Stage 1 quarantine facilities should if possible be located near the main import site, Port Moresby airport. The Dept of Fisheries main office at Kanudi is probably the most convenient choice, as this is within 30 minutes of the airport, has reasonable services, access to skilled staff, and a sufficent area of land within its boundaries. It is enclosed by a security fence and is a sufficient distance from Port Moresby itself to have fewer security problems. Additionally, it is within reasonable distance of the National Veterinary Laboratory at Kila Kila.
No ancillary centres would be proposed, as it is important that quarantine activities be concentrated in one site wherever possible.
Figure 5 shows suggested layouts and Table 4 outlines typical dimensions/specifications for the quarantine unit. This system would have to accommodate both warm and cold water species, and so would require some form of environmental control. As batch quantities and holding duration will not be too large, some form of simplified recycle system will probably be most suitable - operated as several separate units. At a minimum level an ambient small-tank system, a controlled temperature small-tank system, and several larger single-tank units could be proposed.
Water supplies can be obtained from domestic services, suitably aerated and dechlorinated, while waste water can be run to a soakaway, in which it would be chlorinated to sterilise it. Dead or sacrificed fish would be disposed of by incineration or by burying in a well-limed disposal pit.
It is probably not feasible at this stage to consider using this site for longer-term holding, as it is not particularly well suited to either of the main Sepik/Ramu environments, and has a relatively limited water supply. It also is not on the Sepik/Ramu catchment. In this event it will probably be necessary to use one or more of the distribution centres (see later) for stage 2/3 quarantine. This should be quite adequate for species already in PNG and for other lower-risk introductions. Should this prove unworkable because of higher introduction risks it would be necessary to develop a purpose built centre.
Figure 5 Suggested layout details; quarantine system
Table 4: Typical dimensions/specifications, quarantine station
At least two separate recycle system assemblies, inside, 12 by 2001, one of which in temperature-controlled enclosure. 4 outside flow-through tanks, approx 4m dia. Additional glass, plastic tanks for assembly as required to main services, etc. 6 self-enclosed recycle tanks, approx 1m3, shaded. Basic inspection/analysis laboratory Complete area easily cleanable, sterilised, concrete/tile finishes. Disposal facilities for waste water, fish, packing material, etc.
Land area required:
Approx 500m2; land adjacent to Fisheries Dept office, Kanudi.
2 × (12 × 2001) recycle systems, glass or GRP tanks, with circulating pump, aeration settling, biofiltration, optional UV sterilisation, backup ion-exchange unit. One system with air heating/cooling in insulated enclosure, with additional water temp control. 4 × flowthrough tanks, approx 10m3, with aeration, GRP or frame and liner type 6 × selfcontained recycle tanks, airlift operated, GRP, corrugated steel or frame and liner Additional tanks, 50 to 5001, plastic, glass, etc for assembly as needed.
Mains water, fed to header tank; aerated. Also collected rainwater tank if possible. Recycled systems require approx 2 to 3% flow as fresh input, also new water to recharge systems after drainage/cleaning.
Twin blower unit, continuous operation, approx 0.5kW, feeding 60–75mm main with droppers to tank units, header tanks, filters, etc. Conventional diffusers, to be sterilised regularly.
Mains power with backup generator; approx 5kW required for aeration, pumps and temperature control. Power line run above tanks, with earth leakage circuit breakers.
Sump/soakaway pit approx 5m3, at least 200m from water course, with chlorine doser Drum incinerator for packaging, etc. Lime pits to be dug as required for solid wastes.
Approx 15 to 20m2 lab area with, cleanable work surfaces, floor and walls can be hosed down. With fridge/freezer, equipment store, simple isolation area for bacteriology, stainless steel sink, solid waste collecting bin.
At least one pickup truck, 500kg or more payload, pref.4wd, back must be completely washable, with transport tanks, air/oxygen system, storage tank for waste material, etc.
