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Malaysia

Poh Lye Yong
Forest Economist
Forestry Department, Malaysia

Introduction
Rattan
Bamboo
Medicinal plants
Promotion of non-wood forest products
References
Appendix 1
Appendix 2

Introduction

In Malaysia, minor forest products are defined as all forest products other than logs because of their relatively small contribution to revenue generation. The term "minor forest product" has recently been replaced by a more appropriate term, "non-wood forest product," recognizing that these products are important for their market and non-market values. Non-wood forest products include rattan, bamboo, firewood, charcoal, damar, palm, wood-oil, gums, resins, medicinal plants and others. This paper will discuss only rattan and bamboo (two of the most important and valuable non-wood forest products) and medicinal plants.

Royalties collected from non-wood forest products contribute substantially to the revenue of each state. On average (1981 to 1990), rattan contributed about 13.8 percent of the total royalties collected from non-wood forest products, while bamboo accounted for about 71 percent.

In addition, these two products are foreign exchange earners: earnings from rattan increased from US$ 3 million (M$8 million) in 1981 to US$ 26.5 million (M$71.5 million) in 1990. Foreign exchange earnings from bamboo increased from US$ 81,150 (M$219,106) in 1988 to US$ 176,474 (M$476,480) in 1990.

Besides generating revenue and being important foreign exchange earners, these two forest industries employ 24,370 individuals, mostly rural people, in 1,685 factories.

These factories primarily focus on handicraft production with little interest in venturing into manufacturing furniture or higher value bamboo products marketed locally or to neighboring countries. Nonetheless, these small industries play a significant role in raising the living standards of the rural people.

Other social benefits contributed by non-wood forest products include various kinds of environmental protection. The dense interlocking root system of bamboo, for example, prevents soil erosion and minimizes damage from floods.

Rattan

Resources

Of the approximately 600 species of rattan in the world, 104 species, belonging to 8 genera, are found in the forests of Malaysia (Appendix 1). Only 21 of these species, however, are currently utilized and marketed (Dransfield, 1979). The most important rattans and their main uses are shown in Table 1.

In Peninsular Malaysia, rattan is sometimes found together with bamboo. In Sarawak, rattan is found both in swamp and hill forests.

Table 1. Major commercial rattan species in Malaysia

Species

Local name

Uses

Calamus manan

Rotan manau

Furniture

C. caesius

Rotan sega

Binding and weaving basket ware

C. scipionum

Rotan semambu

Walking sticks, umbrella handles

C. ornatus

Rotan dok

Cheap furniture

Korthalsia spp.

Rotan dahan

Cheap furniture, broom handles

Source: Department of Forestry, Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah

Table 2. Rattan resources in virgin and logged-over forests of Malaysia, millions of clumps (3 meters per clump average)

Forest types

C. manan

C. caesium

C. scipionum

C. ornatus

Korthalsia spp.

Total

Peninsular

Malaysia

Virgin forest

129.3

18.0

38.4

74.6

69.9

330.0

Logged-over forest

124.4

48.8

59.4

41.2

93.7

367.5

Sub total

254.6

66.8

97.8

115.7

163.5

697.5

Sarawak

Virgin forest

270.8

37.6

80.4

156.2

146.4

691.4

Logged-over forests

138.1

54.2

66.0

45.7

104.0

408.0

Sub total

408.9

91.8

146.4

201.9

250.4

1,099.4

Sabah

Virgin forest

69.1

9.6

20.5

39.9

37.3

176.4

Logged-over forest

116.3

45.6

55.6

35.5

87.6

343.6

Sub total

185.4

55.2

76.1

78.4

124.9

520.0

Malaysia-Total

Virgin forest

468.1

65.2

139.3

270.6

253.6

1,197.8

Logged-over forest

378.8

148.6

181.0

125.4

285.3

1,119.1

Total

847.9

213.8

320.3

396.0

538.8

2,316.9

Source: Department of Forestry. Peninsular Malaysia. Sarawak and Sabah.

Table 3. Estimated rattan clumps (3m/clump) per hectare in virgin and logged-over forest in Malaysia

Forest types

C. manan

C. caesius

C. scipionum

C. orantus

Korthalisia spp.

