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algin or alginic acid: a polymer composed mostly of B-1,4 linked D-mannuronic acid residues with variable amounts of L-guluronic acid. Alginic acid is present in the intercellular spaces and cell walls of the Phaeophyceae.

anisogamy: fusion of morphologically dissimilar male and female gametes, where the smaller motile gamete is male and the larger nonmotile gamete is female. (Vs. isogamy.) (E.g. oogamy.)

antherozoid: cf. spermatozoid

apical growth: growth by means of an apical cell dividing to form the thallus beneath it.

autumn seedlings: cf. autumn sporelings

autumn sporelings ( = autumn seedlings): sporelings which develop from zoopores collected in mid-October; used in the 1950's in China for sporeling cultivation in seawater

cell wall: algal cell walls are made up of two components: (i) the fibrillar component which forms the skeleton of the wall (cellulose) and (ii) the amorphous intercellular component which forms a matrix within which the fibrillar component is embedded.

cellulose: polysaccharide composed of B-1,4 linked glucose molecules that forms the main skeletal framework of most algal cell walls.

chloroplast: plastid with chlorophyll.

chromatophore: a chloroplast with some other colour than green.

connecting rope: thin polyester rope used for attaching culture ropes to raft ropes

cortex: outer part of an algal thallus.

culture mat (= sporeling curtain): sporeling rope wrapped around a wooden frame or woven between wooden end–pieces, used for collecting zoospores and raising sporelings in the seedling station

culture rope: thicker usually three-strand coir palm fibre rope to which seaweed sporelings or other sea organisms (mussels) are attached; culture ropes are suspended from raft ropes for grow-out

culture tank: cement tank used in seedling-rearing stations for raising sporelings

dioecious (= heterothallic): an organism that has male and female gametes borne on separate plants; vs. monoecious or homothallic

diploid: somatic cell produced through mitosis and possessing two sets of chromosomes or two genomes (2N)

egg: large non-motile female gamete.

epidermis: outer layer of cells in frond tissue.

eutrophic: term that describes a body of water that receives large amounts of nutrients, usually resulting in a large growth of algae. (Vs. oligotrophic.)

frond: cf. thallus, sporophyte plant.

fucoidan: a polysaccharide found in the cell wall and mucilage of the Phaeophyceae composed of sulfated fucose units

gametangium: structure forming gametes (female oogonium or male spermatangium)

gamete: haploid reproductive cell capable of sexual fusion with another gamete to form a zygote; gametes may be motile (planogametes or swarmers) or nonmotile (aplanogametes); vs. spore

gametogenesis: the formation of gametes by gametophytes; vs. sporogenesis

gametophyte: haploid plant generation that forms gametes

grow-out: the final stages of sporophyte growth following transplantation of kelp plants to culture ropes; culture ropes are suspended from raft ropes for kelp grow-out; grow-out lasts about 7–1/2 to 8 months, between mid-November and mid-July in northern China

haploid: sexual cell resulting from meiosis that has half (n) of the total gene complement; vs. diploid

hapteron: cf. holdfast

heteromorphic (antithetic) alternation of generations: the alternation of generations between small haploid plants (gametophytes) bearing gametes and large diploid plants (sporophytes) bearing spores. (Vs. isomorphic alternation of generations.)

heterothallic (= dioecious): producing male and female gametangia on different plants; vs. homothallic or monoecious holdfast: part of an alga that attaches the sporophyte plant to the substrate

homothallic: producing male and female gametangia on the same plant; vs. heterothallic

hydrophilic: water-attracting; e.g. hydrocolloid or phycocolloid

intermediate culture: period of 2–4 weeks immediately following seedling-rearing, during which sporeling culture mats are disassembled and sporeling ropes are suspended from rafts in seawater; the prupose of intermediate culture is to allow sporelings to grow in size to 10–25 cm in preparation for transplantation to culture ropes

isogamy: fusion of morphologically and physiologically similar male and female gametes which, because they do not show male and female characteristics, must be referred to as plus (+) and minus (-) gametes; vs. anisogamy

isomorphic (homologous) alternation of generations: the alternation of haploid (gametophytic) plants bearing gametes with structurally identical diploid (sporophytic) plants bearing spores. (Vs. heteromorphic alternation of generations.)

intercalary: in between two cells or tissues.

