The purpose of this book is to review the methods for well drilling and digging which can be done with local material and by local people. The book is intended for engineers, agronomists, health experts, etc. who may wish to help people obtain a better water supply. The book is not for highly sophisticated societies nor for those interested in the normal, capital-intensive techniques of well drilling. The aim of the book is not to provide formulae and detailed instructions for specific conditions but to provide ideas, some of which may be useful in a specific location. The emphasis is on using and building on resources which are available rather than on importing technologies.