Virgin Forest

55.7

7.7

16.5

32.1

30.1

Logged-over Forests

40.4

15.8

19.3

13.4

30.4

Source: Department of Forestry Peninsular Malaysia Sarawak and Sabah

The Second National Forest Inventory of Malaysia (1981 to 1982) describes rattan resources. The total estimated stock of rattan is 2.3 billion clumps, (3m/clump), consisting of 847.9 million clumps (36.6 percent) of Calamus manan, 213.8 million clumps (9.2 percent) of C. caesius, 320.3 million clumps (13.8 percent) of C. scipionum, 396.0 million clumps (17.1 percent) of C. ornatus and 538.8 million clumps (23.3 percent) of Korthalsia spp. (Table 2).

C. manan and C. ornatus are mainly found in the virgin forests, while C. caesius, C. scipionum and Korthalsia spp. grow in logged-over forests (Table 3).

Most of Malaysia's rattan is found in Sarawak (47.5 percent), followed by Peninsular Malaysia (30.1 percent) and Sabah (22.4 percent). About 51.7 percent of the rattan clumps are in virgin forests.

The total value of rattan growing stock, based on the prevailing market price for each species is US$ 1.4 billion (M$3.7 billion). C. manan accounts for US$ 942.2 million (M$2.5 billion); C. casesius for US$ 35.6 million (M$96.2 million); C. scipionum for US$ 89.0 million (M$240.2 million); C. ornatus for US$ 190.7 million (M$514.8 million); and Korthalsai spp. for US$ 99.8 million (M$269.7 million) (Table 4).

The total estimated value of the rattan growing stock in Peninsular Malaysia is US$ 400.1 million (M$ 1.1 billion). Sarawak's growing stock is valued at US$ 653.9 (M$ 1.8 billion) and Sabah's at US$ 297.2 million (M$0.8 billion).

Rattan Plantations

In Malaysia, large-scale rattan plantations were started some 10 years ago, mainly in logged-over forests. Lately, they also have been planted in rubber smallholdings to supplement the incomes of the planters.

Between 1980 and 1990, 15,615.1 hectares of rattan plantations were established, with 5,031 hectares (32.2 percent) in Peninsular Malaysia, 224 hectares (1.4 percent) in Sarawak and 10,360 hectares (66.4 percent) in Sabah. Of this total, 14,031 hectares (89.9 percent) were planted in logged-over forests and the balance, 1,584 hectares (10.1 percent), in rubber smallholdings.

About 69.6 percent of the logged-over forests planted with rattan is in Sabah, followed by Peninsular Malaysia with 28.8 percent and Sarawak with 1.6 percent. Peninsular Malaysia has 62.1 percent of the rattan planted in rubber smallholdings, with the rest in Sabah. No rattan has been planted in rubber smallholdings in Sarawak (Table 5).

Under the Sixth Malaysia Plan (1991 to 1995), 26,100 hectares of rattan plantation are expected to be established in Peninsular Malaysia. Of this total, 15,500 hectares are to be planted by the Forest Department, 4,600 hectares by the Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority (RISDA), 2,000 hectares each by the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA), the Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority (FELCRA), and the private sector. About 22,100 hectares of the total area will be planted with C. manan and the balance with C. caesius.

Table 4. Value of rattan resources in Malaysia, 1989 (thousand M$)

Region

Calamus manan

Calamus caesius

Calamus scipionum

Calamus ornatus

Korthalsia spp.

Total

P. Malaysia

760,947

30,047

73,363

150,459

81,768

1,096,584

Sarawak

1,226,706

41,321

109,792

262,495

125,185

1,765,499

Sabah

556,194

24,857

57,071

101,860

62,464

802,446

Malaysia

2,543,847

96,225

240,226

514,814

269,417

3,664,529

Source: Department of Forestry, Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah.
Note: 1 US$ = M$ 2.70 in 1990

Table 5. Areas planted with rattan in Malaysia, 1980-1990 (hectares)

Region

Logged-over forests

Rubber small holdings

Total

P. Malaysia

4,046.4

984.4

5,030.8

Sarwak

224.0

0

224.0

Sabah

9,760.3

600.0

10,360.3

Total

14,030.7

1,584.4

15,615.1

Source: Ministry of Primary Industries

In Sabah, the Sabah Forestry Development Authority (SAFODA) plans to plant 15,000 hectares of rattan in addition to the 7,000 hectares of C. insignis already planted in natural forests. Rattan planting triads have been initiated in Sarawak and commercial planting of rattan will commence over an area of 2,800 hectares during the Sixth Malaysia Plan period.

