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Medium Term Plan 2002 - 2007

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PART I

From the Strategic Framework to
the Medium Term Plan 2002-2007
General Presentation

CHALLENGES AND DEMANDS ON FAO

1. The challenges facing FAO were amply described in the Strategic Framework 2000-2015 adopted by the Conference in November 1999. This context remains fully valid and provides the fitting foundation for the formulation of the Medium Term Plan for the period 2002-2007. The slow pace of reduction in the number of undernourished people in the world, coupled with the unrelenting incidence of natural disasters and conflict situations, regrettably add to the significance of FAO's efforts to assist the membership in achieving the target set at the World Food Summit, and the global goals of Members which were defined in the Strategic Framework as being:

2. For the sake of brevity, this section of the Plan excludes any review of the trends and external factors which have a bearing on the formulation of FAO programmes over the period of coverage 2002-2007, as these have already been addressed in the Strategic Framework, and associated analytical material.

RESOURCES

Regular Programme

Background

3. The most significant constraint on any plan is the resources that can be made available for the planning period. Despite the indisputable need for action and the demonstrated capacity of FAO to contribute to the efforts of Member Nations in meeting their goals, the Regular Programme resources of the Organization have suffered a major decline of 14.6 percent in real terms: that is, a US$ 95 million reduction in its biennial budget since the approved budget for 1992-93.

4. It is recognised that the entire UN system and even national governments have had to undergo significant reductions over the same period, both in response to the call for stopping the hitherto excessive expansion of governmental structures, and also in the drive for improved efficiency. In fact, it is to FAO's credit that it was able to cope with these major reductions with relatively minor damage to its substantive programmes, whether in the nature of high-priority normative work such as Codex, or operational areas such as the Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP).

5. However, it is important to also recognise that in the above period, FAO was the hardest hit of all UN system agencies with budgets in excess of US$ 100 million per biennium1. In addition, the process has created massive disincentives, in that any efficiency savings made by managers were seen to benefit Members as a reduction in their assessed contributions, instead of being used to reward good management with well-earned programme increases.

Proposal for the Six-Year Planning Period

6. It is, therefore, in the context of a very real demand for FAO's services, the incontrovertible need for its contribution and its well-earned standing as an Organization which has taken the efficiency issue head-on, that the resource assumption for this Plan is more optimistic than recent past experience might point to. The premise is that Members would be prepared to consider a gradual rise in the budget level over the next three biennia to the amount that would have now been reached if a zero growth budget had been maintained.

7. Table 1 shows the indicative level of resources proposed.

TABLE 1: INDICATIVE RESOURCE PROJECTIONS OVER THE THREE BIENNIA OF THE PLAN PERIOD OF COVERAGE (AT CONSTANT COST LEVELS)

Budgetary Chapter/Major Programme

2002-03

2004-06

2006-07

MP 11

Governing Bodies

17,671

17,671

17,671

MP 12

Policy, Direction and Planning

23,979

22,479

22,479

MP 13

External Coordination and Liaison

13,140

13,140

13,140

MP 19

Programme Management

789

789

789

CH 1

General Policy and Direction

55,579

54,079

54,079

MP 21

Agricultural Production and Support Systems

96,887

101,124

102,601

MP 22

Food and Agriculture Policy and Development

94,013

97,951

98,843

MP 23

Fisheries

43,055

45,881

46,448

MP 24

Forestry

33,471

35,134

36,156

MP 25

Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts

58,109

60,303

61,543

CH 2

Technical and Economic Programmes

325,534

340,393

345,591

MP 31

Policy Assistance

28,729

29,629

29,939

MP 32

Support to Investment

46,546

46,546

46,546

MP 33

Field Operations

21,751

19,876

19,876

MP 34

FAO Representatives

82,403

82,403

82,403

MP 35

Cooperation with External Partners

8,786

8,786

8,786

MP 39

Programme Management

882

882

882

CH 3

Cooperation and Partnerships

189,097

188,122

188,432

MP 41

Technical Cooperation Programme

103,368

114,061

123,618

MP 42

TCP Unit

2,632

2,939

3,245

CH 4

Technical Cooperation Programme

106,000

117,000

126,863

MP 51

Information and Publications Support

18,216

18,216

18,216

MP 52

Administration

54,017

48,767

47,767

CH 5

Support Services

72,233

66,983

65,983

CH 6

Common Services

44,790

44,790

44,790

CH 7

Contingencies

600

600

600

 

