Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


Vegetable oil and ornamental plants


Vegetable oil
Ornamental plants


by B.B. Chhetri
Divisional Forest Officer
Social Forestry and Extension Section, Thimphu
The Royal Government of Bhutan

Vegetable oil

Bhutan has many trees and shrubs which are potential sources of oil in both the country's sub-tropical and sub-temperate zones. There are a few common species traditionally used by villagers in different parts of the country, but no systematic study has yet been carried out to survey Bhutan's potential for producing vegetable oil. The socio-economic and ecological attributes, and marketing needs associated with such production, have also not been studied.

Bhutan consumes a high level of vegetable oils. The country's requirements are largely met by imports from India and other countries. Coconut oil, soyabean oil, and mustard oil with the trade name "Dalda," for example, are all from India, while palm oil comes from Malaysia. Some 80 percent of Bhutanese rural communities cannot afford to buy even their basic requirements in vegetable oils because of their high cost, ranging from Nu. 40 (US$ 1.27) to Nu. 70 (US$ 2.22) per litre. This problem could be overcome by small-scale industries producing vegetable oil from locally-available species. Surpluses, could easily be marketed in neighbouring countries. The quantity and quality of production are the two main factors governing successful marketing.

The major problem presently is the lack of a proper study on the potential for vegetable oil production in the country. A full-fledged systematic study on vegetable oils would, unfortunately, entail large financial and human resource investments. It is therefore recommended that a proposal be submitted for initiating a pilot project, with the Government providing technological support and financial assistance to interested and innovative farmers.

Following is a list of known vegetable-oil-yielding forest species in Bhutan:

· gante, bandre, dhorkho-shing (Gynocardia odorata)
· yikka-shing, chiuri (Aesandra butyracea)
· panche-shing, gunilo-kharaney (Symplocos paniculata)
· sal, sakhuna (Shorea robusta)

Curcuma parviflora Wall is one of Bhutan's numerous ornamental plant species.

Here is a brief description of each species:

Gynocardia odorata R. Brown

Local name: Gante or Bandre (Nepal); Dorkho-shing (Sharchop-kha).

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Distribution: Samtse, Lower Chhukha, Sarpang and Samdrup Jongkha Districts.

Altitude: 300-1,000 metres.

Climatic zone: Tropical and subtropical.

Morphology: Gante is a tree with thickly-spreading branches that grows from 10 to 20 metres high. Its leaves are dark green, coriaceous, and oblong - poisonous to cattle. Gante's flowers are yellow or yellowish green, appearing in April until late May. The tree can be easily recognised by its hard, round, dark-gray, rough-textured fruit, growing on its stems and main branches.

Silviculture: Gynocardia odorata species is light-demanding and needs little care. It grows mostly on sloping land at Bhutan's higher elevations or on stream banks and gullies where there are no other tall trees. Plantations can be established by direct sowing or by planting seedlings. Seedlings are grown in raised nursery beds or in polythene bags.

Extraction method: Oil is extracted from the seeds. The seeds are beaten into a pulp, heated, then compressed in tightly-woven bamboo baskets. Raw oil is boiled until it no longer foams. After cooling, the oil becomes white and semi-solid.

Other uses: The tree's fruit pulp is poisonous and is often used to kill fish. The seed is covered with a thick, edible pulp. The fruit is also used in Ayurvedic medicine. Oil from the Nepali gante is sold under the trade name "Chulmugra," common in India's Ayurvedic medicine market.

Aesandra butyracea Roxb.

Local name: Yika-shing (Dzongkha), Yi-shing (Kurtoep), Chiuri (Nepal), Pinshing (Sharchop-kha).

Family: Sapotaceae.

Distribution: Mongar, Lhuntse, Trashigang, Shemgang and Tsirang. Sparsely distributed in Punakha and Wangdue.

Altitude: 500-1,500 metres.

Climatic zone: Sub-tropical, sub-temperate.

Morphology: Yika-shing is a medium-sized tree that generally grows with a crooked stem. The leaves form large clusters and its bark is light gray. It has milky sap and its wood is pinkish-white in colour.

Flowering time: December-January.