Harvesting

In Peninsular Malaysia, a license is required to harvest rattan from the forest. A monthly fee of M$5 per person is charged by the Forest Department. In Sarawak, a monthly fee of M$ 1 is charged for collection of rattan. No permit is required if rattan is collected for domestic Use. A permit and license is required in Sabah for the extraction of rattan. The monthly fee is M$5 per person.

Harvesting rattan in the forest consists of dragging the rattan out of the canopy, removing dead leaf sheaths and debris, discarding the upper 2 to 3 meters, and cutting the cane into lengths suitable for bundling and transporting to the processors. Removal of leaf sheaths and debris is Usually carried out by coiling the rattan stem around a small tree trunk and pulling it. Big stem rattan is usually cut into 3-meter lengths, while small stem rattan is usually cut into 9-meter lengths, bent into two and bound into bundles. The cutting is done as the rattan is pulled.

Cutting of rattan is done mostly by forest dwellers. Normally a group of 10 people stays for a week or two in the forest to gather rattan. About 2,000 rattan sticks are usually extracted during the dry season by each cutter.

Production and Revenues

Direct production data are not available because of variations in the units of measurement used in Peninsular Malaysia. However, production levels can be indirectly ascertained by reviewing the royalties collected by the Forestry Department, Peninsular Malaysia.

Fees vary according to state and species. On average, however, the rate for C. manan and C. caesius is M$0.20 per meter and M$0.10 per meter respectively.

Royalties collected from rattan in Peninsular Malaysia averaged US$ 57,131 (M$154,254) per year between 1981 and 1990 (Table 6). Rattan contributed between 9.2 and 23.2 percent of the total of all non-wood forest products royalties from 1981 to 1990.

Table 6. Royalties collected for rattan, Peninsular Malaysia, 1981-1990

Year

Rattan(M$)

Total Non-Wood Forest Products (M$)

Contribution of rattan to total Non-Wood Forest Products (percent)

1981

179,374

1,687,714

10.6

1982

131,562

841,713

15.6

1983

119,430

874,225

13.7

1984

117,604

1,041,395

11.3

1985

97,706

934,986

10.5

1986

94,333

893,307

10.6

1987

236,486

1,128,186

21.0

1988

162,051

1,339,604

12.1

1989

286,975

1,238,404

23.2

1990

117,013

1,279,306

9.2

Source: Department of Forestry, Peninsular Malaysia
Note: Total non-wood forest products column includes royalties from firewood, charcoal, rattan, bamboo, damar, palm and wood-oil

Although rattan is heavily exploited in Sarawak, there are no records of production levels. The reason is that royalties are not collected by the state for this forest product. In Sabah, royalties collected from rattan are lumped under miscellaneous forest revenue. The present rate is M$400 per ton, irrespective of species.

Production of rattan can also be ascertained from the estimated monthly production figures for the country. Monthly production of C. manan is about 2 million sticks (3-meter length per stick); for C. caesius, monthly production is 60 tons. Details of other rattan species are shown in Table 7.

Table 7. Estimated monthly production of rattan, Malaysia, 1987

Species

Quantity

C. manan

2 million sticks

C. scipionum

1 million sticks

C. ornatus

2 million sticks

Korthalsia spp.

1.8-2 million sticks

C. caesius

60 tons

C. insignis

800 tons

Source: Rattan Manufacturers Association of Malaysia

Industry

At present, there are 653 rattan mills throughout the country manufacturing rattan furniture and rattan products such as walking sticks, rattan balls, baskets, toys and mats. Of this total, 46 percent are classified as cottage enterprises, 34 percent as small-scale enterprises, and the remainder as medium and large-scale enterprises (Razak, Hamdan and Latif, 1989).

About 15.5 percent (101 mills) are involved in rattan processing, 12.6 percent (82 mills) operate in both processing and manufacturing, and the remaining 71.9 percent (470 mills) are involved only in manufacturing. The industry employs 16,120 people. Cottage enterprises employ 4 to 5 workers each, small-scale factories employ 10 to 20 workers each, and medium-scale or large-scale firms employ 50 to 100 workers each, (Razak, Hamdan and Latif, 1989).

Trade

Malaysia exports rattan in two forms, whole rattan and split rattan. As such, the country has lost substantially in terms of potentially higher export earnings from value-added products.