Total Programme of Work

793,833

811,967

826,338

 

Less: Income

81,752

81,752

81,752

 

Net Appropriation

712,081

730,215

744,586

8. The strategy behind the above figures can be summarised as follows:

9. The budgetary strategy is such that the percentage shares of the budget move in the "right" direction, as demonstrated in the following Chart 1, which shows a gradual decline for non-technical programmes, together with a healthy and sustained growth for technical programmes, including TCP. In other words, Members are being asked to plough back the efficiency savings made by the Organization into their most favoured programmes.

10. It is drawn to the attention of Members that the alternative strategy of again holding resources at no-growth levels would lead to a reduction to technical programmes, as administrative costs in 2002-03 are driven by the imperative to get the new administrative systems up and running.

Impact upon Budgetary Proposals for 2002-03

11. The following Table 2 examines the impact of these proposals on the next biennium 2002-03 and compares them with the budget base for 2000-01.

TABLE 2: COMPARISON WITH THE PROGRAMME OF WORK AND BUDGET 2000-2001

Budgetary Chapter/Major Programme

PWB 2000-2001

MTP's First Biennium 2002-2003

Variance

Percentage of Change

MP 11

Governing Bodies

17,671

17,671

0

0.0%

MP 12

Policy, Direction and Planning

22,479

23,979

1,500

6.7%

MP 13

External Coordination and Liaison

13,140

13,140

0

0.0%

MP 19

Programme Management

789

789

0

0.0%

CH 1

General Policy and Direction

54,079

55,579

1,500

2.8%

MP 21

Agricultural Production and Support Systems

89,378

96,887

7,509

8.4%

MP 22

Food and Agriculture Policy and Development

87,049

94,013

6,964

8.0%

MP 23

Fisheries

39,221

43,055

3,834

9.8%

MP 24

Forestry

30,448

33,471

3,023

9.9%

MP 25

Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts

52,576

58,109

5,533

10.5%

CH 2

Technical and Economic Programmes

298,672

325,534

26,862

9.0%

MP 31

Policy Assistance

27,036

28,729

1,693

6.3%

MP 32

Support to Investment

46,546

46,546

0

0.0%

MP 33

Field Operations

23,876

21,751

(2,125)

(8.9%)

MP 34

FAO Representatives

72,403

82,403

10,000

13.8%

MP 35

Cooperation with External Partners

8,786

8,786

0

0.0%

MP 39

Programme Management

882

882

0

0.0%

CH 3

Cooperation and Partnerships

179,529

189,097

9,568

5.3%

MP 41

Technical Cooperation Programme

89,118

103,368

14,250

16.0%

MP 42

TCP Unit

2,337

2,632

295

12.6%

CH 4

Technical Cooperation Programme

91,455

106,000

14,545

15.9%

MP 51

Information and Publications Support

16,560

18,216

1,656

10.0%

MP 52

Administration

48,767

54,017

5,250

10.8%

CH 5

Support Services

65,327

72,233

6,906

10.6%

CH 6

Common Services

44,790

44,790

0

0.0%

CH 7

Contingencies

600

600

0

0.0%

 

Total

734,452

793,833

59,381

8.1%

 

Less: Income

84,452

81,752

(2,700)

(3.2%)

 

Net Appropriation

650,000

712,081

62,081

9.6%

12. The above projections are based on the following more detailed assumptions:

13. It is emphasised that these resource projections are indicative, in seeking to meet expressed expectations of Members and in pointing to significant resource gaps which need to be addressed to enable FAO to perform efficiently and effectively. It is also noted that the amounts have not yet been subject to the customary analytical rigour associated with the preparation of Programmes of Work and Budget. However, they are considered valid for the purposes of Members in making the policy-level decisions required for the Medium Term Plan.