intertidal: occurring between the low and high tide marks

karyogamy: fusion of two gamete nuclei; vs. plasmogamy

kelp: a member of the Laminariales (Phaeophyceae)

kelp culture rope: culture rope with kelp plants attached

kombu: Japanese vegetable made from Laminaria plants

laminarin: high molecular weight secondary photosynthate, a food storage polysaccharide in the Phaeophyceae composed principaly of B-1, 3 linked glucans containing 16 to 31 glucose residues; laminarin occurs as an oil—like liquid outside of the chloroplasts in a vesicle surrounding the pyrenoid

laminate: flat, flat blade, flat part of the blade

life cycle of Laminaria: zoospore (N) → gametophyte → male and female gametes (spermatozoids and eggs) --> fertilized zygote (2N) --> sporeling --> sporophyte

littoral zone: zone from the water's edge to a water depth of about 6 m or the maximum depth of rooted vegetation mannitol: low molecular weight primary photosynthate, a phyol or sugar alcohol present in the Phaeophyceae

medulla: cf. pith

meiospore: zoospore (N) formed by meiosis

meristoderm: cf. meristem

meristem: dividing layer of cells

monoecious or homothallic: having male and female gemetangia borne on the same plant; vs. dioecious or heterothallic

neap tide: lowest monthly tide

neritic region: ocean region that extends from the high tide mark to a depth of 200 m

oligotrophic: term describing a body of water low in nutrients; vs. eutrophic

oogamy: fusion of a large non-motile egg with a small motile sperm

oogonium: single—celled female gamete

organelle: a membrane-bounded organ within a cell

ovum or egg: non-motile large female gamete

paraphysis: sterile structure found in sporangial sori

pelagic: living at or near the surface of the open sea

pith: inner part of algal thallus

tannin or fucosan: colorless acidic fluid found in physodes in the Phaeophyceae

photosynthate: organic product of photosynthesis

phycocolloid: polysaccharide hydrocolloid formed by algae; has the property of holding water in suspension

planogamete: motile gamete

planospore: motile spore

plastid: double-membrane bounded cell organelle usually containing the photosynthetic pigments plurilocular sporangium: many-chambered sporangium in the Phaeophyceae, each chamber forming one motile zoospore; vs. unilocular sporangium

productivity: change in biomass per unit time

pyrenoid: proteinaceous area of the chloroplast associated with the formation of photosynthates

rhizoids: rootlike filaments without vascular tissue which form the holdfast

raft rope: thick polyester rope, usually buoyed by glass or plastic floats, from which culture ropes are suspended in shallow sea waters during grow-out

seedling: cf. sporeling

seedling rearing: cf. sporeling rearing

seedling-rearing station: (= seedling station) glass house used for raising sporelings under artificial conditions using water cooled to 8–12o C; consists of indoor water circulation system, settling tanks, filtration tanks, refrigeration system and glass house with culture tanks

seedling station: cf. seedling-rearing station

sieve cell (= trumpet cell): cell in the pith of the Laminariales involved in active transport of photosynthates

sieve plate: end wall in a trumpet cell with pores through which the cytoplasm is continuous (plasmodesmata)

sorus: sac cluster of reproductive cells on the blade

spermatozoid (= antherozoid): male gamete produced by the male gametophyte

sporangial sorus (plu. sporangial sori): reproductive structures on Laminaria blades which produce zoospores

sporangium: spore-producing cell found in the sporangial sorus

spore: diploid reproductive cell which germinates without sexual fusion to form a sporophyte plant; vs. gamete

sporeling (= seedling): early lifeform of sporophyte plant which develops from the fertilized zygote; sporelings attached to culture mats are raised in the seedling-rearing station

sporeling curtain (= seedling curtain): cf. culture mat sporeling-rearing (= seedling rearing): raising of sporelings in the seedling-rearing station

sporeling rope: thin single-stranded coir palm fibre rope used for collecting zoospores and for growing sporelings in the seedling-rearing station

sporogenesis: production of zoospores by the sporophyte plant; cf. gametogenesis

sporophyte: diploid plant that forms spores

spring tide: highest monthly tide

stipe: stem-like organ between holdfast and blade

sublittoral zone: littoral zone between the low tidewater mark and a depth of about 20 m which receives enough light to support rooted vegetation

summer sporelings (= summer seedlings): sporelings which develop from zoospores collected in mid-July; used in modern sporeling-rearing in seedling-rearing stations

swarmer: a general term for any motile cell

syngamy: fusion of gametes

thallus or thallophyte (= frond = sporophyte plant): plant lacking true roots, stem and leaves; has holdfast, stipe and blade

transplantation: the operation of removing sporelings from sporeling ropes and attaching them to culture ropes in preparation for grow-out; transplantation takes place in early to mid-November in northern China

trumpet hyphae: drawn-out sieve cells, wider at the cross-walls than in the middle of the cells; trumpet cells form a network of connecting cells in the pith which transport photosynthates through the blade

unilocular sporangium: sporangium composed of a single cell producing zoospores usually by meiosis; cf. plurilocular sporangium

uniseriate: having a single row of cells

upwelling: an area of the ocean where nutrient-rich bottom water rises to the surface

zoosporangium: sporangium that forms zoospores zoospore: a flagellated planospore formed in specialized cells called sporangia which develop in sporangial sori

zoosporogenesis: formation of zoospores

zygote: fertilized cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes


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