In 1981, rattan exports accounted for 0.2 percent of the total export value of forest products. The level of contribution rose until it peaked in 1988 at 1.14 percent. This sharp increase in the export value of rattan in 1987 and 1988 is attributed to the high price of whole rattan and split rattan. The FOB price of whole rattan increased from M$1,915 per ton in 1987 to M$2,754 in 1988, while the FOB prices of split rattan rose from M$1,468 per ton to M$2,878 per ton. One reason for the increase in price was Indonesia's 1986 ban on the export of rattan not processed beyond fine polishing or converted into furniture parts.

Malaysia's export of whole rattan, split rattan and rattan furniture increased from US$ 3 million (M$8 million) in 1981 to US$ 26.5 million (M$71.5 million) in 1990. There was a surge in rattan exports in 1987, when the exports rose to US$ 18.9 million (M$51.1 million). This rise was caused by a 547 percent increase in the export of whole canes in 1987 as compared with 1986 and a 57.6 percent increase in the exports of rattan furniture during the same period. Since 1987, exports of whole and split rattan are decreasing, while exports of rattan furniture are rising.

In volume, Malaysia's exports of whole rattan and split rattan increased from 9,413 tons in 1981 to 26,185 tons in 1989, then decreased to 7,785 tons in 1990. The sudden drop was the result of the fall in the exports of whole rattan (Table 8).

To encourage the domestic processing of rattan, an export duty of M$1,350 per ton was imposed in October 1981. This was increased to M$2,700 per ton in August 1987. The export of raw rattan was banned in December 1989. The ban is meant to ensure a consistent supply of raw material at reasonable prices to meet the Industrial Master Plan export target of M$400 million worth of rattan furniture by 1995.

Whole canes are exported mainly to Singapore and Taiwan. Split rattan is exported mainly to Singapore, with lesser volumes exported to Taiwan, the Philippines, and the Netherlands. Major importers of rattan furniture are the United Kingdom, the United States, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Australia, Belgium, Sweden and Singapore.

Bamboo

Resources

Seven genera, with 44 species, of bamboo are known in Malaysia (Appendix 2), but only 12 are commercially utilized. Table 9 lists the most common species.

In Malaysia, bamboo is common from sea level up to 1,000 meters. Bamboo occurs in significant quantities in disturbed areas such as logged-over forests, wasteland or in marginal localities fringing the forest, river banks and hill slopes. It grows in pure stands or with other tree species in the forest. It does not favor water-logged conditions and is seldom found in swampy areas. Bamboo is commonly cultivated in the rural areas for daily use by local communities and in urban areas as ornamental plants.

As with rattan, information on distribution in natural forests is lacking. Distribution can be estimated from data in the Second National Forest Inventory (1981 to 1982). The estimated number of bamboo sticks per hectare according to forest types and species is shown in Table 10.

Table 8. Volume of rattan exports from Malaysia, 1981-1990

Year

Whole cane (tons)

Percent of total

Split cane (tons)

Percent of total

Total (tons)

1981

8,980.00

95.4

432.86

4.6

9,412.72

1982

5.992.39

92.7

474.00

7.3

6,466.39

1983

4,140.28

84,7

749.77

15.3

4,890.05

1984

2,663.53

75.8

852.64

24.2

3,516.17

1985

2,996.69

79.8

757.59

20.2

3,754.28

1986

4,496.98

85.5

760.65

14.5

5,257.63

1987

20,472.91

97.4

548.52

2.6

21,021.43

1988

16,310.36

77.6

300.47

1.4

16,610.83

1989

25,516.19

97.4

668.51

2.6

26,184.70

1990

6,695.53

86,0

1,089.78

14.0

7,785.31

Source: Department of Statistics

Table 9. Commercially utilized bamboos in Malaysia

Species

Local names

Uses

Bambusa blumeana

Buluh duri

toothpicks, furniture, musical instruments, shoots as food

B. heterostachya

Buluh galah

toothpicks, chopsticks, blinds

B. vulgaris

Buluh minyak

paper, furniture

Dendrocalamus asper

Buluh belong

fences, bridges, baskets, shoots as food

Gigantochloa scortechinii

Buluh semantan

satay sticks, toothpicks, blinds

Schizostachyum brachycladum

Buluh nipis

chopsticks, handicrafts

Table 10. Estimated number of bamboo sticks (6m/stick) per hectare by forest types in Malaysia