Arrears

14. At the same time as the Medium Term Plan is being considered by the Governing Bodies, they will also be asked to approve the priorities for the use of arrears. It is drawn to the attention of Members that the receipt of the arrears and approval for their use would take some of the pressure off the increase proposed for 2002-03, in that the one-time costs would not need to result in new assessed contributions. For example, the cost of developing administrative systems, which is covered by the proposals for the use of arrears, is also partially included under 2002-03 as a one-time cost of US$ 7 million. Therefore, the requirements for the Programme of Work and Budget 2002-03 would need to be adjusted downwards depending on the extent of arrears paid and the priorities to which they are applied.

Extra-budgetary Resources for FAO's Normative and
Operational Activities

15. Another possible source of funds beyond the assessments for the Regular Budget and the payment of arrears is voluntary contributions which can be made to support either normative or operational activities, so long as they do not impinge upon the independence of the Organization.

16. During the formulation process which has led up to the production of this document, managers were asked to address the expected use of extra-budgetary resources under each entity. However, the guidance given was that they should only propose such resources where they had a high expectation of their being raised. In other words, the work so far has not aimed at the comprehensive identification of opportunities for those wishing to provide support to programmes through voluntary contributions to the Organization.

17. More work on this aspect may be necessary. Possibly, Members in general, and particularly those interested in creating strategic partnerships with FAO, would be interested in seeing packaged opportunities for extra-budgetary involvement in the Organization's work fully integrated into FAO's Medium Term Plan. A tentative list of possible areas of interest might include:

18. Several of the above-listed illustrative areas for extra-budgetary support would lead to increases in the field programme of FAO. This is considered highly desirable as the decline observed in recent years detracts not only from the Organization's capacity to assist Member Nations in the field, but also from the opportunities for technical staff to test normative concepts in practice and obtain the necessary synergetic feedback to such normative work.

19. Currently efforts are being made to identify the most appropriate strategy for further development of the field programme (see further in Part III under "Leveraging Resources for FAO and its Members"). However, no attempt has been made in this Plan to forecast the evolution of the field programme in the planning period. The only adjustment made to Major Programme 3.3, Field Operations, has been to reflect an initial decline in support cost income and, therefore, the related programme of work, arising from the latest forecast of the likely level of delivery in the year 2000. However, the number of variables and external factors which come into making a forecast beyond the short-term are sufficient to invalidate any figures which could be guessed on the basis of present information.

THE MEDIUM TERM PLAN
OPERATIONALISING THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK

20. The planning process, which has been in progress over the last eight months since the Conference approved the Strategic Framework, has been intense and complex. First and foremost, it had to be founded on the Strategic Framework. In turn, this required the identification of inter-disciplinary solutions to the problems being addressed, which implied a process involving all technical departments working together to develop this Plan.

21. However, it was also recognised that inter-disciplinary approaches carry with them a significant incremental cost arising from the need to form groups from different departments to meet, negotiate and agree on issues such as: the approach to be taken, the priorities to be emphasised and the possible level of resources which may be required. It was, therefore, concluded that inter-disciplinary approaches should only be used where there was a clear advantage in doing so.

22. The initial step taken was to reconvene the inter-departmental Corporate Strategy Working Groups (chaired by the Assistant Directors-General of the technical departments) which had been established to assist in development of the Strategic Framework and to ask them to identify the key inter-disciplinary activities to be addressed in the period 2002-2007. They were asked to apply the original criteria for priority setting as approved within the Strategic Framework2 with the addition of one further criterion, which was stated as being "the importance and likely benefits of taking an inter-disciplinary approach versus a mono-disciplinary approach".

