Beyond timber: social, economic and cultural dimensions of non-wood forest products in Asia and the Pacific













Table of Contents


RAP Publication 1995/13

Proceedings of a Regional Expert Consultation
28 November - 2 December 1994
FAO/RAP, Bangkok

edited by
Patrick B. Durst
Ann Bishop

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP)
Bangkok 1995

The designation and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaires.

The opinion expressed in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not imply any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO.

Photo credits: Mr. M.Kashio, Mr. P.B.Durst, Dr. Narong Chomchalaow

Cover photo: Women selling cutch, extracted from Acacia catechu, Myanmar

Layout and design: Umer Khan

For copies write to:
Regional Forestry Office
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
39 Phra Atit Road
Bangkok 10200 Thailand

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


Foreword

Acknowledgements

Introductory presentations

Fruits of the forest: Beyond timber

Opening address

Regional expert consultation on non-wood forest products: Social, economic and cultural dimensions

Context of the meeting
Objectives of the consultation

Non-wood forest products: A regional overview

Introduction
Background
The country papers
Further background information
Matters of moment
Conclusion
References

Social and legal considerations

Involving local people in the management and harvesting of non-wood forest products

Introduction
NWFPS in overall context
Community-based forest management: emerging responses
Recognition strategy
Equitable bargaining
Community forest leases
Mapping
Information dissemination
Informed consent
Notice
Community and legal personalities
Third parties
Negotiations and benefit sharing
Conclusion
References

Participatory management and gender issues in non-wood forest products development

Introduction
Gender, equity and participation
Participation in practice
FAO approaches
References

Rattan: A source of employment for upland communities of Northeastern Luzon

Introduction
The Rattan industry
References

Traditional use of non-wood forest products in Ayurvedic medicine in Sri Lanka

Ecotourism: The Fijian experience

Background
Development of ecotourism in Fiji
Ecotourism as a tool for long-term forest conservation
Case study: Bouma forest park
Conclusion
Recommendations

Non-wood forest products of Bhutan

Introduction
Legislation, orders and rules regulating NWFPS
Importance of non-wood forest products
Constraints in NWFP product development
General recommendations for long-term activities
Organizations involved in the development of NWFPS in Bhutan

Economic aspects

Income and employment from non-wood forest products: What do we know?

Introduction
Some conceptual issues
Where do non-wood forest products belong?
What do we know?
Conclusion
References

Marketing, valuation and pricing of NWFPS

Introduction
Marketing of NWFPS: Following the marketing channel
Policies and regulations
References

International trade in non-wood forest products in the Asia-Pacific region

Introduction
Methodology
Main products
References

Benefits and risks of commercialising NWFPs: The case of ngalinuts in the Solomon Islands

Introduction
Commercialisation of ngalinuts in the Solomon Islands
Ngalinuts in Solomon Islands society
Benefits of commercialising ngalinuts
Risks of commercialising ngalinut
Considerations for commercialising ngalinuts

The body shop experience

Present conditions and prospects for the development of the bamboo plywood industry in China

Current state of the Chinese bamboo plywood industry
Main uses of bamboo plywood
Problems in bamboo plywood production
Development prospects of China's bamboo plywood industry
Conclusion

Commercialization of aromatic and medicinal plants in Nepal

Introduction
Status of aromatic and medicinal plants in Nepal
Scope of the medicinal and aromatic plant industry in Nepal
Aromatic and medicinal plants for poverty alleviation
Value of production
Market structure
Constraints and strategies
Recommendations
References

Lac production and development in Vietnam

Advantages of lac cultivation
Lac development over the past 30 years
Lac processing and marketing in Vietnam
Causes of the decrease in lac production
Projects promoting lac production in Vietnam
Conclusions and recommendations

Social, economic and cultural aspects of Rattan in Malaysia

Importance and uses of rattan
Rattan collection
Rattan marketing by villagers
Rattan processing and manufacturing industry
Contribution to the local and national economy
Commercial cultivation
Prospects for future development
Recommendations for Rattan development
Conclusion
References

Non-wood forest products in Cambodia

Historical development of NWFPS
Current status of NWFPS
Conclusion
References

Eucalyptus oil extraction in central Victoria, Australia

Introduction
Eucalyptus oil production
Results of research studies
Conclusions
References

Non-wood forest products from the mangrove forests of Bangladesh

Golpatta
Hantal
Honey and beeswax
Hogla
Fish, prawn and shells
Miscellaneous NWFPS
Tourism in the Sundarbans

Major non-wood forest products of Thailand

Introduction
Rattan
Bamboo
Use
Gums and resins
Medicinal plants and spices
Edible products
Insect products
Agarwood
Barks
Natural dyes
Conclusions and recommendations
References

Non-wood forest products in Lao People's Democratic Republic

Introduction
NWFPS in national policy and practice
Conclusion

Non-wood forest products in Myanmar

The role of non-wood forest products in Myanmar
Discussion and conclusion

Cultural dimensions

A cultural approach to natural resource management: A case study from Eastern Nepal

Introduction
Cultural approaches and methodologies
A case study in Eastern Nepal
Indigenous knowledge: perceptions of the environment
The origin myth
Classification of natural resources
Ritual and decision making
Local organisations and cultural revival
Conclusions
References

American Indian cultural perspectives on non- wood forest products in North America

Background
American Indian philosophy toward nature
Indians' relationship with forests
Conclusion

Social, economic and cultural dimensions of medicinal plants in Indonesia

Introduction
History of utilization
Government policy
Social and economic aspects
Cultural aspects
Problems and prospects
References

Forest niches: Sustainable livelihood for upland dwellers with emphasis on food processing

Introduction
The food processing niche
Impacts of food processing
Conclusions

Collection, utilization and marketing of medicinal plants from the forests of India

Introduction
Exploitation of NWFPS
Marketing rights
Income and employment generation from NWFPS
Trade flows and international trade of NWFPS
Prospects for future development of NWFPS
Recommendations for developing NWFPS
References

Importance of NWFPS to forest-dependent communities in Nagtipunan, Quirino, Philippines

Introduction
Forest resources
Community profile
Socio-cultural dimensions of NWFPS
Forest management planning and NWFPS
Conclusions and recommendations

Use of non-wood forest products by village communities in Sri Lanka

Introduction
Non-wood forest products
Present status of collection and utilization of non-wood forest products
Patterns of NWFP collection
Major issues and recommendations related to development of NWFPS
References

Institutional support for NWFP development

FAO activities in support of NWFP development

Past FAO activities in support of NWFP development
Current and future activities

The international network for bamboo and rattan

Introduction
History of INBAR
Network organization
Socio-economic research
Conclusion

Asian network on medicinal and aromatic plants (ANMAP)

Introduction
Objectives
Activities
Operation
Membership
Recent activities
Proposed activities

Collaborative development-oriented research on conservation of rattan biodiversity in Malaysia

Project background
Collaborative arrangement
Future institutional arrangements

The biodiversity conservation network: Evaluating enterprise-oriented approaches to community-based conservation in the Asia/Pacific region

Introduction
BCN goals
Grants
Project selection
Project portfolio

The centre of minor forest products' role in supporting NWFP development

Centre of minor forest products
Objectives
Publications
Other activities

International center for research in agroforestry (ICRAF) activities related to non- wood forests products research and development

Consultation summary

Summary report of FAO regional expert consultation on non-wood forest products: social, economic and cultural dimensions

Objectives
Consultation results
Major issues identified
Risks of NWFP development
Recommendations

List of participants