Forest types

D. asper

Other species over 3 cm in diameter

Other species less than 3 cm in diameter

Virgin forest

42.9

53.55

80.5

Logged-over forest

61.4

2.40

45.0

Source: Department of Forestry, Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sahab

The estimated number of bamboo poles (at least 6 meters in length) in Malaysia is 2.7 billion sticks. This is comprised of 839.1 million sticks of Dendrocalamus asper, 843.1 million sticks of other species with diameters more than 3 centimeters, and 980.2 million sticks of other species with diameters less than 3 centimeters. D. asper and other species with diameters more than 3 centimeters are found in abundance in logged-over forests. Other species with diameters less than 3 centimeters are more commonly found in virgin forests.

About 31 percent of Malaysia's bamboo sticks are found in Peninsular Malaysia, 45 percent in Sarawak and 24 percent in Sabah.

In terms of weight, the estimated bamboo in Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah is 10.3 million tons, 14.9 million tons and 8.1 million tons, respectively, for a total of 33.3 million tons (Table 11). The estimated market value is US$ 862.8 million (M$2.3 million). The virgin forests of Malaysia produce 16.3 million tons of bamboo, while the balance of 17.0 million tons is from logged-over forests.

Table 11. Estimated wet weight and value of bamboo resources in Malaysia, 1989


Wet weight (1000 tons)

Value (1000 m$)

P. Malaysia

10,297

720,790

Sarawak

14,893

1,042,510

Sabah

8,091

566,370

Malaysia-Total

33,281

2,329,670

Source: Department of Forestry, Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah
Note: 1 ton = 80 sticks of wet bamboo with lengths of 6 meters. The ex-mill price of wet bamboo in 1989 was M$70 per ton.

Bamboo Plantations

Planting of bamboo on a large-scale has been done only by Forest Departments and the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia. Although there are no plantations in Malaysia, bamboo is cultivated by rural folk along their rice fields and around their homes. As bamboo does not require much land, logged-over forests can be allocated.

Harvesting

Permits are required for the extraction of bamboo from the forest. The monthly fee is M$5 per person. Other sources of bamboo are land under FELDA, FELCRA rural development schemes, river banks, hill sides and ridge tops. Harvesting of bamboo is usually done during the dry season when the starch content is lower and borer attacks are fewer. Bamboo must be processed within three days after harvesting as it is prone to discoloration.

Production

Production figures for bamboo are not available and can only be estimated by examining the royalties collected for Peninsular Malaysia (Table 12). Rates vary according to condition and length. The average rate ranges from 2 to 6 cents per pole.

Royalties averaged US$ 29,002 (M$78,306) between 1981 and 1990. Royalties collected for bamboo contributed 5.3 to 11.6 percent of the total collected from non-wood forest products. Based on the average royalty rate of 4 cents per pole, the estimated annual production of bamboo is 2 million sticks or 25,000 tons. Thus the annual production value is US$ 64,815 (M$175,000).

Table 12. Royalties collected for bamboo, Peninsular Malaysia, 1981-1990

Year

Bamboo (M$)

Total non-wood forest products (M$)

Contribution of bamboo to total non-wood forest products (percent)

1981

101.232

1,687,714

6.0

1982

97,402

841,713

11,0

1983

75,909

874,225

8.7

1984

76,112

1,041,395

7.3

1985

68,128

934,986

7.3

1986

59,067

893,307

6.6

1987

65,591

1,128,186

5.8

1988

70,902

1,339,604

5.3

1989

89,358

1,238,404

7.2

1990

79,359

1,279,306

6.2

Source: Department of Forestry, Peninsular Malaysia.
Note: total non-wood forest products column includes royalties front firewood, charcoal, rattan, bamboo, damar, palm and wood-oil

Industry

There are about 1,032 bamboo processing factories in Malaysia. At present, the industry mainly manufactures finished products such as satay sticks, toothpicks, chopsticks, bamboo splits, basketry, handicrafts, and furniture meant for the domestic market. Most of these mills are small and found in the west coast states of Peninsular Malaysia which offers bigger market potential, more developed infrastructure, communication services and other supporting services.

Of the 1,032 mills, 694 (67.3 percent) are engaged in handicraft making, 336 mills (32.5 percent) make disposable utensils such as skewers, chopsticks and toothpicks, and 2 mills (0.2 percent) make furniture.