Arriving stock - normally eggs or fry, usually in egg trays or oxygenated polythene bags - would be collected at the airport by staff from the quarantine centre. All documentation should be available and cleared, indicating the quarantine centre as the only destination. On balance it is probably simpler to carry exchange water on the collection vehicle, together with a dump tank for collecting transport water, dead stock, internal packing materials, for disposal at the quarantine station. Ample supplies of disinfectant should also be carried, to disinfect any areas in the airport where transport water has been spilled, etc.
Prior to use, quarantine tanks would be cleaned, sterilised, rinsed and filled with well-aerated water at the appropriate temperature. After primary disinfection, etc in eg a suitable dip or bath tank, stock should be carefully introduced, and the relevant tanks correctly labelled. Routine sampling and observation can then be carried out. Stock should be kept in good condition by good water management and moderate feeding. If required, a portion of the stock could be stressed - eg in poorer environmental conditions, to determine whether any latent conditions are present. In many cases the stress of transport itself is sufficient to stimulate any disease present. Dead fish should be disposed of promptly, after any samples have been taken for analysis.
Once the stock has been cleared, it can be transported by road and/or air to the later stage quarantine or distribution centres. All transport containers, etc should be routinely cleaned and disinfected. Eggs of reliable origin would normally be cleared quickly through the system after thorough disinfection, to be hatched or distributed from the appropriate centre. Eggs hatched at the quarantine centre would be normally have to be taken past first-feeding before transport.
Outline costs for the system are shown in Table 5. In practice the cost of establishing the unit will depend greatly on how it is done. The cheapest and simplest approach will be to set it up with direct supervision from project staff, using local labour and minor works contractors or tradesmen, and making use of relatively simple structures and simple techniques. Most of the specialist equipment will have to be imported, but could be assembled locally with competent supervision.
Table 5:- outline capital costs; basic quarantine system
|Item||Unit||Number req'd||Unit cost Kina||Total cost Kina|
|Contingencies at:||15% total capital cost||7000|
(1) - base on upgrade of existing buildings/construction of simple shade area
Typical operating costs are shown in Table 6.
Table 6:- outline operating cost, quarantine centre
|Item||Unit||No.reqd||Unit cost Kina||Total Kina|
|Maintenance||allow 5% of total capital costs:||2675|
|Contingencies: at||15% of total operating cost||2500|
(1) allow for part-time involvement of management and technician staff, driver, etc.
(2) for additional vehicle, boat or other hires
Outline costs for a purpose-built centre are shown in Table 7. If a separate site were necessary additional costs of site development- eg for better water supplies, security, office/ other facilities, as indicated, would have to be included.
Table 7:- outline capital costs; purpose-built quarantine system
|Item||Unit||Number||Unit cost||Total cost|
|Contingencies at:||15% total capital cost||11900|
(1) - new construction; average of higher cost laboratory buildings and lower cost shaded/light framed tank areas
A protocol for handling introduced stock is outlined; three levels of quarantine are proposed, depending on the protection and lifecycle requirements involved. In the initial stages, basic primary stage quarantine facilities are probably best located at the Fisheries Department offices at Kanudi, where relatively simple facilities could be set up within the existing complex, and supported within existing infrastructure. To handle the range of species likely to be considered, simple environmental control facilities will be required. For longer-term holding, it would be convenient to transfer stocks to separated areas within the proposed distribution centres.
Outline estimates place initial capital cost at around K50,000–60,000 (53,500) assuming moderate use of existing facilities at Kanudi and construction by local staff or jobbing contractors. A purpose-built facility of similar specification would cost at least K90,000 (91,400), excluding additional infrastructure. Using larger contractors and formal tender and supervision procedures could increase this cost considerably, possibly by 100% or more. Initial operating costs, based on shared resources with Kanudi, and backup resources from the National Veterinary Laboratory at Kila Kila, are estimated at about K20,000 (19,075).
Quarantine facilities should be developed as early as possible in the project; at least 3 months, preferably 6 months or more before the first intended introductions. Steps should be taken as soon as possible to confirm a site and prepare more detailed plans and equipment specifications. It would be advisable initially to test the system with local species from another watershed, before using it for imported stocks.