Silviculture: Aesandra butyracea is a light-demanding species, with some tolerance to frost. It normally grows on sloping land with deep soil, and can easily be grown in nurseries. The number of seeds per kilogramme averages 450 to 600. The seed is viable for only a short period, so it has to be sown immediately after collection. Planting bare-root seedlings gives poor results, but seedlings grown in polythene pots perform well.

Extraction method: Vegetable butter is extracted from the seeds. The seeds are heated and mashed into a pulp. The pulp is heated in a pan and then compressed in tightly-woven bamboo baskets. After cooling, the oil becomes white and semi-solid. It is locally-known as "pins" in Sharchop-kha and "yiga makhu" in Dzongkha.

Other uses: In solid form, the oil is burned in lamps and used for making "forma" (images made during religious ceremonies). After extracting the butter, the remaining cake is toxic and is used as fish poison.

Symplocos paniculata

Local name: Pangtshe-shing (Dzongkha); Zim-shing (Sharchop-kha); Gunilo (Nepal).

Family: Symplocaceae.

Distribution: Punakha.

Altitude: 1,500-3,000 metres.

Climatic zone: Sub-tropical and temperate.

Morphology: Pangtshe-shing is a medium-sized tree, which grows from 5 to 10 metres in height. A deciduous species, its bark is ash-grey with vertical fissures. Old bark scales off naturally. Some villagers scratch off the dead bark, believing that this helps produce better fruit. The tree flowers in April and May. Its flowers are white. Its fruit is ready for harvesting by June or July.

Silviculture: Symplocos paniculata is a light-demanding species that mainly grows in valleys and on slopes with moist soil. Its seeds have low viability. The fruit is sown, without removing the pericarp, in nurseries immediately after collection.

Extraction method: Vegetable butter is extracted from the seeds. The seeds are heated and mashed to a pulp. The pulp is heated in a pan then compressed in a tightly-woven bamboo basket. After cooling, the oil becomes white and semi-solid.

Other uses: The oil is also burned in lamps. The leaves are used for making dye.

Shorea robusta

Local name: Sal, Sakhuna.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae.

Distribution: Grows naturally in Kalikhola Sarpang and is planted in other southern districts.

Altitude: 200-1,300 metres.

Climatic zone: Tropical and dry-sub-tropical.

Morphology: Sal is a large tree, with ovate-oblong leaves. Its bark has deep, vertical fissures. The tree flowers from March to April. Harvesting of fruit is from June to August. The fruit is winged and usually has only one seed.

Silviculture: Shorea robusta species needs well-drained soil. Sowing seeds directly into the plantation site immediately after collection yields the best results as the seeds cannot be stored for more than a week.

Extraction method: Not known.

Other uses: Excellent timber; essential and edible oils.

Ornamental plants

Domesticated ornamental plants are widely-known to Bhutan's rural folk and are, therefore, unnecessary to describe in detail in this document. Wild varieties of ornamental plants are also abundant in Bhutan. Identification and classification of such plants, with respect to their aesthetic, economical and environmental value, however, is yet to be carried out and almost no information on them exists.

The Japan-Himalayan Company is the pioneer in the ornamental plant business in Bhutan. Established in 1990, it is a joint business venture with Japanese counterparts. The nursery occupies more than 1.25 hectares, or about three acres, located after the Dzong going to Taba. It employs five workers, two trained in Japan. Four plastic-covered propagating chambers are used to produce rooted cuttings of the following plants: Agapitus, Begonia, Corpus, Capitata, Cupressus, Edgeworthia, Hedera, Gaultheria, Peonia, Piteris and Viburnum. These are exported to Japan for landscaping highways. So far, 5,000 cuttings have been exported to Japan, sold at 60 to 100 yen each (US$ 0.73 to 1.21 per cutting), depending on the size and extent of the root system development. The rooted cuttings are washed in the nearby river to remove all sand. The cuttings are then packed in moss and sent by air freight from Paro to Bangkok, and from there to Japan. A package of 100 plants weighs up to 2 kilogrammes.

The forests of Bhutan contain numerous species of rhododendron which are increasingly in demand as ornamental plants.

The Japan-Himalayan Company is now conducting experiments to determine which species are most easily propagated by various simple methods, with or without growth regulators. At present, the company gets 50 percent rooting success with Cornus, using a Japanese rooting hormone. It also claims that Cupressus multiplies faster using cuttings rather than germinating seeds.

