1. PROPOSAL CONTENT AND EVALUATION CRITERIA
Importance and Significance of the Work
This proposal is one of eight research plans comprising the initial research programme of the Brackishwater Station (BS) of the Fisheries Research Institute (FRI). These proposals have been prepared within the overall framework of the original Five Year Research Plan envisaged for the BS, but additionally take into account the present lack of experimental and laboratory facilities due to the delay in acquiring the selected site in Paikgacha. The proposed work should be conducted in the field using existing FRI staff who have already been assigned to the BS plus additional staff specifically recruited for the BS.
Since some access to laboratory facilities will be necessary, it is recommended that, until such time that construction of the BS is completed and it becomes fully operational, project staff will be based at the FRI headquarters at Mymensingh under the supervision of the CSO appointed for the BS.
The proposed three years project on the identification and evaluation of brackishwater species (other than shrimp) as possible candidates for aquaculture in Bangladesh should commence as soon as the necessary project staff are available.
Fisheries production in Bangladesh is extremely important to the economy. Although the capture and culture fisheries contribute about 2.9 % of the GDP and 9% of foreign exchange earnings, fisheries products account for 6 % of the total per capita protein intake and about 80 % of the per capita animal protein intake. The estimated total fisheries production in Bangladesh during 1983–84 was 751,000 t. The production from inland waters was about 577,000 t (77 %), of which 118,400 (21 %) was contributed by aquaculture. In recent years fisheries production has declined from about 822,000 t in 1974– 75, whilst daily per capita fish consumption has fallen from 33 g in 1963–64 to 21 g in 1983–84 (a decrease of 36 %).
Even if per capita fish consumption is to be maintained at the current level, fisheries production will need to be increased to 1, 100,000 t by the year 2005 in order to keep pace with the projected population growth. If daily per capita fish consumption is to reach 38 g (recommended by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science) then production will have to be increased to 1, 900, 000 t. This represents an increase of about 150 % above present fisheries production levels. The Government of Bangladesh has therefore introduced an ambitious fisheries development programme in the Third Five Year Plan, to increase production from both inland and saline waters for both domestic consumption and for export (Rahman, 1986; Anon, 1985d).
The Brackishwater Station (BS) is being established by the Fisheries Research Institute to conduct research into the cultivation of brackishwater species to help meet both domestic and export requirements (Anon, 1986e, 1986g, 1987a, 1987b, 1987c; Karim, 1986a; Farmer, 1988; Muir, 1989). At the present time brackishwater aquaculture is virtually limited to shrimps of the genera Macrobrachium and Penaeus. Penaeid shrimps (mostly Penaeus monodon) currently provide an increasing source of foreign currency through exports to the USA, Europe and particularly Japan.
Brackishwater aquaculture production for local consumption is minimal. Smaller, commerically less important penaeid shrimps (Metapenaeus brevicornis and Metapenaeus monoceros) and some Macrobrachium rosenbergii are consumed locally. Small quantities of mullet (Mugil spp) are also produced as a by-product or secondary crop in some shrimp ponds.
Shrimp culture in Bangladesh started to develop in the early 1970s. At that time there was little local demand and the price of shrimp was consequently very low. The potential of farmed shrimp as a hard currency earner was quickly realised by the private sector, and within 10 years more than 26,000 ha of shrimp ponds were under cultivation. During this period the shrimp farming industry received little or no support from the Bangladesh Government. Only since 1980 with the introduction of the Second Five Year Plan (1980–85) has brackishwater aquaculture been given official recognition by the Government.
The Directorate of Fisheries has estimated that by the beginning of 1986 more than 115,000 ha had been turned over to shrimp farming activities in the whole of Bangladesh. Shrimp farming takes place in the districts of Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat, Barisal, Patuakhali, Bhola, Chittagong and Cox's Bazar. The two most important areas lie in the Khulna-Satkhira area to the north of the Sundarbans (ca 90,000 ha) and in the vicinity of Cox's Bazar (ca 24,000 ha). According to the Third Five Year Plan (1985–90) farmed shrimp production is expected to increase from 9,000 t in 1984–85 to 34,000 t by 1989–90.