23. The output of these groups was a "guidance note" for each priority area containing: a brief description of the problem to be addressed; the Strategic Objective and Strategy Components which reflected the problem; the objective to be achieved by 2007; the suggested approach, including the contribution expected of each division or office involved; the key external partners and the suggested modality for managing implementation. This exercise was extended to include the work of all existing inter-departmental groups, and led to the eventual identification of 16 Priority Areas for Inter-disciplinary Action (PAIAs) which are detailed in a separate section below.

24. Once the key areas for inter-disciplinary cooperation had been identified, guidelines were issued to all technical units to prepare their Medium Term Plans in the context of the Strategic Framework and the areas for inter-disciplinary action which had been agreed. In developing the entities which make up the detail of their plans (see further the section on "Application of the New Model" below), units were required to ensure that each entity primarily addressed one corporate strategy, and each major output to be produced focused on a single strategic objective. Of course, it was not always possible to strictly meet this guideline, but it was achieved in a very large proportion of the proposals, and thus enhanced the focus of the Medium Term Plan on the Strategic Framework and its strategic objectives as approved by the Conference. It also allowed all data on resources to be analysed and presented by either the structure of the Strategic Framework (i.e. A1, A2, etc.) or the existing programme budget structure (i.e. 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.3, etc.). The following section describes the results of the exercise in terms of the strategic objectives of the Organization, whereas Part II of the document presents the constituent entities within the programme budget structure.

Distribution of Resources by Corporate Strategies and Strategic Objectives

25. The following Chart 2 portrays the distribution by Corporate Strategies (A to E) of resources applied to technical programmes for substantive activities over the entire 2002-2007 period, i.e. the total of the lifetime resource estimates for the programme entities listed in Part II under Chapter 2, Technical and Economic Programmes, and Major Programme 3.1, Policy Assistance. This, therefore, excludes Major Programme 3.2, Support to Investment, and several non-technical programmes which can have a bearing on the achievement of the strategic objectives (e.g. Major Programme 3.5, Cooperation with External Partners). Future Plans will move to a more all-inclusive approach.

26. It may be noted that the above distribution of resources reflects the attribution of the major outputs planned under the various technical projects (TPs) and continuing programme activities (CPs) to the strategic objectives of major relevance. Therefore, whereas a one-to-one relationship had to be established between each major output and one of the 12 Strategic Objectives, the relationships may be more complex at the higher level of whole programme entities, whereby a given TP or CP can contribute to several objectives, depending on the range of outputs. Resources under technical service agreements have been normally pro-rated according to the pattern of contributions to strategic objectives of the TPs and CPs under the same programme heading (e.g. 2.1.1, Natural Resources; 2.1.2, Crops, etc.).

27. Table 3 below provides in matrix form, the distribution of the same resources by the two key dimensions of major programme and strategic objective (from A1 to E3), i.e. representing the aggregated picture of the various programme-level tables in Part II of this document.

TABLE 3: TECHNICAL PROGRAMMES - DISTRIBUTION OF MEDIUM TERM PLAN RESOURCES BY STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES (ENTIRE 2002-2007 PERIOD)

Major Programme

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

E1

E2

E3

2.1

Agricultural Production and Support Systems

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2.2

Food and Agriculture Policy and Development

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2.3

Fisheries

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2.4

Forestry

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2.5

Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts

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3.1

Policy Assistance

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Greater than zero, less than US$ 1.5 million

US$ 1.5 million to 3 million

US$ 3 million to 5 million

More than US$ 5 million


28. It is immediately apparent from the above table that resource distributions by strategic objective within each major programme is not even. This is to be expected given the very different nature of the outputs expected from the departments managing these major programmes. Thus, for example, difference in the concentration of Major Programme 2.1, Agricultural Production and Support Systems, versus that of 2.2, Food and Agriculture Policy and Development, is explained by the purpose of the respective programmes. However, the combined distribution of these two major programmes is similar (at least in percentage terms) to 2.3, Fisheries, and 2.4, Forestry, both of which handle the full breadth of the work within their sectors (i.e. including trade, statistics, etc. which for agriculture, are handled by the Economic and Social Department under Major Programme 2.2).