The company's current problems are all related to rooting. These problems, however, should not be difficult to solve. Suggested priority activities are the following:

1) Construct a mist system over a well-drained propagating bed to provide continuous high relative humidity to cuttings. Heating may be needed during winter.

2) Experiment with various concentrations of growth regulators and soaking or dipping time in relation to the percentage of rooting/shooting.

3) Experiment with cuttings of different maturities, for example, terminal, sub-terminal or basal in conjunction with point

2) above to establish the combinations which will give the highest percentage and number of roots and shoots.

4) Look into other markets; study the quarantine rules for plant entry into other countries.

5) Send key personnel abroad for training to keep abreast of the most recent trends in the ornamental plant industry.

This information is based on the experiences of the Japan-Himalayan Company (Master Plan for Forestry Development, 1990). There is a need to appraise and document information from other sources, including villagers, city corporations, other government organizations, etc.

Overall, more comprehensive studies on occurrence, flowering time, durability of flowers, availability, propagation techniques, and marketing prospects for wild varieties of ornamental plants are needed.

Following is a list and a table of ornamental plants in Bhutan:

ORNAMENTAL PLANTS IN BHUTAN

Magnolia campbellii Hook. f. and Thompson

Local name: Ghoge champ (Nepal).

Family: Magnoliaceae.

Distribution: Haa, Thimphu (Lamperi-Menchuna), Punakha, Wangdue, Trongsa and other districts with similar conditions.

Altitude: 900-2,500 metres.

Flowering time: March-May.

Climatic zone: Sub-temperate to temperate.

Morphology: Middle-sized, deciduous tree, 12 to 15 metres in height. Flowers are terminal, erect and yellowish white.

Silviculture: Light-demanding species, found in wet, evergreen forests. Seeds are collected from August to September.

Michelia excelsa Wall.

Local name: Rani champ.
Family: Magnoaceae.
Distribution: Chhukha, Trongsa, Tsirang, Trashigang, Mongar and Punakha Districts.
Altitude: 1,800-2,500 metres.
Climatic zone: Temperate, evergreen forests.
Silviculture: Evergreen species, associates with oak species.

Rhododendron kesangiae

Local name: Gurans (Nepal), Eto-meto (Dzongkha).
Family: Ericaceae.
Distribution: Chhukha, Trongsa, Tsirang, Trashigang, Mongar and Punakha Districts.
Altitude: 2,500-3,200 metres.
Climatic zone:

Rhododendron thomsonii Hook. f.

Family: Ericaceae.
Altitude: 3,0004,000 metres.
Flowering time: May-June.

Rhododendron triflorum Hook. f.

Family: Ericaceae.
Altitude: 2,700-3,000 metres.
Flowering time: April-June.

Cupressus cashmerina

Local name: Tshenden-shing (Dzongkha/Sharchop-kha).

Family: Cupressaceae.

Distribution: Planted in Mongar District as an ornamental tree.

Altitude: 1,800 metres.

Flowering time: May-July.

Climatic zone: Temperate.

Morphology: Large-sized tree with pendulous branchlets; scale-like leaves of branchlets are ovate foliage strongly glaucous.

Cupressus himaliaca C. corneyna (Syn.) Bhutan's national tree

Local name: Weeping cypress.

Family: Cupressaceae.

Distribution: Punakha, Trongsa, Wangdue and Bumthang Districts.

Altitude: 2,550-3,000 metres.

Flowering time: May-July.

Climatic zone: Temperate.

Morphology: Medium-sized tree that grows up to 30 metres; pendulous branches and scale-like leaves of branchlets.

Cassia fistula Linn.

Local name: Donkha-shing (Sharchop-kha); Rajbirchey, Sonalu, Bandarlata (Nepali).

Family: Leguminosae.

Distribution: Native of Malaysia. Cultivated in Phontsholing, Sarpang, Samtse, Samdrup Jongkha and Trashigang Districts.

Flowering time: April-June.

Morphology: Medium-sized, deciduous tree that grows from 5 to 18 metres high; leaves 15 to 40 centimetres in length, with three to four pairs of leaflets; yellow flowers.

Benthamidia capitata

Local name: Phatse.

Family: Cornaceae.

Distribution: Punakha, Wangdue, Mongar, Trashigang and Lhuntshi Districts.

Altitude: 1,200-3,400 metres.