Market Demand and Economic Importance
The local demand for fish is likely to approach 1.9 million t yr-1 by the year 2005. Some of this demand will have to be met by increasing the production from existing inland waters through the introduction of improved husbandry and water management practices, however, other sources of fish will need to be sought. Bangladesh has about 2,500,000 ha of coastal tidal lands, of which about 2,167,000 ha may be suitable for aquaculture. There is therefore an enormous potential for increasing fish production through brackishwater aquaculture. So far these coastal tidal lands contribute very little to the domestic consumption of fish, although they are already an important and increasing source of foreign exchange through farmed shrimp for export.
The local demand for farmed shrimp in Bangladesh is poor since very few Bangladeshis eat shellfish. However, the international market is extremely important and a major source of hard currency for Bangladesh. It has been projected that the export value of shrimp will have increased from about US$ 57 million in 1984–85 to around US$ 225 million in 1989–90. Most of the shrimp produced in Bangladesh is exported to Japan.
Less emphasis has been placed on the freshwater shrimp market by local shrimp processing and exporting companies. This may be a reflection of the preference for marine shrimp in Japan, which is currently the main market for Bangladeshi shrimps.
Most shrimp farms in Bangladesh are operated on a very extensive basis, relying on natural productivity and little or no management. Current production levels generally lie within the range of <50 kg ha-1 yr-1 to >300 kg ha-1 yr-1, although the majority of shrimp farms are operating towards the lower end of the scale. A few enterprising farmers in the Cox's Bazar area are claiming production levels of 900 kg ha-1 yr-1 or more.
In the long term there is enormous potential to increase the total production of shrimp in Bangladesh. This can be achieved in two ways: first by encouraging the introduction of more intensive shrimp farming methods whereby average production could be increased to >600 kg ha-1 yr-1, and secondly by developing freshwater shrimp farming which has the potential of being even more important economically than brackishwater shrimp farming.
Much of the area currently used for brackishwater shrimp production in the vicinity of Khulna and Satkhira, could be utilised for the production of both brackishwater shrimp during the dry season and freshwater shrimp during the rainy season. The latest estimate (1986) of the area of land under shrimp production is 115,000 ha, this leaves an enormous potential for increasing not only brackishwater and freshwater shrimp production, but also brackishwater fish production for local consumption.
It is, however, essential that the importance of the Sundarbans to both the capture and culture fisheries is fully appreciated and that these forests are not cleared for the construction of fish and shrimp ponds. This issue is the subject of two other research proposals that have been prepared for the BS:
Overview and Description
Brackishwater aquaculture has become increasingly important throughout the tropics and sub-tropics, especially in the cultivation of penaeid shrimp for export to Japan, North America and Europe. Brackishwater shrimp farming is still a major growth industry in many parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America (Rackowe et al, 1983) and represents an extremely valuable element in the economy of many developing countries as a major source of foreign exchange. However, in comparison with shrimp farming relatively little attention has been paid to the cultivation of brackishwater fish species.
Large areas of tidal coastal land suitable for brackishwater aquaculture are available in many Asian countries and these have increasingly become the focus of attention in national planning policies, including Bangladesh and India (ICAR, 1978, 1981; Rahman, 1986). A number of scientific and technical workshops have been devoted to the development of brackishwater aquaculture (ICAR, 1978, 1981; Srivastava et al, 1987). Jhingran (1984) has published a very useful summary of the genetic fish resources of India, many of which are applicable to Bangladesh. Potential species for brackishwater aquaculture are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Commerically important brackishwater species from the Indian sub-continent (adapted from Jhingran, 1982, 1984; Srivastava et al, 1987).