The work force in the bamboo factories is comprised primarily of rural housewives and children who work during free time to supplement their family income. The labor force in the bamboo industry is 8,250 persons.

Trade

Exports of bamboo from Malaysia increased from 483.7 tons, valued at M$219,106 (US$ 81,150) in 1988 to 585.6 tons valued at M$476,480 (US$ 176,474) in 1990 (Table 13).

Table 13. Volume and value of bamboo exports from Malaysia, 1988-1990

Year

Volume (tons)

Value (MS)

1988

483.70

219,106

1989

453.27

296,553

1990

585.56

476,480

Source: Department of Statistics

In 1988, the main importers of bamboo were Singapore (importing 47.1 percent of the total export volume) and South Korea (with 25.9 percent). The main markets for Malaysia's bamboo in 1990 were Singapore (30.2 percent), United Arab Emirates (27.6 percent) and Taiwan (25.7 percent).

Medicinal plants

Resources

Malaysia is blessed with an abundant and diverse flora, much of which is believed to possess medicinal value. Most of these potentially useful plant resources grow wild in the lowland and hill dipterocarp forests, which are under serious threat of being replaced by mono-specific tree crops (rubber and oil palm), intensive logging or conversion to non-forestry land uses such as hydroelectric dams and rural settlements.

Plant species from the families Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Graminae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Simaroubiaceae, Vitaceae, Malavaceae, Palmae and Rubiaceae are commonly used to treat various ailments and diseases. These include diarrhoea, skin problems, headache, fever, cough, wounds, hypertension, diabetes, and rheumatism. Certain products derived from medicinal plants are of economic value and have been traded for a long time. Some of these products and their uses are shown in Table 14.

Harvesting

Forest medicinal plants (roots, barks, stems, leaves, fruit and flowers) are usually collected by the aboriginal communities and sold to the traditional practitioners in fresh or dried form. The fresh or dried parts of the forest medicinal plants are boiled or pounded to extract their juices and mixed with other forest plants. The "processed" forest plants are either applied externally or taken orally.

Production

No production figures are available because no royalty is collected, but a license is required for extraction. Forest medicinal plants are primarily used by aboriginal communities, especially those who live deep in the jungle where medical help is not available.

Widespread use of forest medicinal plants may increase their economic value, but uncontrolled collection of these products can damage the ecosystem.

Promotion of non-wood forest products

Following are ways to promote non-wood forest products in Malaysia:

1. Financial assistance in the form of interest-free loans of US$ 800 to 20,000 or loans with interest below market rates by government-supported institutions such as the Agricultural Bank (BP), the Trustee Council for Indigenous People (MARA) and the Development Bank of Malaysia Limited (BPMB) to assist people in growing, harvesting, processing and trading NWFPs.

2. Technical assistance extended by providing machinery, help in production and basic design, and training through seminars, workshops, and training courses in management and production.

3. Research and development to establish the characteristics of processing, find new uses for non-wood forest products, and identify under-utilized species.

4. Investment incentives for the establishment of plantations and down-stream processing, especially for rattan and bamboo. Some possible investment incentives include granting investment tax allowances, double deductions on freight charges, and exemption from import duties and surtaxes for raw materials and components used in manufacturing.

5. Intercropping non-wood forest products in rubber estates to complement the extraction of raw materials.

6. Dissemination of information on export markets for Malaysian non-wood forest products, organization of trade fairs and exhibitions and creation of market opportunities for entrepreneurs.

7. Education on how to produce rattan and bamboo handicrafts incorporated into the curricula in industrial arts courses in high schools.

8. Banning exports, or increasing export duties encourage downstream processing and save foreign exchange.

Table 14. Selected medicinal plants in Malaysia

Species

Local name

Uses

Eurycoma longifolia

Tongkat ali

aphrodisiac, fever

Areca catechu

Pinang

tapeworms, round worms

Oldenlandia diffusa

Siku-siku

dysentery urethritis, snakebites, abdominal pain

Myristica fragrans

Buah pala

diarrhoea, vomiting, indigestion, abdominal pain

Piper nigrum,

Black pepper/White pepper

Malaria, scorpion bites

Melastoma decemfidum

Sesenduduk putih

Intestinal measles, poison

Rattan collection is a common source of income and employment for indigenous people of Indonesia. Malaysia, and the Philippines.

References

Chin, Y.M. 1990. Country study on the expansion of trade: in rattan and rubberwood furniture. In ESCAP Workshop, Bangkok, 30 April-3 May 1991.

