1954.

HAMID, S. SABIR, A. W. SALMA. KHAN, S. A. "Agrochemical data on Cucurbita pepo", Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 31, 7, pp. 516-517, 1981.

HERKLOTS, G.A.C. "Vegetables in South East Asia", London George Allen and Unwin Ltd. 1972.

IRVINE. F.R. 1969. West African Crops. 3rd ed. Oxford Univ. Press. London.

MARTONFFY, B. "Certified cultivars: Oil Pumpkin", Kerteszet es Szoleszet, 35, 38, pp.89, 1986.

OKOLI, BOSA E. MGBEGU, C.M. "Fluted Pumpkin Telfairia occidentalis: West African Vegetable Crop", Economic Botany, 37, 2, pp. 145149, 1988.

PURSEGLOVE, J.W. "Tropical Crops Dicotlyedons", pp.122-123, Longman, 1987.

TINDALL, H.D. "Vegetables in the Tropics" Macmillan International College Edition, Macmillan Press, 1983.

VASCONCELLOS , J. A. BERNIS, W. BERRY, J.W. WEBER, C.W. "Buffalo Gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima HBK, as a Source of Edible Oil", From "New Sources of Fats and Oils" Edited by PRYDE, E.H. PRINCEN, L.H. MUKNERJEE, K.D. American Oil Chemists Society, 1981.

Grapeseed

I. GENERAL

COMMON NAME

Grapeseed

BOTANICAL NAME

Vitis vinifera

FAMILY

Vitaceae

OTHER NAMES

HABITAT

Temperate. Little growth takes place below 10C (Kinsella).

MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES

France, Spain, Italy, Chile, USA, Australia

YIELD AND DESCRIPTION

Grapeseeds are available as by products of the raisin, wine and juice industries. In general the seeds make up 3.5-4.5 of the fresh fruit weight. Each fruit contains, on average, 4 or 5 seeds. The oil content varies considerably between 6-21%, the average value being 15% (Ecky). Sweet wine grape seeds yield up to 20% oil while some black varieties are at the lower end of the range (Kinsella). Despite these low figures the total quantity of grapes produced is so huge that there is considerable potential for grapeseed oil extraction. The kernel is reported to make up 54-56% of the whole seed weight. World production is considerable. In 1983 Italy, France and Spain alone produced 42,000 tons (Casao).

MAIN USES

The oil has found use in soaps, paints and for food use. In recent years grape seed oil has become rather a nutritional speciality, it is recommended to be included in diets designed for lowering serum cholesterol (Godin). The cake remaining after oil extraction is used for combustion or animal feed. It has a fibre content of 25-45% and a protein level of 8-12% (Casao).

II. AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS

CULTIVATION

The cultivation of grapes is widely covered in the appropriate literature.

HARVESTING PERIOD

The harvesting period depends on the country of production.

HARVESTING METHODS

Most commonly by hand.

 

III. POST HARVEST PRE-TREATMENT, PROCESSING, STORAGE

PRE-TREATMENT

The seeds are best separated and dried quickly after the fruit has been processed in order to produce an oil with a low acid value. The grape residues are either subjected to wet de-seeding or dried and then de-seeded. In the wet process the wine pomace is run through revolving cylinders with a 3mm screen, which removes pulp then dried in rotary driers (Kinsella). Equipment is available for the extraction, cleaning and conservation of grape seeds.

A decorticating machine has been developed which worked with reasonable efficiency (Kinsella). However in 1983 it was reported that no viable method had yet been developed to separate the kernel from the seed coat, and so increase throughputs (Cacao).

 

IV. PROCESSING

OIL EXTRACTION

Traditionally the milled and heated seeds were pressed to extract the oil. Pressing of whole seeds in screw presses has been reported as unsatisfactory (Ecky) The older methods of oil extraction by pressing have now been almost totally replaced by solvent extraction after crushing in roller mills and heating to 100 C for 20mins. Oil yields of 65-75% are obtained with 5-6% oil remaining in the meal.

The crude oil is neutralised, bleached with activated carbon and clay and finally deodorized under vacuum. It has been suggested that refining can simply be limited to decolorization as the FFA's are low.