|Scientific name||Common name *||Feeding habits|
|Chanos chanos||milkfish||herbivore #|
|Clarias batrachus||walking catfish||carnivore|
|Elops saurus||ten pounder||carnivore|
|Etroplus suratensis||pearl spots, freshwater pomfrets||herbivore|
|Hilsa ilisha||Indian shad, hilsa||herbivore #|
|Lates calcarifer||sea bass||piscivore|
|Liza spp||grey mullets||herbivore|
|Megalops cyprinoides||ox-eyed herring||carnivore|
|Mugil spp||grey mullets||herbivore|
|Setipinna phasa||anchovy||omnivore #|
|Macrobrachium malcolmsonii||freshwater shrimp, chatka chingri||omnivore|
|Macrobrachium rosenbergii||freshwater shrimp, golda chingri||omnivore|
|Metapenaeus brevicornis||yellow prawn, hony chingri, kharkharia chingri||omnivore|
|Metapenaeus monoceros||sand prawn, horina chingri, lailya chingri||omnivore|
|Penaeus indicus||Indian shrimp, chapda chingri chaka chingri||omnivore|
|Penaeus merguiensis||, kola chingri||omnivore|
|Penaeus monodon||tiger shrimp, bagda chingri||omnivore|
|Penaeus semisulcatus||green tiger shrimp, bagha tara chingri||carnivore|
|Scylla serrata||mud crab, mangrove crab, shilla kankra||omnivore|
|Perna viridis||green lipped mussel||omnivore#|
Source of Bengali names (Shafi & Kuddus, 1982).
* The words ‘shrimp’ and ‘prawn’ are synonymous and interchangeable.
# Plankton feeding.
Milkfish (Chanos chanos) is an important species for local consumption in many Asian countries. These include Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, Burma, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, USA (Hawaii), and especially the Philippines and Indonesia (Villaluz, 1953; Schuster, 1960; Librero et al, 1977; SEAFDEC, 1983; Jhingran, 1984). Large areas of tidal coastal land, much of which was previously covered with mangrove forest, has been cleared for the production of milkfish in tidal ponds. In spite of the importance of this species, production is still largely dependent on supplies of wild fry. Attempts at the hatchery production of milkfish fingerlings have so far met with relatively little success.
Grey mullets of various species (Mugil spp, Valamugil spp, Liza spp etc) are also cultivated in many countries around the world, but the production is relatively low. Often mullets constitute a secondary or incidental crop in very extensive brackishwater shrimp farms, however, in view of the far greater value of the shrimp harvested, these species have attracted relatively little attention in the past. Hatchery production techniques for at least some species of mullet are now available (Nash & Shehadeh, 1980), although in a lot of areas there are plentiful supplies of wild fry.
Lates calcarifer is cultured in Indian, Pakistan, Thailand and Indonesia. The threadfin (Eleutheronema tetradactylus) is cultured in brackishwater impoundments in India and Pakistan (Jhingran, 1984). The ox-eyed herring (Megalops cyprinoides) is cultured in India, Sri Lanka and Hawaii (Jhingran, 1984).
Mud crabs (Scylla serrata) are being cultivated in ponds in Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, the Philippines and to a lesser extent Indonesia, since this species can also also compete on the international market provided that the labour costs of preparing crab meat are low (Heasman & Fielder, 1983; Cowan 1984). Another species of crab (Varunna litterata) is being cultured in West Bengal in India (Jhingran, 1984). The green lipped mussel (Perna viridis) is cultivated in many areas throughout Southeast Asia.
Although there is an enormous potential for the development of brackishwater aquaculture in Bangladesh, there is virtually no scientific literature available specifically for Bangladesh with the exception of shrimp cultivation. It is therefore very important that basic scientific data relating to potential candidates for brackishwater aquaculture should be obtained in order to exploit the full potential of these resources in Bangladesh.
Current Status of Brackishwater Aquaculture in Bangladesh
As has already been stated there is currently very little brackshwater fish production in Bangladesh. Virtually all brackishwater production at the present time involves the farming of brackishwater penaeid shrimp.