Choo, K.T. and Daljeet K. Singh 1985. Rattan processing and utilization in Peninsular Malaysia. In Proceedings of the Rattan Seminar. Kuala Lumpur, 2-4 October 1984. pp. 155-162.

Dransfield, J. 1979. A manual of the rattan of the Malay Peninsula. Kuala Lumpur.

Latif, Abdul Mohmod, Ali Abdul Razak Mohd, and Hamdan Husain. 1990. Rattan processing industry in Peninsular Malaysia: its status, problems and prospects. Paper prepared for IUFRO XIXTH World Congress, Montreal, Canada, 5- 11 August 1990.

Latif, Abdul Mohmod, Razak Wahab and Roslan Ali. 1989. Current status of machine intensive bamboo processing industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Paper prepared for International Bamboo Symposium, Nanjing, China, 24 to 27 July 1989.

Latif, Abdul Mohmod and Shukri Mohamad 1989. The rattan industries in Peninsular Malaysia. RIC Occasional Paper No. 6.

Manokaran, N. 1990. The state of the rattan and bamboo trade. RIC Occasional paper No. 7.

Nor, Salleh Mohd. and K.M. Wong. 1985. The bamboo resource in Malaysia: strategies for development. Paper presented at the Bamboo Workshop, Guangzhou, China, 7-14 October 1985.

Ooi, S.H. 1991. The bamboo industry in Malaysia: potential for integrated development. Mida Report.

Wahab, Razak, Hamdan Husain and Abdul Mohmod Latif. 1989. Rattan and bamboo as a major industrial resource for rural people in Peninsular Malaysia, In Proceedings of the Meeting: Strategies and Methods for Orienting MPTS Research To Small-Scale Farm Use, Jakarta, 20 to 23 November 1989.

Wong, W.C. 1988. Non-wood forest products: prospects for development. In Workshop on Forest Sector Evaluation and Industrial Planning, South East Asian Countries. Serdang, Malaysia, 3 to 14 October 1988.