Flowering time: May-June.

Climatic zone: Temperate.

Morphology: Small, deciduous tree with leathery leaves that are oblong-elliptic, pointed, blue green and minutely hairy beneath; flowers are very small, greenish-yellow, closely packed into hemispherical heads of 1 to 1.5 centimetres across and surrounded by four (rarely five) white or creamy, ovate, petal-like bracts.

Bergenia ciliata

Local name: Pakhanbet.

Family: Saxifragaceae.

Distribution: Phontsholing (Kamji), Deothang (Chungkhaar), Haa and Mongar Districts.

Altitude: 1,500-3,050 metres.

Flowering time: February-April.

Climatic zone: Sub-tropical to temperate.

Morphology: Flowers 1-20, 7-12 millimetres green lobes, acute, denticulate near the apex, petals

Bergenia purpurascens

Family: Saxifragaceae.

Distribution: Haa, Bumthang and Upper Kulong-chu Districts.

Altitude: 3,800-4,550 metres.

Flowering time: May-July.

Climatic zone: Temperate to sub-temperate.

Morphology: Leaves elliptic or ovate-elliptic, rounded, base cuneate or rounded, glabrous or ciliate near base; flowers 1 to 8 nodding, calyx 5 to 14 millimetres, dull crimson, lobes oblong, rounded.

Illicium griffithii

Family: Illiciaceae.

Distribution: Punakha and Menchunang Districts.

Altitude: 1,800-2,400 metres.

Flowering time: February.

Morphology: Glabrous shrub or small tree, leaves elliptic, acuminate base cuneate, petioles; flower on pedicels.

Hedychium garderianum Sheppard

Family: Zingiberaceae.
Distribution: Gedue and Sibsoo.
Altitude: 1,200-2,000 metres.
Flowering time: June-August.
Climatic zone: Sub-tropical; mixed broad-leaved forest.

Curcurma aromatica Salisb.

Common name: Wild tumeric.
Family: Zingiberaceae (herb).
Altitude: 150-1,600 metres.
Flowering time: June-August.
Climatic zone: Sub tropical/sub-temperate; open slopes or slopes with scattered vegetation.

Edgeworthia gardneri Wallich

Local name: Deshing (Dzongkha), Kagate.
Family: Thymelaeceae (shrub).
Distribution: Chukha District (Puhakha to Kamzi).
Altitude: 150-1,600 metres.
Flowering time: June-August.
Climatic zone: Sub-temperate/temperate.

Daphne bholua Buch

Local name: Deshing (Dzongkha), Kagate.
Family: Thymelaceae.
Distribution: Chukha, Deothang Haa, Thimphu, Punakha and Trongsa Districts.
Altitude: 1,800-3,100 metres.
Flowering time: October-April.

Luculia gratissima Wallich

Family: Rubiaceae.
Distribution: Wangdue and Mongar Districts.
Altitude: 1,200-2,000 metres.
Flowering time: September-October.

Hippophae rhamnoides L

Local name: Tare (Dzongkha).
Family: Elaeagnaceae.
Altitude: 2,000-3,000 metres.
Flowering time: April-May.

Vibernum grandiflorum Wallich

Family: Caprifoliaceae.
Distribution: Pele-la and Thrumshing-la.
Altitude: 2,700-3,600 metres.
Flowering time: April-May.

Vibernum nervosum

Distribution: Changkhaphu, Hele-la, Chhamina and Tharana.
Altitude: 2,700-3,300 metres.
Flowering time: April-May.

Aconitum spicatum Bruhl

Local name: Bgo-grod-spos (medicinal).
Family: Ranunculaceae.
Distribution: Thimphu, Trongsa, Gasa, Bumthang and Paro.
Altitude: 3,000-4,000 metres.
Flowering time: August-September.

Cypripedium himalaicum

Common name: Lady's slipper.
Family: Orchidaceae.
Distribution: Lingtshi, Barsong and Chebesa.
Altitude: 3,000-4,000 metres.
Flowering time: June.

Cymbidium hookeranum Rechh

Local name: Ola-chhoto (Dzongkha).
Family: Orchidaceae.
Distribution: Gedu, Punakha, Tsirang, etc.
Flowering time: February-May.