Most shrimp farming has developed within polders created by the Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) in low-lying coastal flood plains. These activities have been started without the consent of the BWDB, and one of the major concerns has been the creation of unauthorised sluice gates or channels through the perimeter dykes of the polders. Only those areas that are low enough to permit inundation of the land by at least 0.5 m of water at spring tides have generally been used for shrimp farming.
Only two species are deliberately stocked in ponds: Penaeus monodon and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Of these P monodon is by far the more important. Other species of penaeid shrimps are also cultivated, through the accidental introduction of their fry when the ponds are filled or water exchange takes place. These includes: Penaeus indicus, Penaeus merguiensis, Metapenaeus monoceros and Metapenaeus brevicornis.
Shrimp farming in Bangladesh relies entirely on the supply of wild fry for stocking purposes, although many shrimp ponds are still stocked thorugh the entry of shrimp fry with the water when flooding the ponds. It has been estimated that 1–3 billion fry of P monodon were harvested in 1985. The main collection centres are Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar. At present, most fry collection for P monodon is conduncted within the rivers and creeks of the coastal flood plain. It has been suggested that there may be a huge unexploited resources within the Sundarbans.
In the Khulna-Satkhira area the shrimp farming pattern, often in rotation with agriculture, reflects the ambient seasonal salinity fluctuations in response to the monsoon:
January-July [high salinity season]:
August-December [low salinity season]:
In the Cox's Bazar area this pattern may be reversed due to the generally higher ambient salinities. Therefore some farmers produce salt during the the dry season and brackishwater shrimp during the rainy season.
Most of the shrimp farming is carried out within larged dyked areas (polders or ghers). Transplanted aman rice can be grown from August-December, when water and soil salinities are low. Agricultural crop production from January to July is difficult due to the shortage of freshwater and increased salinities in the soil. Acid sulphate soils may also present special problems in some areas.
Before the recent and rapid growth of shrimp farming, the land used to be left fallow during the dry season and used instead for grazing cattle and water buffalo. Animal dung remaining on the land, if not collected for fuel, would help to increase the production of aman rice in the following rainy season. The loss of grazing has resulted in very serious conflicts in land use in some areas.
Until recently all shrimp farmers, either individually or in groups, have leased land within BWDB polders. In some cases the land has been seized from the rightful leaseholders by force. The BWDB perimeter dykes are deliberately breached and wooden sluice gates or reinforced concrete culverts installed before repairing the dykes. The ponds, which may extend up to 500 acres (200 ha) or more, are usually allowed to remain dry during January after havesting the rice. The stubble is left in place. The ponds are then flooded during spring tides.
In some areas mullet (Mugil spp) are havested along with the shrimp, although in most cases this is not the result of a deliberate policy to stock the ponds with mullet fry. The young mullet usually enter the ponds whilst they are being flooded, and therefore constitute an accidental or secondary crop.
There are plenty of signs that shrimp production levels in Bangladesh will continue to rise as a result of the gradual introduction of more intensive practices and the construction of more ponds. At the present time, there is little interest in brackishwater fish production for local consumption, although the potential for developing this type of aquaculture in Bangladesh is enormous. In view of the projected future demand for fish in Bangladesh, this is a very important issue and deserves far greater attention than it has received in the past.
Previous Research in Bangladesh
Very little research has been conducted on the cultivation of brackishwater species in Bangladesh, although a few projects have been completed at Chittagong University (sponsored by BARC) and the Directorate of Fisheries. Virtually all the research carried out to date has been on the biology and cultivation of penaeid shrimp.
Directorate of Fisheries:
Shrimp culture demonstration project at Satkhira: demonstration of improved culture techniques; provision of practical training for fishery officers, identification of the socio-economic support required to assist small scale shrimp farmers. [FAO/BOBP.]
The first of the public sector shrimp farming activities in Bangladesh was the Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP) shrimp farm at Satkhira. This semi-intensive demonstration and research unit has recently been taken over by the Gramin Bank and is now known as the Satkhira Shrimp Farm.
Very little by way of practical research results is available from these various projects.
