As an introduction of the present section the consultants team wants to point out the following elements :
- The field phase of that mission lasted from November 10 to November 24 only ;
- Obviously, during that short period it was not possible to make an exhaustive inventory of suitable sites for shrimp culture but only to make a general assessment of the physical potentialities ;
- That assessement was made from :
- Discussions held with officers of the “Soil Survey Department”,
- aerial survey.
Under these conditions, the following comments concerning both the potentialities for grow-out ponds and hatcheries in Suriname must be considered as a preliminary approach and not as final conclusions.
2.1. FAVOURABLE AREAS
During the aerial survey, between the coastal mangrove line and the Cottica, Commewijne, Saramacca rivers, a large strip of lands, almost dry to swampy, savanna or bush covered has been identified.
These lands are low, almost flat, the soils are made of clay to sandy clay, with their upper layer deeply organic. In some places, sulfate acid soils may be found.
In the East of the Suriname river estuary, a large amount of these flat lands has been formerly drained and polderised to implement agricultural farms. Draining canals and cultivation fields are still existing, yet more or less invaded by vegetation.
Access to the eastern part is possible by using the rivers, and a road exists on the western part.
Due to the general currents influence, the muddy fresh water is diffusing to the western part of the estuaries. There, the muddy foreshore is very large at low tide.
2.2. PERSPECTIVE OF DEVELOPMENT
On the Eastern coast, down to the Maroni river, about 30 000 to 50 000 hectares should be suitable for shrimp culture. About 20 000 to 30 000 of them are former polder areas.
On the Western coast, up to the Saramacca mouth, between 40 000 and 60 000 hectares have been identified as apparently suitable.
The southern parts of these areas, close to the rivers have not been taken into account. They are supposed to receive too much fresh water. More distant from the sea, their marine water supply should be more difficult and part of them are used for rice farms.
This amount of 70 000 to 100 000 hectares could be used on a long term. Topography and soil quality surveys should allow to display the lowest areas (undrainable), the too young soils (organic) and the sulfate acid soils (toxic).
The formerly polder areas, where the already cultivated soils should be stabilized, appear easier to develop by using the remaining structures. Besides, on the sea water intakes should provide better quality brackish water.
On a medium term, a surface of 10 000 to 40 000 hectares is under concern in the Eastern part.
VERY WET COASTAL AREAS (ON THE EAST COST)
APPARENTLY UNSUITABLE FOR GROW-OUT PONDS
WET SAVANNA (SWAMPY) ON THE WEST COAST OF THE SURINAME ESTUARY
- SUITABLE ON LONG TERM FOR GROW-OUT PONDS -
EFFICIENT IMPROVEMENT, BY DRAINAGE, OF A SWAMPY FORMER POLDER
FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GROW-OUT PONDS
(SITE LOCATED ON THE EAST COST OF THE SURINAME ESTUARY)
FORMER POLDERS, PRESENTLY ABANDONNED, ON THE EAST COAST
OF THE SURINAME ESTUARY
3.1. SUGGESTED GROW-OUT TECHNICS
Several choices can be considered when planning a shrimp project, among which the degree of intensification of the grow-out process is the basic one.
In theory, all levels of grow-out intensification exist, but it is possible to make the following subdivisions.
3.1.1. Extensive shrimp culture
This is the traditional type of culture, widely developed in South East Asia, mainly Indonesia and the Philippines.
- Juveniles are collected from the wild,
- Shrimps are reared in large earthen ponds ;
- Brackishwater renewal is supplied by tidal action ;
- Pond water is fertilized with agricultural wastes, shrimps are not fed a particular diet.
This technology leads to production yields of 50 to 500 kg/ha/year.
3.1.2. Semi-intensive shrimp culture
That type of culture has become the most widely used in Ecuador, a leading country in the field of shrimp culture, and is gradually being applied in South East Asia too.
- Juveniles may be collected from the wild, but shrimp production requirements make production of juveniles by hatcheries necessary in most cases for supply regularity.
- Grow-out takes place in large earthen ponds ;
- Brackishwater rate of renewal should be around 10 to 15 % daily, and thus would usually require a pumping station ;
- Shrimps are fed a well-balanced compound diet, prepared on the ground of a good knowledge of the species nutritional requirements.
|EXTENSIVE CULTURE||SEMI-INTENSIVE CULTURE||INTENSIVE CULTURE||HIGH INTENSIVE CULTURE|
|COUNTRIES||ECUADOR PHILIPPINES INDONESIA…||ECUADOR NEW CALEDONIA FIJI…||TAIWAN||JAPAN||FRENCH POLYNESIA|
|SPECIES||MONODON INDICUS STYLI, VANNAMEI||MONODON STYLIROSTRIS VANNAMEI||MONODON||JAPONICUS||VANNAMEI|
|SEED SOURCE||WILD||WILD + HATCHERIES||HATCHERIES||HATCHERIES||HATCHERIES|
|STOCKING DENSITY||1 to 5 /m2||PG 100 /m2|
GO 7 to 12 /m2
|10 to 40 /m2||100 to 250 /m2||500 to 5000 /m2|
|POND SIZE||3 to 100 HA||0.5 to 10 HA||0.2 to 0.5 HA||0.03 to 0.1 HA||50 to 500 m2|
|TOTAL CULTURE AREA||20000 HA||25000 HA||2500||250 HA||experimental|
|AERATION||none||usually none||air-blower paddle-wheel||air-blower||air-blower|
|FEED||natural + artificial||artificial compound||artificial + trash fish-prawn||artificial + shellfish||artificial|
|FEED COST (US$)||20 % protein 0.3 to 0.55 /KG||35 % protein 0.5 to 0.8 /KG||40–45 % protein 1.0 to 1.5 /KG||60 % protein 3.0 to 3.5 /KG||45 % protein 2.0 /KG|
|SURVIVAL||55 to 60 %||60 to 70 %||60 to 80 %||70 to 80 %||70 %|
|PRODUCTION YIELD||0.2 – 1.0 T/HA/yr||2.0 – 4.0 T/HA/yr||5 – 20 T/HA/yr||5 – 25 T/HA/yr||30 – 40 T/HA/yr|
|CHOICE CRITERIA||vast areas available||large areas available||no space - skilled expensive labour||no space - skilled expensive labour||no space - skilled expensive labour|
|MARKET SIZE||19 to 22 g||20 to 25 g||25 to 35 g||17 to 20 g||15 to 20 g|
That technology leads to production yields of 2 to 4 tons/ha/year, and is the one contemplated in the following evaluation.