Dactylorhiza hatagirea

Local name: Panch umole, Wanglok.
Family: Orchidaceae.
Distribution: Lingtshi, Phajodhing and Chele-la.
Altitude: 3,700 metres.

Meconopsis grandis

Local name: Upel nginpo.
Family: Papaveraceae.
Altitude: 3,6504,200 metres.
Flowering time: June-August.

Allium wallichii Kunth

Local name: Zimbu.
Family: Liliaceae.
Distribution: Paro, Haa, Thimphu and Bumthang Districts.
Altitude: 3,000-4,200 metres.
Flowering time: August-September.

Lilium nepalense

Local name: Lily.
Family: Liliaceae.
Altitude: 1,800 metres.
Flowering time: July-August.

Lagerstroemia hirsuta Lamark

Family: Lythraceae.
Altitude: 300-600 metres.
Flowering time: May-June.

Lagerstroemia parviflora Roxb.

Local name: Sidha (Nepal).
Family: Lythraceae.
Altitude: 180-700 metres.
Flowering time: April-July.
Silviculture: Direct sowing in planting site immediately after collection of seeds.

Table 13 Other Ornamental Plants in Bhutan

Botanical name

Family name

Altitude

Flowering time

Habitat

Justicia adhatoda Nees

Acanthaceae

500-1,600m.

February-April

Wasteground, roadside

Barleria cristata. Linn.

Acanthaceae

500-2000 m.

June-September

In light forest

Amaranthus caudatus Linn.

Amaranthaceae

2,000-2,800 m.

June-October

Cultivated

Beaumontia grandiflora Wall.

Apocynaceae

150-1,400 m.

April

Foothills of subtropical forest (limestone areas)

Brassiopsis glomerulata Regel

Araliaceae

1,180-2,000 m.

March-April

Under shrubs in oak forests

Gamblea ciliata Clarke

Araliaceae

2,800-3,500 m.

June-July

Understory in Abies/Rhododendron forests

Aristolochia griffithii Hook. f.

Aristolochiaceae

1,800-2,900 m.

April-May

Climber on shrubs

Impatiens strenantha

Balsaminaceae

1,800-2,600 m.

July-September

Forest shrubberies

Impatiens sulcata

Balsaminaceae

1,800-4,000 m.

July-September

Shrubberies/cultivated areas

Bombax ceiba Linn.

Bombacaceae

200-1,400 m.

February-March

Dry, sub-tropical, and tropical zones; well-drained, bouldery areas, open forest

Mahonia nepalensis DC.

Berberidaceae

1,500-2,400 m.

October-April

Near small streams, under shrubs

Begonia griffithiana Hook.

Begoniaceae

up to 1,800 m.

June-July

Damp, rocky slopes in ravines

Opuntia vulgaris Muller

Cactaceae

1,000-1,800 m.

Throughout summer

Naturalised in cultivated areas/wasteland

Cardamine macrophylla Willd.

Cruciferae

2,100-3,600 m.

May-August

Forest; marshy areas

Codonopsis affinis Hook.

Campanulaceae

1,800-3,000 m.

June-September

Shrubberies

Codonopsis ovata Benth.

Campanulaceae

240 m.

July-August

Alpine pasture

Lonicera agustifolia Wallich

Caprifoliaceae

2,000-2,900 m.

May-June

Shrubberies

Lonicera hispida

Caprifoliaceae

2,000-3,300 m.

May-July

Shrubberies

Gypsophila cerastioides D. Don

Caryophyllaceae

2,800-4,100 m.

June-August

Open slopes, rocks, and roadsides

Ageratum conyzoides Linn.

Compositae

1,000-3,000 m.

Almost all year around

Cultivated areas

Hypericum choisianum Wallich

Hypericaeae

2,400-3,000 m.

May-August

On cliffs, rock

Deutzia bhutanensis

Hydrangeaceae

2,400-2,800 m.

April-June

Shrubberies

Ainsliaea aptera DC.

Compositae

1,400-3,000 m.

March-June

Shrubberies

Artimesia roxburghiana Basser

Compositae

200-4,000 m.

March-September

Cultivated areas/wasteland

Ipomea carnea Jacq.

Convolvulaceae

100-2,400 m.

April-August

Wasteland

Ipomea purpurea Linn.

Convolvulaceae

100-2,400 m.

April-October

Wasteland

Porana grandiflora Wallich

Convolvulaceae

1,500-2,400 m.