29. Major Programme 2.5, Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts, concentrates on A1, where its work on sustainable livelihoods is covered, and on C, which includes the Special Programme for Food Security and work on integrated agricultural knowledge in support of policy development. Finally, the concentration of Major Programme 3.1 on policy assistance directed primarily to C1, but with important components under A3 and B2.

30. It should also be noted that the proposed distribution of resources reflects the consequence of selecting areas for priority action over the next six years within the context of the 15-year framework and, therefore, an even distribution is not the aim in the medium-term. Although in the long-term a more even distribution is likely, it will never result in equal allocation - for example, E3 will never attract the same level of resources as E1.

31. Table 4 below provides the breakdown of total programmed resources for substantive work over the Plan period, by Strategic Objectives (A1 to E3).

TABLE 4: DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES OF TECHNICAL PROGRAMMES BY STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES

Strategic Objective

Title

Plan Period 2002-2007
(US$ 000)

Percent of Total

A1

Sustainable rural livelihoods and more equitable access to resources

91 185

9.0%

A2

Access of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups to sufficient, safe and nutritionally adequate food

30 772

3.0%

A3

Preparedness for, and effective and sustainable response to, food and agricultural emergencies

70 488

7.0%

B1

International instruments concerning food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, and the production, safe use and fair exchange of agricultural, fishery and forestry goods

79 773

7.9%

B2

National policies, legal instruments and supporting mechanisms that respond to domestic requirements and are consistent with the international policy and regulatory framework

79 599

7.9%

C1

Policy options and institutional measures to improve efficiency and adaptability in production, processing and marketing systems, and meet the changing needs of producers and consumers

136 348

13.6%

C2

Adoption of appropriate technology to sustainably intensify production systems and to ensure sufficient supplies of food and agricultural, fisheries and forestry goods and services

150 471

14.9%

D1

Integrated management of land, water, fisheries, forest and genetic resources

41 325

4.1%

D2

Conservation, rehabilitation and development of environments at the greatest risk

29 001

2.9%

E1

An integrated information resource base, with current, relevant and reliable statistics, information and knowledge made accessible to all FAO clients

226 371

22.4%

E2

Regular assessments, analyses and outlook studies for food and agriculture

61 445

6.1%

E3

A central place for food security on the international agenda

12 224

1.2%

 

Total

1 009 002

100%

32. The apparent "preponderance" of contributions to "production"-oriented Strategic Objectives
(C1 and C2), if compared to "conservation"-oriented Objectives (D1 and D2) may look somewhat surprising. To some extent, it reflects the different nature of outputs, those under D frequently being contributions by FAO to broader initiatives undertaken with external partners. However, it also reflects the limitations inherent in the classification scheme. In effect, while for instance, FAO's assistance in technology transfer (which is the primary scope of many major outputs, particularly under Major Programmes 2.1, Agricultural Production and Support Systems, and 2.5, Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts) pays due attention to both the productivity enhancement and conservation dimensions, these dimensions are so intertwined that the practice of insisting that each major output be assigned to one strategic objective has tended to favour the broader scope of C where it deals with "sustainable increases in supply" than the narrower focus of D1 and D2.

33. The highest share of resources achieved by the "information"-related Objective E1 is perhaps less surprising, as it reflects faithfully the diffuse FAO information collection and dissemination activities throughout the programme of work. Similarly, the very low allocation to E3 recognises the rather narrow, albeit important scope of this strategic objective, although the exclusion of relevant resources provided under Major programme 3.5, Cooperation with External Partners, also tends to understate the allocation.

