Non-Wood Forest Products - A Regional Expert Consultation for English-Speaking African Countries

Table of Contents

Arusha, Tanzania
17-22 October 1993


Agriculture Programme

Organized by

Commonwealth Science Council
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

In co-operation with

Ministry of Tourism, Natural Resources and Environment, Tanzania

Series Number CSC(94)AGR-21
Technical Paper 306

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.

Table of Contents

Regional Expert Consultation on Non-Wood Forest Products for English-Speaking African Countries

1. Introduction
2. Overview of non-wood forest products
3. Country reports on non-wood forest products
4. Case studies related to non-wood forest products

4.1 Monetary Valuation of Tree-Based Resources in Zimbabwe: Experience and Outlook
4.2 Pines and Eucalyptus - Sources of Non-Wood Forest Product in Africa

5. Major issues related to non-wood forest products
6. Outcome of group discussions

6.1 Definition & Classification
6.2 Integrated Management of Natural Forests and Other Ecosystems
6.3 Domestication
6.4 Harvesting and Processing
6.5 Utilization, Trade & Marketing
6.6 Institutions

7. Conclusions
ANNEX I: Regional Expert Consultation on Non-Wood Forest Products for English-Speaking African Countries - Programme
ANNEX II: Regional Expert Consultation on Non-Wood Forest Products for English-Speaking African Countries - List of Participants
ANNEX III: Important non-wood forest benefits in selected countries in Africa
ANNEX IV: List of reports

1. Opening ceremony speech

2. Issues involved in the sustainable development of non-wood forest products

Issues Involved in the Sustainable Development of Non-Wood Forest Products
Situation of Non Wood Forest Products in Africa
Constraints to the Development of Non-Wood Forest Products
Integrated Management of Natural Forests
Cultivation of Non-Wood Forest Products
Harvesting of Non-Wood Forest Products
Processing of non-wood forest products
Markets and marketing of non-wood forest products
Research and improvement of technology
Institutional support for development of non-wood forest products
Major areas of action
Selected references

3. Non-Wood Forest Products in Africa: an Overview

1- Introduction
2- Definitions of non-wood forest products
3- The importance of non-wood forest products
4- The way ahead
5- Conclusion

4. Pilot country study on non-wood forest products: Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Pilot country study - Lesotho

The Use of NWFP in Lesotho
Vegetal NWFP
Faunal NWFP
Forestry services
The Importance of NWFP in Lesotho
NWFP of Relevance in Lesotho
Technical Description
Renewability and Sustainability
Environmental Implications
Problems and Constraints
ANNEX I: Classification of NWFP
ANNEX II: Statistical Data on NWFP

Pilot country study - Malawi

(ii) Acknowledgement
(iii) Summary
1.0 Introduction
2.0 General background information
3.0 Forest resources of Malawi
4.0 Non-wood forest products in Malawi

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Importance of NWFP in Malawi
4.3 Significance of NWFP to rural communities in Malawi.
4.4 Proposed development of NWFP in Malawi

5.0 Conclusion and recommendations
Annex 1: Importance of NWFP in the Northern Central and Southern Regions of Malawi
Annex 2: Map of Malawi

Pilot country study - South Africa

Vegetal NWFP
Faunal non-wood forest products
Forestry services
Assessment of the importance of NWFP in South Africa
Relevant NWFP in local communities
Vegetal NWFP
Faunal NWFP
Technical description
Cultural practices
Processing and storage
Renewability and sustainability
Environmental implications
Problems and constraints
Annex I: Classification of NWFP
Annex II: Statistical data on NWFP

Pilot country study - Tanzania

Acronyms and Abbreviations and Rates of Exchange
Terms of Reference
1. Introduction

1.1 Size of the country
1.2 Ecological zones
1.3 Forested areas
1.4 Population Statistics
1.5 Forests as source of non wood products

2. Definitions, classification of non wood forest products

2.1 Definitions
2.2 Classification

3. Socio-economic importance of non wood forest products

3.1 At Community Level
3.2 At National Level

4. Institutional responsibility

4.1 Organisational structure
4.2. Human Resources involvement
4.3 Efficiency and impact
4.4 Policy and legislation

5. Technical Aspects

5.1 Major NWFP
5.2 Geographical distribution
5.3 Yield/Management of principal resource base

6. Main problems and constraints

6.1 Resource base
6.2 National capacity

7. Recommendations

7.1 Improved Resource Base
7.2 Improved national capacity

8. Conclusion
ANNEX I. Classification of NWFP in Tanzania
ANNEX II. Statistical data on NWFP
ANNEX III. Contribution of international tourism to Tanzania economy
Project profiles