July-October

Wasteland

Dipsacus inermis Wallich

Dipsacaceae

1,800-3,500 m.

June-September

Cultivated/bushy land

Morina longifolia Wallich

Dipsacaceae

3,000-4,000m.

June-September

Alpine scrub

Agapetes serpens Wight

Ericaceae

1,500-2,800 m.

February-June

Damp, rocky slopes

Cassiope fastigiata Wallich

Ericaceae

1,500-2,800 m.

February-June

Evergreen scrub, rocky wet areas

Enkianthus deflexus Griffith

Ericaceae

2,500-3,300 m.

May-June

Mixed conifer forests

Elaeagnus parvifolia Wallich

Elaeagnaceae

2,600-3,000 m.

April-June

Cultivated land, wasteland

Euphorbia sikkimensis Boiss

Euphorbiaceae

2,400-2,900 m.

April-May

Open forest

Euphorbia wallichii Hook. f.

Euphorbiaceae

2,400-3,000 m.

April-May

Wasteland, scrub forests

Geranium procurrens Yeo

Geraniaceae

2,400-3,600 m.

May-September

Open slopes

Geranium nepalense Sweet

Geraniaceae

1,400-3,000 m.

February-July

Roadside in warm and cool broad-leaved forests and blue pine forests

Geranium lambertii Sweet

Geraniaceae

2,300-4,000 m.

July-September

Open areas in blue pine forests

Gentiana oranta G. Don

Gentianceae

3,000-4,500 m.

August-October

Alpine meadows

Gentiana depressa D. Don

Gentianceae

3,000-4,500 m.

August-October

Alpine meadows

Hypericum hookeranum Wight

Hyperiecaeae

2,600-3,000 m.

June-September

On cliffs, rock

Philadelphus tomentosus Wallich

Hydrangeaceae

2.000-2,800 m.

May-June

Mixed conifer forests

Hypoxis aurea

Hypoxidaceae

2,500-3.000 m.

April-July

Dry, open ground

Iris clarkei Baker

Iridaceae

3,000-3,500 m.

June-July

Damp, open hillsides

Iris cf tectorum maxim

Iridaceae

2,500.3,000m

April-may

Marshy areas

-

Lahiateae

3,500-4,500 m

June-August

Alpine pasture

Colquhounia coccinea Wallich

Lahiateae

2,000-3,000 m.

August-September

Shrubberies

Oxytropis lapponica Gay

Leguminosae

3,800-4,600 m.

July-August

Sandy loam

Porochetus communis D. Don

Leguminosae

1,500-3,900 m.

March-September

Moist places and beside streams

Allium macranthum Baker

Liliaceae

3,000-4,000 m.

August-September

On top of ridges

Allium sikkimense

Liliaceae

3,000-4,500 m.

July-October

Wet slopes

Woodfordia fruticosa Linn.

Lythraceae

600-1,500 m.

March-May

Scrub on dry slopes

Michelia doltsopa DC.

Magnoliaceae

1,800-2,700 m.

March-April

Broad-leaved forests in temperate zones

Melastoma normale D. Don

Melastomataceae

305-1,830 m.

December-June

Moist areas, alongside streams

Osbeckia nepalensis Hooker

Melastomataceae

610-1,800 m.

July-September

Warm, broad-leaved, open forests

Thespesia lampas Cav.

Malvaceae

150 m.

October-February

Sub-tropical wasteland

Jasminum dispermum Wallich

Oleaceae

900-2,500 m.

April-May

Mixed evergreen forests

Jasminum multiflorum Burm. f.

Oleaceae

300-1,500 m.

March-October

-

Jasminum officinale Linn.

Oleaceae

1,200-3,000 m.

May-July

-

Aerides multiflora Roxb.

Orchidaceae

200-100 m.

May-June

-

Aerides odorata Lour.

Orchidaceae

200-1,200 m.

May-June

-

Calanthe plantaginea Lindley

Orchidaceae

1,500-2,100 m.

March-April

-

Cephalanthera longifolia

Orchidaceae

1,800-3,000 m.

May-August

-

Coelogyne corymbosa Lindley

Orchidaceae

2,000-3,000 m.

April-June

-

Coelogyne ochracea Lindley

Orchidaceae

1,500-2,500 m.