MAJOR FATTY ACID CONPOSITION OF OIL

Palmitic acid 4-11%
Stearic acid 2.5-5%
Oleic acid 12-33%
Linoleic acid 45-72%

(Ecky)

EQUIPMENT

Decorticators, rotary washers, presses, solvent extraction equipment, refining equipment

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CASAO, H.T., "Aceite de pepita de uva-presente, pasado y futuro", Alimentaria, 1983, Vol 141, p.17-31

ECKEY, E.W., Vegetable Fats and Oils, Reinhold Publishing Corp, 1954 p631- 633

GODIN, N.J. & SPENSLEY, P.C. Oils and Oilseeds, Crop and Product Digests No.1, Tropical Products Institute, 1971. pp50-52.

KINSELLA. J.E., "Grapeseed Oil"., Food Technology, May 1964.

LANZANI, A.et al, "Wet process for extraction of grape seed oil", Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, Vol 63, No.:6, p. 325-330

Illipe

I. GENERAL

COMMON NAME

Illipe

BOTANICAL NAME

Maduca longifolia

Maduca latifolia

FAMILY

Sapotaceae

OTHER NAMES

Mowha, Mahua, Mahwa (Hind)), Illipi, Illupai (Tamil), Mowrah butter nut

CULTIVATION CONDITIONS

The medium sized Illipe tree is found growing mainly in India. The two species have different growing conditions, M. logifolia grows in tropical monsoon forests while M. latifolia grows in N. India and has a degree of frost tolerance (Godin). The trees can withstand drought well and are often found in inaccessible places on land unsuitable for other crops ( (Ecky) .

MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES

INDIA: It is estimated that India could produce 400 000 tons of oil p.a. Actual production (1976-1984) ranged from 19 000 to 30 000 tons p.a.

DESCRIPTION AND YIELD

The tree produces between 9-45 kg of seeds or nuts and under good conditions will begin to bear fruit after 8-10 years and continue to do so for about 60 years. The fleshy fruits, between 2.5 and 5 cm long, contain 1-4 seeds. Each seed contains two kernels approx. 2.5 cm by 1.75 cm. The fruit to kernel ratio is 70% on a dry basis. The seed contains 55-60% fat.

MAIN USES

The kernels are not edible as they contain poisonous saponins. Crude Mowrah butter is used as a fat for spinning wool, for making candles and soap (Bring)). Mahwa flowers are either directly used for human consumption or as a raw material for the production of alcohol. The refined fat is used as an edible fat and vegetable ghee in India.

 

II. AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS

CULTIVATION

The tree can be planted from seed or stump plantings (Godin). M. longifolia is a large deciduous tree with a dense spreading crown. M. lati folia is often regarded as a variety of M. longifolia. (Godin). Planting from seed takes place between July and August. If the plants are transplanted they are placed in the ground during the first rainy season (Godin).

Major pests are various species of caterpillars, including, Achea jarsata, Angua multipilcans, Bombotelia nugatrix and Metanastria hyrtaca, which eat the leaves of M. Latifolia. M. longifolia is attacked by the sap sucker (Unaspis acuminate) and white ants (Optotemes ceylonicus) (Godin).

Major diseases affecting M. latifolia include: rust (Scopella echinulata), white spongy rot (Polystictus steinheilianus), white heart rot (Fornes caryophylli) and root and but rot (caused by Polyporus giluus) (Godin).

HARVESTING PERIOD

In northern India harvesting takes place between April and July.

In southern India the harvesting period is between August and September.

HARVESTING METHODS

The fruits are collected by shaking the tree or waiting until they have fallen naturally.

 

III. POST HARVEST TREATMENT: PRESERVATION, STORAGE

PRE-TREATMENT

The seeds are separated by pressing and are then sun dried.

During storage the kernels are susceptible to fungus and insect attack. Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus have been recorded together with the insect pest Oryzaephilus surinamensis. To prevent extensive damage the kernels should have a moisture content of 8% and if possible be treated with a persistent insecticide. Oil quality is much related to storage conditions. The FFA content of fresh kernels lies between 1 and 2% but can rise to 30% in poorly stored material. (Bring)).

 

IV. PROCESSING

The fruit's shell is removed by hand or by beating it with a mallet. Roller mills are also sometimes used for decortication. If solvent extraction is to be used to obtain the oil, the seeds are flaked beforehand (Godin).

 

V. OIL EXTRACTION

In rural areas, the oil is extracted using traditional Ghanis. Industrial processing involves the use of expellers with or without solvent extraction of the cakes. The yields obtained by each method are shown below.