Pilot country study - Uganda

Executive summary
1. Introduction
2. Edible plants in Uganda

2.1 Cultural aspects to some local plant species

3. Bee-keeping and honey collection

3.1 Wild plants and bee-keeping
3.2 Sustainability bee-keeping and honey-hunting

4. Wild plants and basketry

4.1 Granaries
4.2 Sustainability: basketry resources

5. Bamboo
6. Traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia in Uganda
7. Traditional medical practioners (TMP's and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA's) (Midwives)

7.1 Sustainability: Traditional medicines

8. Traditional Veterinary Medicines
9. Forest birds of Uganda
10. Mammals
11. Natural gum and resins in Uganda

11.1 Physical and chemical properties of local gums
11.2 Market evaluation
11.3 Production of gum arabic

12. New national products with commercial potential
13. Biological diversity (biodiversity) in Uganda

13.1 Biodiversity conservation in Uganda

14. Conclusion
15. Recommendations edible plants in Uganda

15.1 Edible plants in Uganda
15.2 Beekeeping and honey collection
15.3 Basketry and granaries
15.4 Bamboo
15.5 Medicinal plants
15.6 Birds
15.7 Mammals
15.8 Natural gum and resins
15.9 New natural products with commercial potential

16. References

Pilot Country Study - Zambia

Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive summary
1.0 Introduction

1.1 General
1.2 Geographical description
1.3 Forestry sector

2.0 Definition and classification

2.1 Food security
2.2 Traditional medicines
2.3 Construction materials
2.4 Manufacture of other items
2.5 Income generation

3.0 Identification
4.0 Institutional aspects

4.1 Institutional responsibility
4.2 Legislation
4.3 Policy
4.4 Training Research and development

5.0 Problems and constraints

5.1 Lack of information
5.2 Shortage of manpower
5.3 Inadequate funding
5.4 Infrastructure
5.5 Poor economic environment
5.6 Under developed marketing structure

6.0 Technical description

6.1 Beekeeping
6.2 Basket making
6.3 Munkoyo (Sweet Beer)
6.4 Masuku

7.0 Statistical data
8.0 Recommendations

8.1 Infrastructure
8.2 Manpower
8.3 Financial assistance
8.4 Information distribution system

9.0 Conclusion
10.0 Bibliography

Pilot country study - Zimbabwe

1. Introduction
2. Environmental and socio-economic background
3. Non-wood forest products and their importance

3.1 Introduction and definitions
3.2 Importance of products in the large-scale sector
3.3 Importance of products in the small-scale sector
3.4 Importance of service functions of forest lands
3.5 General discussion and relative importance in relation to wood products

4. Institutional responsibility for non-wood forest products

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Ministry of lands, agriculture and rural resettlement
4.3 Ministry of environment and tourism
4.4 Ministry of finance, economic planning and development
4.5 Universities
4.6 Non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and voluntary organisations
4.7 Institutional gaps

5. Legislation relevant to non-wood forest products
6. Key non-wood forest products and their exploitation

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Wild fruits
6.3 Mushrooms and insects
6.4 Craftwork
6.5 Medicines
6.6 Institutional arrangements for the exploitation of new forest products

7. Problems and constraints
8. Recommendations
9. Acknowledgements
10. References

5. Monetary valuation of tree-based resources in Zimbabwe: experience and outlook

1. Introduction
2. Why value natural resources?
3. Potential valuation methodologies
4. Results from resource valuation exercises in Zimbabwe
5. Outlook
6. Acknowledgements
7. References

6. Pines and eucalyptus - sources of non-wood forest products in Africa

Gum naval stores - the production of turpentine and rosin from pine resin
Eucalyptus oil - its production from Eucalyptus leaf

7. Gum Arabic Report from Sudan


8. Information notes on statistical information

9. Dependency on forest and trees for food security

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background and Justification
1.2 Description of the region

1.2.1 Background to the pilot study

1.3 Objectives

1.3.1 General objectives
1.3.2 Specific objectives

1.4 Methodology

1.4.1 Selection of Study area.
1.4.2 Teamwork and Field Implementation.

2.0 Characteristics and Historical Background of the Study Villages.

2.1 Social Services

3.0 Agricultural Production and Sources of Income

3.1 Main Staples.
3.2 Labour demand
3.3 Livestock
3.4 Domesticated Fruits

4.0 Forestry and Forest Products

4.1 Use of forest foods

4.1.1 Fruits
4.1.2 Root products
4.1.3 Vegetables
4.1.4 Animal Products
4.1.5 Honey

4.2 Medicinal use.
4.3 Preferences and trends.
4.4 Food shortages and crisis.

5.0 Current and emerging issues
6.0 Comparisons between the two villages

(i) Based on: (1) availability of resources.
(ii) Based on: (2) use of resources.

7.0 Comments from the participants on the rap method
8.0 Preliminary conclusions