Present Status of Research in Bangladesh
Research on brackishwater aquaculture is currently being undertaken or alternatively being planned by the Fisheries Research Institute, the Directorate of Fisheries and Chittagong University. In most cases this work has only started recently and as yet few research results are available. Some of this work is sponsored by BARC, whilst the rest is supported by ADB, FAO/UNDP and the World Bank. The various projects are summarised below:
Fisheries Research Institute:
Establishment of the Brackishwater Station (formerly designated the Brackishwater Fisheries Research Station) at Paikgacha. Part of the World Bank Second Agricultural Research Project. [WB/FAO/UNDP.]
Directorate of Fisheries:
Studies on growth and quality of shrimp and mullet wth supplementary feeds (1986 onwards).
As soon as the Brackishwater Station of the Fisheries Research Institute has been constructed and becomes fully operational, the FRI will play an increasingly important national rôle in the development of commercial brackishwater fish and shrimp cultivation.
2. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES
The overall purpose of this research project is to identify and evaluate brackishwater species, other than shrimp, occurring in Bangladesh which have the potential of becoming commercially important candidates for future aquaculture production. The first phase of the project, described here, will only cover brackishwater fin fish, although mud crabs and other brackishwater shellfish can be considered in future. Assuming that suitable candidates for brackishwater aquaculture are identified, it is proposed that further investigations in this field would become a core project of the BS after it becomes fully operational.
The feasibility of farming estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Bangladesh will be the subject of a separate research project (code no N-10) to be undertaken by the BS at a later stage.
Identification of Species
Objective: To identify and list all known brackishwater fin fish species occurring in the coastal tidal area of Bangladesh.
Objective: To determine the distribution and relative abundance of each species of fish in relation to basic environmental parameters.
Biology and Reproduction
Objective: To determine the basic environmental requirements, sex ratio, size and age at first maturity, breeding season, fecundity, seasonal movements, availability and distribution of wild fry, growth rate and feeding requirements.
Consumption and Market Demand
Objective: To determine the current pattern of consumption of brackishwater fish species in order to assess present consumption rates and local market preferences.
Objective: To evaluate and selected potential candidates for brackishwater aquaculture on the basis of: existing market preferences and demand; availability of fry; reproduction and fecundity; growth rate; feeding requirements; previous aquaculture results; and export potential (if any).
Objective: To prepare a final project report consisting of a description of the work undertaken during the course of the project, the methodology, the results and their subsequent analysis and interpretation, evaluation of species and selection of potential candidates for brackishwater aquaculture, and resources management.
Objective: To provide overall technical and managerial control of the research project, co-ordination with other sections of FRI and other Government agencies, and the preparation of concise quarterly progress report covering both research and administrative issues.
3. WORK PLAN SUMMARY
Work Plan Summary
This project has been designed to provide basic data for the future research programme of the BS once the laboratory and experimental facilities are fully operational. The information collected by this project (and any subsequent phases covering invertebrate species) will provide an important data base for the selection of new candidate species for future brackishwater farming experiments and demonstration trials at Paikgacha.
The proposed project will involve the collection and identification of fish species from both shrimp ponds and natural water bodies on a monthly basis throughout two complete years in order to detect seasonal patterns. Selected biological and reproductive parameters will be observed and noted throughout the field surveys in relation to basic water quality criteria. The project will also investigate the availability and distribution of wild fish fry within the study area.
The project will specifically cover southwest Bangladesh (the Sundarbans and the adjoining tidal floodplain areas) for logistical reasons, since the BS will eventually be constructed in the Khulna-Satkhira area at Paikgacha. The southeast of the country in the vicinity of Chittagong-Cox's Bazar-Teknaf can be covered at a later stage if this is considered appropriate.
Market surveys will be carried out to determine the present consumption habits of villagers and townspeople in the study areas and the market demand for each species. Finally the data will be analysed and evaluated in order to select potential candidate species for brackishwater culture. The results will be presented in the form of a final report.