34. The scope of underlying activities contributing to the strategic objectives is further explained below.

A.1 Sustainable rural livelihoods and more equitable access to resources

35. The strategy outlined for this objective in the Strategic Framework puts emphasis in particular on the diversification of income opportunities for the rural poor, and the responsiveness of policy interventions to the requirements of disadvantaged rural populations. Several major outputs were, therefore, designed to build special measures to improve rural livelihood into decision-support tools for policy makers at various levels and in relation to various economic sectors (low-input livestock production, small-scale fishing operations, small farm sector, forest-based communities). Other major outputs are geared to pursue and deepen analysis of possible options for ensuring sustainable livelihoods. Beyond these, the greatest share of activities deemed of direct relevance to this strategic objective are those covering, for instance, land tenure arrangements, the furtherance of participatory methods and gender-responsive training and policy formulation. Pertinent activities in support of the relevant PAIA on "Local Institution Building" to improve capacity for achieving sustainable rural livelihoods are also described in detail under the section on "Priority Areas for Inter-disciplinary Action" below.

A.2 Access of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups to sufficient, safe and nutritionally adequate food

36. The import of this objective makes it of utmost relevance to Programme 2.2.1, Nutrition, which has a large number of its major outputs directly contributing to its implementation, particularly as relates to national plans for nutrition and nutrition interventions targeted at household food security. Several analytical studies planned (impact of policies on access to food, economic cost of hunger) and that aspect of FIVIMS, which works towards mainstreaming the targeting of vulnerable groups, also contribute to A2. These activities, therefore, will support further the incorporation of nutrition objectives into national policies, the improvement of diets, including proper handling of food at household level, food quality and safety, and the establishment of a reliable information base for well-targeted programmes.

A.3 Preparedness for, and effective and sustainable response to, food and agricultural emergencies

37. The major Regular Programme contributions come from the Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS), the Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases along with the entity on migratory pest management. However, other preventative and preparedness activities include strengthening of national seed security systems, the global system for plant genetic resources and household food security strategies for emergencies, many of which are delivered to Members in the form of policy advice by the regional policy assistance branches. Work on forest fires also features under this strategic objective.

38. Another PAIA, covered in some detail in the following section, identifies "Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness" together with "Post-Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation" directed at this strategic objective, as an area where greater inter-sectoral collaboration is warranted, and will be actively pursued.

B.1 International instruments concerning food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, and the production, safe use and fair exchange of agricultural, fishery and forestry goods

39. The major outputs dealing with the key instruments developed under the aegis of FAO are directly responsive to this strategic objective, including work on the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources and more generally on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (GRFA) through the related Commission, the Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), Codex Alimentarius, the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.

40. Besides FAO's key function as a forum to develop an appropriate regulatory framework for the agricultural sector, the facilitation of dialogue and understanding is intended to be served by pertinent technical inputs, the use of expert bodies (especially for Codex Alimentarius) and networking activities across countries and regions.

41. Also planned are: analytical studies of trade issues in relation to important commodities, commodity outlook and projections, and assessment of the impact of commodity market developments on food security. Similar work will be carried out for the promotion of fish trade.

B.2 National policies, legal instruments and supporting mechanisms that respond to domestic requirements and are consistent with the international policy and regulatory framework

42. Complementing B1 by action at country level, the implementation of this strategic objective involves a number of major outputs designed to assist Members in the necessary adaptation or updating of national policies and legal frameworks. The scope of FAO's response extends from water policy and river basin management to national forest policies, through seed quality control and certification mechanisms, safe use of pesticides in conformity with international codes and conventions, phytosanitary measures consistent with external obligations, risk analysis and application of food standards, and national fisheries development frameworks in line with international commitments for the sector. The planning period also includes a significant effort to support developing countries in multi-lateral trade negotiations and to enhance commodity development, largely through capacity-building and information dissemination.