3.1.3. Intensive shrimp culture
Recently developed, an intensive grow-out technology has been optimized for some Penaeid shrimp species, and is now reliable enough to allow commercial ventures development.
The technology is based on a very strict control of parameters such as water management, aeration, fertilization of the water, and feeding the shrimps with a perfectly balanced diet.
Grow-out takes place in concrete or part concrete tanks.
The management of such farms has to be very accurately monitored and requires highly skilled staff.
This technology can lead to production yields of up to 20 to 30 tons/ha/year.
The semi-intensive technology is now highly reliable, and allows development of large production farms. That technology is being gradually applied in Latin America and to a lesser extent in South East Asia.
As regards the very important land potential in the country and the sophistication level of the different technologies, the recommended one in Suriname would be the semi-intensive.
3.2. AVAILABILITY OF SEED
Possibilities in the area :
Four penaeid shrimps species are present : Penaeus subtilis -(brown), P. aztecus (pink), P. schmitti (White), P. lobsoni (pink spotted).
The large mangrove areas are important natural nursery zones, and post-larvae and juveniles should widely exist.
But we don't have precise datas on the quantities, the catching years, the occurence season. Anyway, as a matter of fact, it is risky to base a large development of shrimp culture on the supply from the wild (see the present difficulties in Ecuador due to the shortage of wild fry).
Taking into account the present status of the art in the hatchery process, it is clear that the quality of available waters from estuaries, rivers, sea and specially the salinity and turbidity, do not allow the implementation of any industrial Penaeid shrimp hatchery in Suriname. Salinity above 28 ‰ (optimum 32 – 35 ‰) is necessary to obtain a good breeders maturation and to complete efficiently the larval rearings. So far, it appears difficult to find in Suriname sites where such salinities are available throughout the year.
Considering the experiments in progress, and the technology evolution, it might be possible, on a long term to implement a recirculating water hatchery.
Possibilities of the market :
Beside the development of shrimp culture in Latin America, there is now a shortage in post-larvae supply. Hatcheries implementation are planned on a big scale to solve this problem, and several are already working.
In a next future offered quantities will be higher and prices lower. Anyway, it is already possible to buy post-larvae on the international market. Regularity of supply should be ensured by using different species from different origins.
On a short term, that solution (import of fry) would be considered.
3.3. SUGGESTED SPECIES
Within the tropical Penaeid shrimp species, 4 are widely reared under mainly semi-intensive technology : they are P. monodon, and P. indicus common in the asian waters, and P. vannamei and P. stylirostris both found in the tropical Pacific waters of Latin America.
Among the local species, P. schmitti has been reared under experimental or pilot conditions in the Caribbean and Northern part of South America. However, the state of the art is still less developed than for the other 4 species.
Hence the first suggested species is P. vannamei fry market of which is already developed. Due to the temperature conditions, P. stylirostris is less advisable.
If P. monodon post larvae can be found (purchased on the international market of post-larvae), they would be very interesting too, but the feed protein requirement is higher than for the other species.
Provided good results be achieved with P. schmitti, that species could be considered in the future.
4.1. JUSTIFICATION OF THE FARM
Up to now, no shrimp culture has been tried in Suriname, and mone experience is available in the country.
As regards the special conditions of the future farm :
- Necessary polderisation ;
- Brackish water characteristics
It seems highly advisable to demonstrate locally (under these specific conditions) with a pilot farm the technical feasibility of shrimp culture.
The declared objectives of that pilot-farm will be :
To demonstrate that the implementation of shrimp farms and shrimp culture will be possible. By adapting the existing technology to the local conditions, it will allow the future farmers to avoid the usual starting mistakes.
As regards the possible development of large farms, we recommend a bigger size for the pilot project than formerly proposed. A 20 ha farm would allow the operation of 5 ha ponds, a representative size of the average pond size used today.
Hatcheries being excluded in the preliminary development and post-larvae being available on the international market, only the growing phase will be carried out on the pilot farm (tests one pregrowing are not technically justified).
4.2. OBJECTIVES OF PRODUCTION STANDARDS ON THE PILOT FARM
- Ponds size : 5 ha
- Water renewal : 10 %/day
- Growing period : 5.5 months (about)
- Survival rate : 50–70 %
- Initial density : 8–12/m2 (with P.L. 40 ; 40 days old post-larvae)
- Feed conversion rate : 2.5 (With a feed at 35 % protein and costing about 0,60 US $/kg)
- Production yield : 2.5 T/ha of grow-out pond/year (average weight at harvest : about 25 g/annual, bead-on).