The implementation of this project will additionally provide an excellent opportunity for research and technical staff recruited for the BS to gain useful experience in survey and research activities prior to the BS becoming fully operational. This should make the process of commissioning the BS and implementing the full research programme a much easier task for the appointed CSO. The project can be used to provide ad hoc training for technical and support staff during its three years' duration.
The scheduling of the major project activities or tasks is summarised in Table 2. Towards the end of the third year of the project, a decision should be made as to whether phase II of the project should be devoted to assessing the aquaculture potential of additional species or whether experimental trials should commence immediately after the completion of phase I.
This decision will in part be dependent on whether the BS at Paikgacha has been completed and the laboratory and experimental facilities are fully operational. Since this project deals specifically with southwest Bangladesh, a subsequent phase of the project could investigate additional brackishwater resources in the southeast (Chittagong-Cox's Bazar-Teknaf).
Table 2. Activity chart (time scale: units of 2 months).
|Year 1||Year 2||Year 3|
|Work plan preparation||-|
|Sampling gear testing||-||-|
|Proposal for phase II#||--|
|Proposal for phase II#||*|
- Project activity/task.
* Reporting dates.
# Additional species (invertebrates) or experimental trials.
4 METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES
The methodology and procedures to be utilised in this project have been kept as simple as possible in order to permit the completion of the project without the need for the specialised facilities which will eventually become available at the BS. There will, however, be some need for laboratory work and it is proposed that this should be undertaken at the FRI Freshwater Station's laboratories at Mymensingh.
Preparation of the Work Plan
At the start of the project the principal investigator should translate the project proposal into a written and detailed work plan which should be approved by the CSO of the BS before the research investigations get underway. This work plan should define the following elements: project objectives; detailed methodology; equipment and consumable requirements; logistic support requirements; areas, requiring co-operation or co-ordination with other projects or sections of FRI; staff assignment and manpower requirements, and reporting deadlines. A period of one month has been allowed for the preparation of the work plan and its approval by the CSO of the BS.
Before commencing the field work components of the project, a thorough review of the literature should be made. The bibliography appended to this proposal not only includes references for those citations incorporated in the text, but also recommendations for background reading. The FRI Library and Documentation Centre should obtain as many as possible of these references before that start of the project. These should be reviewed and digested by the principal investigator and his scientific staff at the beginning of the project. A period of two months has been allowed for the completion of this task.
Testing of Sampling Gear
Before proceeding with the main sampling programme it will be necessary to make sure that the sampling gear is adequate for the purpose intended. For this reason a period of two months has been allowed for the testing and modification of the sampling gear prior to the start of regular sampling programme. A period of two months has been allocated to this task.
The project should investigate the availability of brackishwater species of fin fish from two independent sources: wild populations living in natural brackishwater bodies, and those fish which are currently being harvested from shrimp ponds as a secondary or incidental crop. Investigation of the former will permit the identification of those species which naturally occur in brackishwaters and therefore are at least potentially available as candidates for aquaculture.
Investigation of fish occurring in shrimp ponds, will provide some indication of those species which are either more readily available in the present brackishwater (shrimp) farming areas, or are better suited to surviving and growing under pond conditions.
Monthly samples of juvenile and adult fish should be collected by net (20 mm mesh) during a continuous period of at least 24 months from not less than 10 field stations located within the tidal flood plains of Bangladesh. For logistic reasons it recommended that the sites should if possible be located within the Khulna and Satkhira districts. The locations of the field stations selected should represent as wide a range of habitats and environmental conditions as possible within the study area: from the very low salinity areas north of Khulna to the southernmost edge of the Sundarbans where almost fully marine conditions exist. The study area is indicated in section 6 ANNEXE.
Monthly samples of fish fry and fingerlings should also be collected by net (5 mm mesh) at the same stations during the course of the field studies.
It is anticipated that both categories of fish samples will be captured using set nets or seine nets operated from boats. It is also expected that some experimentation with the fishing gear will be necessary. For this reason a period of two months has been allowed for within the project activity chart (Table 2) for the testing and adaptation of the fishing gear.