April-May

-

Oxalis latifolia Humb.

Oxalidaceae

1,200-1,600 m.

July-September

-

Corydalis gerde Fedde

Papavaraceae

3,500-4,500 m.

July-September

-

Corydalis latiflora Hook. f.

Papavaraceae

400-5,000 m.

July-August

-

Corydalis thyrsiflora Prain

Papavaraceae

3,000-4,300 m.

July-August

-

Meconopsis horridula Hook.

Papavaraceae

3,500-5,000 m.

July-August

-

Meconopsis grandis Prain

Papavaraceae

3,500-5,000 m.

July-August

-

Meconopsis paniculata Prain

Papavaraceae

3,000-4,000 m.

July-August

-

Polygala arillata Bach

Polygalaceae

2,000-2,800 m.

June-July

-

Bistorta macrophylla D. Don

Polygonaceae

3,000-4,000 m.

July-September

-

Rheum acuminatum Hook. f.

Polygonaceae

3,000-4,000 m.

July-September

-

Rheum nobile Hook.

Polygonaceae

3,600-4,500 m.

July-August

-

Androsace primuloides Duby

Primulaceae

3,000-4,300 m.

July-August

-

Primula boothii Craib

Primulaceae

2,800-3,200 m.

April-May

-

Primula buryana Balf. f.

Primulaceae

3,000-4,200 m.

April-May

-

Pyrola corbieri Leve

Pyrolaceae

2,200-3,500 m.

July-August

-

Aconitum hookeri Stapf

Ranunculaceae

3,500-4,500 m.

August-September

-

Aquilegia nivalis Fale

Ranunculaceae

2,800-4,000 m.

August-September

-

Aconitum spicatum Bruhl.

Ranunculaceae

3,000-4,000 m.

August-September

-

Cotoneaster microphyllus Wallich

Rosaceae

2,800-4,000 m.

May-June

-

Fragaria nubicola Lindley

Rosaceae

1,800-3,000 m.

April-June

-

Potentilla peduncularis D. Don

Rosaceae

3,000-4,000 m.

June-July

-

Luculia gratissima Wallich

Rubiaceae

1,200-2,000 m.

September-October

-

Hippophae rhamnoides Linn.

Rhamnaceae

2,000-3,000 m.

April-May

-

Sambucus adnata Wallich

Sambucaceae

1,500-3,300 m.

July-August

-

Viburnum erubescense Wallich

Sambucaceae

1,500-3,000 m.

April-May

-

Viburnum grandiflorum Wallich

Sambucaceae

2,700-3,600 m.

April-May

-

Bergenia stracheyi Hook. f.

Saxifragaceae

3,000-4,300 m.

June-August

-

Saxifraga asarifolia Sternb.

Saxifragaceae

3,000-4,300 m.

July-August

-

Datura suaveolens Humb.

Solanaceae

1,000-1,700 m.

May-November

-

Lagotis cashmeriana Royle

Scrophulariaceae

3,300-4,500 m.

June-August

-

Lancea tibetica Hook. f.

Scrophulariaceae

3,000-4,300 m.

May-August

-

Mazus surculosus D. Don

Scrophulariaceae

1,500-3,000 m.

April-July

-

Daphne mucronata Royle

Thymelaeaceae

1,500-2,700 m.

April-May

-

Angelica cyclocarpa Norman

Umbeliferae

3,000-3,600 m.

July-August

-

Heracleum nepalense D. Don

Umbeliferae

2,000-3,600 m.

July-August

-

Clerodendron japonicum Thunb.

Verbenaceae

Up to 1,800 m.

June-September

-

Viola biflora Linn.

Violaceae

2,600-4,300 m

May-July

-

Viola bhutanica Hara

Violaceae

2,700-3,500 m

May-August

-

Costus speciosu Smith

Zingiberaceae

1,800-2,600 m.

June-August

-

Hedychium densiflorum Wallich

Zingiberaceae

1,200-2,000 m.

June-August

-

Roscoea alpina Royle

Zingiberaceae

2,600-3,600m.

May-June

-

Source: Flowers of Eastern Himalaya, Flora of Bhutan, Trees of North Bengal, and Kanjilal Flora.

Bhutan has many different types of forests. All of them provide a diversity of non-wood products.


Previous Page Top of Page Next Page