C.1 Policy options and institutional measures to improve efficiency and adaptability in production, processing and marketing systems, and meet the changing needs of producers and consumers

43. This strategic objective aims at assisting countries in identifying workable and well-tested options to guide the evolution of their agricultural, forestry and fisheries sectors. In fact, the strategy components outlined in the Strategic Framework called for an active FAO's role in connection with production and distribution systems by identifying priority issues, emerging concerns and opportunities, as well as economic and institutional constraints; promoting diversification and specialisation of production; and encouraging structural adaptations so as to respond to evolving consumption patterns and exploit complementarities among sectors.

44. A significant number of major outputs will contribute to this objective, covering such a wide range of critical aspects as: management of land resources, sustainable crop production systems, the wider use of biodiversity, plant biotechnology applications, well-performing rural/urban linkages in a context of fast urbanisation, efficient commercial services to the agricultural sector, agricultural research, extension and education interfaces, aquaculture development, and forest products marketing.

45. Major inter-disciplinary efforts will be made to support the sectoral work in meeting urban food needs through multi-disciplinary activities on "Food for the Cities". Similar efforts in the areas of biotechnology and organic agriculture are also the subject of proposed Priority Areas for Inter-disciplinary Action.

46. The Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) and the priority given to Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) will be re-enforced through further normative work on integrated production techniques for the major agro-ecological zones.

C.2 Adoption of appropriate technology to sustainably intensify production systems and to ensure sufficient supplies of food and agricultural, fisheries and forestry goods and services

47. This objective deals with FAO's proactive role in facilitating effective research and its application in the field - from advising Members on the most appropriate technology for a given situation through to actively influencing the international research agenda based upon practical experiences in the field. This, in turn, should assist in bridging the gap between research results and effective realisation at the field level.

48. In this regard, particular attention will be given during this period to biotechnology in agriculture, fisheries and forestry, through the proposed Priority Area for Inter-disciplinary Action which will address issues such as the value of biotechnology, its benefits and potential risks, its importance to national development and the requirements for capacity-building in developing countries.

49. Again, a significant number of "technology"-oriented major outputs are expected to contribute to this objective including work covering: efficient water use and conservation, land and soil productivity, integrated crop management practices including alternative crops, irrigation techniques, weed management, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), veterinary services and livestock production technologies, mechanisation and post-harvest management, the application of nuclear techniques, and the promotion of research and extension links with farming conditions building on contacts with NARS. Similar outputs will be provided in the context of marine resources, inland fisheries and aquaculture, and forest plantations and the appropriate utilisation of forest products.

50. As a very important contributor to this objective, the SPFS will pursue its gradual expansion in low-income, food-deficit countries (LIFDCs) demonstrating with a fully participatory approach the potential of well-tested and simple technologies.

D.1 Integrated management of land, water, fisheries, forest and genetic resources

51. Activities contributing to this strategic objective are principally in terms of work on the conservation of plant and animal genetic resources under the umbrella of the Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and of the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources; work on responsible inland fisheries and aquaculture, and on coastal areas; major outputs dealing with waterlogging and salinity control as well as water quality management, agro-forestry systems and gender and natural resource management.

52. This strategic objective also includes support to implementation of Agenda 21 and related international environment agreements, other than those dealing with fragile ecosystems which are covered under D2.

53. Again, this should not be interpreted as lack of attention to the long-term sustainability in the management of the natural resource base which underpins agriculture, fisheries and forestry, as many other outputs contributing to other strategic objectives (including policy advisory services) do have a strong dimension of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

D.2 Conservation, rehabilitation and development of environments at the greatest risk

54. Given the need for an inter-disciplinary approach to fragile ecosystems, the major thrust will be through a PAIA on "Strengthening Capacity for Integrated Ecosystem Management" which will initially concentrate on drylands and mountains with a view to producing inter-sectoral guidelines and policy advice. Normative work on the economics of environmental sustainability will also contribute, as will support to environmental agreements and promotion of integrated environmental planning.