In addition, samples of juvenile and adult fish should be purchased on a regular basis from selected shrimp ponds when harvesting takes place. A minimum of five different locations should be chosen in order to provide a range of different environmental conditions. It is important that the samples should be obtained from the same shrimp farms throughout the study so that any seasonal changes can be detected. It is of course recognised that the interval between samples will depend largely on the harvesting strategies of the individual farmers. It will therefore not be possible to obtain these samples on a regular monthly basis.
All fish samples should be preserved in either ethanol (70 %) or formalin solution (5 %) for subsequent examination in the laboratory at the FS at Mymensingh.
Monthly measurements of the most important water quality parameters should be taken at each of the field stations and also from each of the shrimp ponds from which incidental harvests of fish will be obtained. The minimum range of parameters requiring measurement are: water temperature; salinity; dissolved oxygen content, and turbidity.
Surface and bottom water temperature should be measured by using a standard mercury thermometer capable of being read to 0.1 °C. Bottom water temperature measurements will require the use of a suitable water sampling bottle.
Surface and bottom salinity should be measured using a temperature compensated salinity refractometer capable of being read to 1.0 ‰. At least once every three months, salinity measurements should be made at hourly intervals during one complete tidal cycle at each field station. This is not required in the case of water quality measurement taken in shrimp ponds. Bottom water temperature measurements will require the use of a suitable water sampling bottle.
Dissolved Oxygen Content
Surface and bottom dissolved oxygen content should be measured using a portable oxygen meter capable of being read to 0.1 mg l-1. At least once every three months, dissolved oxygen levels should be measured at hourly intervals during one complete tidal cycle at each field station. This is also required in the case of the shrimp ponds. Depending on the length of the oxygen electrode lead, it may be necessary to utilise a suitable water sampling bottle for the bottom measurements of dissolved oxygen.
Relative turbidity should be measured using a Secchi disc and the depth at which the disk disappears from sight recorded to the nearest whole centimetre.
Identification of Species
All fish specimens obtained from both natural water bodies and shrimp ponds should be positively identified. Identification of fish fry may not be possible at the specific level, but at least they should be identified to genus of family. Misra (1959), Menon (1974), FAO (1974) and Jhingran (1982 & 1984) will be of assistance in identifying the fish species collected during the field surveys.
Distribution and Abundance
It will not be possible to prepare detailed distribution maps for each of the species encountered during the course of the project. However, general information on the distribution and relative abundance of individual species within the Khulna-Satkhira area will be obtained through the monthly samples from each of the field stations.
Biology and Reproduction
After sorting the juvenile and adult fish samples into their component species, the following measurements and observations should be made:
The results of these measurements and observations will be used to determine for each species separately, growth rate, breeding season, fecundity, feeding habits, and (in conjunction with the water quality measurements) any environmental requirements.
The standard lengths of all fish fry collected should be measured with vernier callipers. The lengths of the fry of individual species (or genera if specific identification is not possible) should be used to determine spawning seasons, seasonal availability, growth rates, and (in conjunction with the water quality measurements) any environmental requirements.
Consumption and Market Demand
A simple questionnaire should be prepared in order to obtain basic information on the current consumption and market demand for all those species of brackishwater fin fish identified during the course of the field surveys. The questionnaire should include the following elements:
The survey should be conducted quarterly over a period of 24 months in order to detect any seasonal changes in the consumption and market demand for brackishwater species. The survey should cover at least some of the fish markets in the larger towns of Khulna, Satkhira, Mongla, Bagherat, Barisal and Patuakhali, but also the sale of fish in selected rural areas.
The final technical task of the project will be the interpretation of the final results and the evaluation of those species identified as possible candidates for brackishwater aquaculture. The evaluation should be based on a combination of biological, technical and economic factors:
This list is not exhaustive, and additional factors are likely to be identified during the course of the project.
The various species studied during the course of the project should finally be assessed in relation to each of these factors, in order to determine whether any are suitable candidates for further study or preliminary culture trials. If suitable candidates for brackishwater cultivation are identified, then a new proposal describing the next phase of the research programme should be prepared.