Appendix 1

RATTAN FOUND IN MALAYSIA


Botanical Names

Local Names

I










Korthalsia

1. K. rigida

Rotan dahan

2. K. grandis

Rotan dahan

3. K. flagellaris

Rotan dahan

4. K. tenuissima

Rotan dahan tikus

5. K. lanceolata

-

6. K. scaphigera

Rotan semut/udang

7. K. echinometra

Rotan dahan/semut

8. K. scortechinii

Rotan semut

9. K. hispida

Rotan semut

Im




Plectocomia

10. P. griggithii

Rotan mantang

11. P. muelleri

Rotan mantang paya

12. P. sp.

Rotan mantang ilang

III




Plectocomiopsis

13. P. geminiflorus

Rotan gilang

14. P. wrayi

Rotan pepe

15. P. Corneri

Rotan rilang gajah

IV


Myrialepis

16. M. scortechinii

Rotan kertong

V


Calospatha

17. C. scortechinii

Rotan demuk

VI
























Daemonorops

18. D. angustifolia

Rotan getah *

19. D. grandis

Rotan sendang

20. D. melanochaetes

Rotan getah *

21. D. sepal

Rotan getah gunung

22. D. calicarpa

Lumpit

23. D. lewisiana

Lumpit kecil

24. D. monticola

Rotan getah lumpit

25. D. ursina

Rotan jernang

26. D. didymophylla

Rotan jernang

27. D. propinqua

-

28. D. brachystachys

Rotan jernang

29. D. micracantha

Rotan jernang

30. D. leptopus

Rotan bacap

31. D. hystrix

Rotan tai landak *

32. D. kunstleri

Rotan bulu landak

33. D. geniculata

Rotan jahaca

34. D. Sabut

Rotan cincin *

35. D. macrophylla

Rotan cincin *

36. D. oligophylla

-

37. D. verticillaris

Rotan sabong

38. D. lasiospatha

-

39. D. periacantha

-

40. D. longipes

-

VII































































Calamus

41. C. castaneus

Cucor

42. C. erinaceus

Rotan bakau *

43. C. polystachys

Rotan sabong

44. C. caesius

Rotan sega *

45. C. axillaris

Rotan sega air *

46. C. laevigatus

Rotan tunggal *

47. C. simplex

-

48. C. palustris

-

49. C. manan

Rotan manau *

50. C. tumidus

Rotan manau tikus *

51. C. oxleyanus

Rotan minyak

52. C. viridispinus

Rotan kerai gunung *

53. C. ulur

-

54. C. endauensis

-

55. C. longisetus

-

56. C. arborescens

-

57. C. multirameus

-

58. C. paspalanthus

Rotan sirikis

59. C. sedens

Rotan duduk

60. C. perakensis

Rotan duduk

61. C. laxissimus

-

62. C. whitmorei

-

63. C. minutus

-

64. C. cockburnii

-

65. C. exilis

Rotan paku

66. C. padangensis

-

67. C. spectatissimus

Rotan semut

68. C. longispathus

Rotan kunyung

69. C. peregrinus

-

70. C. conirostris

Rotan kerai

71. C. pycnocarpus

Rotan kong

72. C. lobbianus

Cucor kelabu

73. C. tomentosus

Rotan tukas

74. C. blumei

Rotan tukas

75. C. flabellatus

-

76. C. flabelloides

-

77. C. javensis

Rotan lilin *

78. C. pandanosmus

Rotan pandan wangi *

79. C. ornatus

Rotan dok *

80. C. scipionum

Rotan semambu *

81. C. speciosissimus

Rotan sega badak

82. C. filipendulus

Rotan batu

83. C. insignia

Rotan batu *

84. C. penicillatus

Rotan batu

85. C. senalingenis

-

86. C. rugosus

Rotan perut ayam

87. C. corneri

Rotan perut ayam

88. C. tankadatei

Rotan tekok

89. C. holttumii

Rotan perut ayam

90. C. scabridulus

Rotan kerai

91. C. radulosus

-

92. C. concinnus

-

93. C. siamensis

-

94. C. viminalis

-

95. C. moorhousei

-

96. C. balingenis

Rotan tanah

97. C. satulosus

Rotan kerai

98. C. luridus

Rotan kerai *

99. C. burkillianus

Rotan kerai laut *

100. C. densiflorus

Rotan kerai *

101. C. ridleyamus

Rotan kerai *

102. C. diepenhorstii

Rotan kerai *

VIII



Ceratolobus

103. C. subangulatus

Rotan tapait

104. C. kingianus

Rotan jere landak

Note: * commercially utilized species

Appendix 2

BAMBOOS FOUND IN MALAYSIA


Botanical Names

Local Names

I.















Bambusa

1. B. blumeana

Buluh duri

2. B. arundinacea

-

3. B. burmanica

Buluh aloh bukit

4. B. vulgaris

Buluh minyak

5. B. heterostachya

Buluh galah

6. B. glaucescens

Buluh pager

7. B. ventricosa

-

8. B. ridleyi

Buluh akar

9. B. wrayi

Buluh sumpitan

10. B. magica

Buluh perindu

11. B. montana

-

12. B. pauciflora

Buluh padi

13. B. klossii

-

14. B. texilis

-

II









Dendrocalamus

15. D. pendulus

Buluh akar

16. D. hirtellus

Buluh kapur

17. D. elegans

-

18. D. dumosus

-

19. D. sinuatus

Buluh akar

20. D. strictus

-

21. D. asper

Buluh betong/beting

22. D. giganteus

Buluh beton

III.


Dinochica

23. D. scandens

Buluh akar

IV.












Gigantochloa

24. G. apus

-

25. G. maxima

-

26. G. rostrata

-

27. G. holttumiana

-

28. G. hasskarliana

-

29. G. levis

Buluh bisa/beting

30. G. scortechninii

Buluh semantan/rayah

31. G. wrayi

Buluh beti/raga

32. G. ridleyi

-

33. G. ligulata

Buluh tumpat/tikus

34. G. latifolia

Buluh pahit

V.


Racemobambos

35. R. setifera

-

VI.









Schizostachyum

36. S. grande

Buluh semeliang/semeyeh

37. S. gracile

Buluh repen/akar

38. S. aciculare

Buluh padi/akar

39. S. jaculans

Buluh sumpitan/tikus

40. S. zollingeri

Buluh nipis/aur

41. S. brachyladum

Buluh lemang/nipis/padi

42. S. latifolium

-

43. S. terminale

-

VII.


Thyrsostachys

44. T. Siamensis

-

Note: * denotes commercially utilized species

Sabai grass (Eulaliopsis binata) used for rope making, thatching, and paper making in South Asia.


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