E.1 An integrated information resource base, with current, relevant and reliable statistics, information and knowledge made accessible to all FAO clients

55. The very substantial number of major outputs assigned in terms of their primary scope to this strategic objective, confirms the pervasive nature of the information collection and dissemination function of FAO, with pride of place for statistics-related activities and for WAICENT. The latter also have an important influence on the resource distribution pattern. Two PAIAs are, moreover, fully responsive to strategy components listed in the Strategic Framework, in dealing with "Definitions, Norms, Methodologies and Quality of Information" and "Spatial Information Management and Decision Support Tools".

56. While details of the various information components under the pertinent programme entities can be found in Part II, as also specifically called for in the Strategic Framework, it may be noted that the Plan gives due emphasis to the improvement of global data series and data sources at national level, and to wider access to FAO's wealth of information, through entities designed for this purpose (one of them focusing on Africa).

57. The special provision introduced in the Programme of Work and Budget 2000-2001 (programme entity 222P5) for the Improvement of Language Coverage is proposed to be extended throughout the Plan period.

E.2 Regular assessments, analyses and outlook studies for food and agriculture

58. In similar ways, activities pertinent to this strategic objective cut across sectoral boundaries (livestock, commodities, fisheries, forestry, natural resources) while one PAIA deals with needed enhanced cooperation in this area, particularly as regards "Global Perspective Studies". The major flagship publications, Agriculture Towards 20XX, the State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA), the State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA), the State of the World's Forests (SOFO), the Commodity Market Review, complemented by other outlook studies, will continue to provide the international community and the public at large with authoritative assessments in the major areas of FAO's mandate.

E.3 A central place for food security on the international agenda

59. This strategic objective derives from the World Food Summit Plan of Action and is closely related to E2. It is addressed through World Food Summit reporting and formal follow-up arrangements through the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) including, in particular, for the medium-term review in 2006. Another major output which contributes, is the State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI). Although not included in the resources, it should be recognised that an important contribution is also made to this strategic objective by Major Programme 3.5, Cooperation with External Partners, in working with civil society and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) to raise the global profile of food security issues.

APPLICATION OF THE NEW MODEL

60. Besides the need to rethink FAO's current priorities, programmes and activities through the new lens represented by the longer-term Strategic Objectives endorsed by the Conference, all units responsible for the substantive work of FAO were requested to pursue and refine the application of the revised programming model.

61. It is worth recalling that the enhanced planning methodology embodies the following features:

62. The constituent building blocks or "entities" of the substantive programmes of FAO are to be seen in terms of technical projects (TPs), continuing programme activities (CPs) and technical service agreements (TSs), defined as follows:

63. The guidance provided to all concerned units was not only to take account of the agreed Strategic Framework and to extend the planning horizon up to the year 2007 (building on the preliminary experience of applying the new model in the Programme of Work and Budget 2000-2001), but also to seek a wider use of the TP modality and to consolidate TS entities wherever relevant, in line with the advice of Governing Bodies.

64. The results of this analytical effort will be found in Part II of this document, where it is recalled that "substantive work" is conventionally understood as the sum total of the five major programmes comprising Chapter 2, Technical and Economic Programmes, of the Programme of Work and Budget and Major Programme 3.1, Policy Assistance. This work is buttressed by equally important Regular Budget-financed "windows" for investment support (Major Programme 3.2, Support to Investment) and for technical assistance (Chapter 4, Technical Cooperation Programme), as well as the essential contribution of FAO's extra-budgetary field programmes.

65. Headquarters units were also requested to carry out thorough consultations with their outposted staff in Regional and Sub-regional Offices, so that the activities presented in Part II reflect a fully integrated programme of work with common objectives and major outputs. Altogether, the proposed substantive programme of work to respond to the Corporate Strategies to address Members' needs as specified in Part II, comprises 73 TPs, 60 CPs and 26 TSs (excluding programme management entities), reflecting a more balanced use of the TP and CP modalities than in the Programme of Work and Budget 2000-2001.


1 UN General Assembly A/53/647, Table 1

2 Strategic Framework 2000-15, paragraph 154

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