Ghanis 20-30%
Expellers 34-37%
Solvent 40-43%

After extraction, the oil is refined using alcohol. The oil may be hydrogenated to produce a product similar to cocoa butter (Godin).

The press cake containing saponins is unsuitable for animal feed and is used as a fertiliser (Bring)).

MAJOR FATTY ACIDS OF OIL

Palmitic acid 23.7%
Stearic acid 19.3%
Oleic acid 43.3%
Linoleic acid 13.7%

(Source: Ecky)

EQUIPMENT

Roller mills, flaking machines.

Ghanis, Expellers ,Solvent and refining equipment.

Further information is required for the following areas: GENERAL, production; There is a lack of POST HARVEST, pretreatment; PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PROCESSING, nomenclature of products.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BRINGI, N.V. MEHTA, D.T. "Maduca indica Seed Fat - Mowrah", pp.57-70, "Non Traditional Oilseeds and Oils of India", Oxford & IBH Pubs Co. Pvt Ltd. 1987.

ECKY, E.W. "Vegetable Fats and Oils", pp.709-712, Reinhold Publishing Corp, 1954.

GODIN, N.J. SPENSLEY, P.C. "Oils and Oilseeds", pp.61-65, Crop and Product Digests No. 1. Tropical Products Institute, 1971.

PURSEGLOVE, J.W. "Tropical Crops: Dicotyledons", Longman, 1985.

Kusum

I. GENERAL

COMMON NAME

Kusum

BOTANICAL NAME

Schleichera triguga

FAMILY

Sapindaceae

OTHER NAMES

Macassar, Lac tree, Ceylon oak

HABITAT

Tropical

MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES

India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Java

YIELD AND DESCRIPTION

The Kusum tree grows to a height of 35-45 ft. and bears a fruit with a pulpy edible aril containing one or two almost round seeds some 1.5cm in diameter and weighing between 0.5 and 1.0g. The fruit pulp is much appreciated by local people for its refreshing acid taste. The kernels comprise 60-65% of the seed weight and contain between 59% and 72% fat (Ecky).

The kernels also contain cyanolipids that can produce HCN up to 0.5% of the kernel weight. The presence of these uncommon compounds has been found in most members of the Sapindaceaea family (Ecky).

In the past Kusum oil was exported from India to Germany. This market has now fallen away. Current (1979) production in India is 4000-5000 tons (Bring)). The tree has economic import-ance as it is a host to the insects that produce a laquer gum of high quality (Nasirullah).

MAIN USES

The oil is used in the localities where it is extracted as a medicinal oil, a hair dressing and for soap. Conventional saponification is not favoured due to the presence of up to 1.2% HCN in the effluent. Despite its toxic nature in some areas of Mexico its use as an edible oil has been reported. Mexico has been reported (Kundu). A number of references exist describing analytical methods to detect adulteration of edible oils with Kusum Oil (Nasirullah).

 

II. AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS

CULTIVATION

No information identified.

HARVESTING PERIOD

In India June/July

HARVESTING METHODS

The fruits are hand plucked from the trees.

 

III. POST HARVEST PRE-TREATMENT, PROCESSING, STORAGE

PRE-TREATMENT

Harvested fruits are depulped by soaking in water and hand rubbing the pulp after which they are dried. One person can produce 7-11 kg. of pulped seed /day.

 

IV. PROCESSING

OIL EXTRACTION

Oil is extracted in ghanis and small village expellers with yields of 25-27% and 36% respectively (Bring)).

MAJOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF OIL

EQUIPMENT

Expellers, ghanis

NOMENCLATURE OF PRODUCTS

Macasser oil, Lac.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BRINGI, N.V. "Non-Traditional Oilseeds and Oils in India", Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. Ltd.. New Delhi, India pp 168-191. ECKEY, E.W. Vegetable Fats and Oils, Reinhold Publishing pp. 627-630

HILDITCH, Chemical Contribution of Natural Fats. p. 189.

KUNDU,M.K.; "Solvent crystallisation of the fatty acids of Schleichera trijuga seed", Fette, Seifen, Anstrichmittel, Vol 72, No.: 12, p 1029-1031, 1970.

NASIRULLAH NAGARAJA, K.V.; "Detection of presence of toxic oils in edible vegetable oils", Oleagineux, Vol 42, No.: 1, p.35-38, 1987.

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