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3. Training of trainers framework

The training sessions

In order to familiarise the participants with the framework of the model national training course described in the module, the TOT followed this as closely as possible. The TOT also endeavoured to cover the contents and process of the model training course. However, as the TOT Workshop had to cover a number of sessions specific to a TOT, such as sessions introducing the trainees to participatory training concepts and methods and had to provide an opportunity for teaching practice (a critical component of the TOT), there was not enough time to cover all of the sessions described in the model national training course (see Appendix 6). However, the trainees were given the opportunity to ask for clarifications about these sessions and even to try out a selection of these sessions during their teaching practice. The participants, it should be noted, were grouped into national training teams for the teaching practice sessions.

The model national training framework, which is based on the 4 stage stove selection process, is shown in Figure 1. Components that were not included in the TOT due to time constraints are shown in italics and with the text shaded light grey. TOT sessions can be seen in Table 1.

Table 1: TOT Sessions


Objectives and agenda TOT


Objectives, target group and flow of national trainings




Learning styles/adult learning


Two way communication and visual aids


National training team contract and selection of national training team micro-teaching sessions


Giving and receiving feedback


Nepal micro-teaching and feedback


Dealing with problems that may come up...


Bangladesh micro-teaching and feedback


Cambodia micro-teaching and feedback /participatory methods


Myanmar micro-teaching and feedback


Group dynamics


Vietnam micro-teaching and feedback


Indonesia, Bhutan and India micro-teaching and feedback

National training plan

The training sessions


As stated in the previous section, the workshop consisted of two types of training sessions: the sessions to be covered in any national training course, based on the model training course contained in the training module and special training of the trainers sessions which emphasised the use of different training methodologies, especially non-conventional teaching methodologies which are considered more appropriate for training adults. In addition, the principles of adult learning were presented to the trainees and the importance of a training team contract was stressed. As far as possible the two types of training session took place in an integrated manner.

During the workshop, the trainees were given an opportunity to experience, to some extent, all of the components of the training module, thus they also had to do field exercises, follow and practice the different steps in designing a stove for a particular community group as well as to practice constructing several different stove designs.

The following are two examples of the sessions covered during the training, one technical session and one non-technical session.

Combustion stations and processing

The principles of combustion are usually taught in classroom-based theoretical sessions. It was felt that this was inappropriate for adult learners in the field as it may be too difficult for them to follow a lecture or too boring. Thus in order to provide the trainees with a more appropriate methodology which they could use in their own future training courses a methodology using 10 different 'combustion stations' was introduced. These 'stations' were simply places on the floor where different combustion materials were placed along with various cards containing instructions for the trainees. Participants were divided into pairs and invited to carry out various experiments and make the observations asked for on the instruction cards.

Later, classroom sessions focused on questions and answers about the combustion stations, with some explanation of the importance of the principles of combustion for stove design.

Thus, the combustion stations are an example of how the two types of training were integrated in the workshop.


The session on gender (a non-technical subject) was also designed as an integrated training exercise whereby the trainees could learn about the concept of gender in a stove program as promulgated by the training module as well as gain an understanding of the possible different methodologies that can be used to convey this information. In this particular session three different methodologies were used.

First, the sessions were introduced through a traditional Indonesian song which reflects gender relations. This was translated into English as follows:

For centuries men have dominated women
Put in a cage as beautiful sweet ornaments
Somehow, sometimes men can be made so very weak
Made to bow down with a woman's flirtatious wink

Afterwards, trainees were grouped by country of origin and asked to think of the concept of gender in their own country context and to draw a picture representing this concept of gender.

Each group explained its artistic product and Emma the trainer, noted differences and similarities. The Bangladeshi team explained that gender is often thought of as meaning development projects for women. Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Nepal and Vietnam concentrated on gender as meaning the division of labour. Indonesia brought in some aspects of access to resources and Myanmar was more specific looking at relationships between men and women, domination specifically, for different classes within society. Emma summed up by using a transparency as follows:

SEX refers to the biological differences between females and males.
GENDER refers to the socially defined differences between men and women.

After the discussion on the national perspectives, participants were asked to think about how gender influences a stove program and the responses of trainees from the pioneer Indonesian national training course were shared with them, as below:

Discussing the differences and similarities of gender concepts

Some of the group work visualizing gender within the trainees' own country context 1

Some of the group work visualizing gender within the trainees' own country context 2

Some of the group work visualizing gender within the trainees' own country context 3

Some of the group work visualizing gender within the trainees' own country context 4

Some of the group work visualizing gender within the trainees' own country context 5

Some of the group work visualizing gender within the trainees' own country context 6

Some of the group work visualizing gender within the trainees' own country context 7

Some of the group work visualizing gender within the trainees' own country context 8

Some of the group work visualizing gender within the trainees' own country context 9

Gender is...

Gender in the field...

The difference between the roles of men and women due to socialisation

The role of women is in the kitchen; the role of men is outside, making a living

The division of roles between men and women, in relation to: equity-togetherness-partnership-mutual respect in the lives of people according to their place and time

No real reflection on the meaning of gender in the field as yet. One example: kitchen work is dominated by women

The relationship between men and women in household life; besides this, gender is to fulfil biological needs and represents a process to ensure descendants

Observation has been made of the household tasks of women and men

Equity in household activities-equity in work division-mutual understanding of the reproduction process

Not yet the same as our statement of "gender is..."

This session helped the trainees right from the start to be aware of the importance of integrating gender issues into the overall planning of a stove program as well as for developing or selecting the most appropriate designs for their respective target group. From the TOT point of view the participants also learned the different methodologies introduced and used during the gender sessions. All other sessions were conducted in the same manner.

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