Specialist Equipment Requirements
The following specialist equipment and supplies will be required:
The project will require the following manpower:
|- Principal investigator (team leader)||1|
|- Fish biologist||1|
|- Field/laboratory technicians||3|
|- Boat operator||1|
The budget estimates will be prepared by BS/FRI staff at a later stage.
The principal investigator (team leader) will be responsible for the day to day technical and administrative management of the project under the overall direction of the CSO of the BS. Until such time that the BS is fully operational, laboratory and administrative support will have to be provided by the FRI at Mymensingh.
Assignment of individual work tasks and the timing of those tasks will be the responsibility of the principal investigator in collaboration with the CSO of the BS and the principal investigators of other projects. Since the BS will not be operational for some time, the project will need to utilise laboratory facilities of the FS at Mymensingh. The success of the project will therefore be dependent in part on the degree of co-operation between BS and FS scientific staff.
Efficient co-ordination between the CSOs of the BS and FS will permit the shared use of facilities and equipment until such time that the BS becomes fully operational. Where project staff are not required on a continuous basis, they should be temporarily assigned to other projects in order to make the most effective use of their time. It may be possible to combine field sampling and other field work with related projects in order to use FRI and BS resources as efficiently as possible.
The principal investigator will be responsible for the initial planning of the field investigations, monitoring of the data collection and analysis, and in conjunction with the other members of the team, interpretation of the results and report preparation. The principal investigator should meet with his project team on a weekly basis to ensure schedules are being met and to resolve problems or other project-related issues.
Quarterly progress reports and a final project report should be prepared by the principal investigator with assistance from the other team members. The responsibility for the quality of the quarterly and final reports and their submission on time will be the responsibility of the principal investigator alone. It must, however, be recognised that administrative support to achieve this end will need to be provided by the FRI until such time that the BS is fully operational, after which it will become the responsibility of the CSO of the BS.
The CSO of the BS will also be responsible for reviewing the progress and final reports and making sure that the individual activities of the project have been completed properly and on time. Delays and other problems affecting the success of the project should be identified as early as possible so that corrective action can be taken.
[It should be noted that the bibliography contains not only those references cited in the text of this proposal, but also suggestions for additional background reading prior to the start of the project.]
Ali, M Liaquat, 1983. Shrimp farm survey in coastal area of Bangladesh, Dhaka. [Mimeographed.]
Anonymous, 1979. Draft final report, Annexe B. Proposed fisheries components for an agricultural credit project. Agricultural Credit Studies Xroject. Prepared by Nathan Associates, USA on behalf of the Bangladesh Bank, Dhaka.
Anonymous, 1984a. National Water Plan Project. Second interim report, vol VII - Fisheries. Master Plan organisation, Ministry of Water Development and Flood Control, Bangladesh. Prepared by Harza Engineering Co Int.
Anonymous, 1984b. Bangladesh coastal aquaculture project engineering study. Draft report, vol 1. Prepared by Development Consultancy Services Ltd and Engineering Consultancy Services Ltd, Dhaka on behalf of the World Bank.
Anonymous, 1985a. Delta Development Project: Bangladesh-Netherlands Joint Programme under the Bangladesh Water Development Board. Shrimp Culture in the semi-saline zone of the delta. Technical report no 13, volume I, 60 pp. Arnhem and The Hague, The Netherlands.
Anonymous, 1985b. Delta Development Project: Bangladesh-Netherlands Joint Programme under the Bangladesh Water Development Board. Shrimp culture in the semi-saline zone of the delta. Technical report no 13, volume II, 102 pp. Arnhem and The Hague, The Netherlands.
Anonymous, 1985c. Report on tidal areas study. Draft report prepared by Development Consultancy Services Ltd and Engineering Consultancy Services & Associates Ltd, Dhaka on behalf of FAO.
Anonymous, 1985d. List of projects for the Third Five Year Plan. Planning Commission, Government of Bangladesh.
Anonymous, 1985e. Report on engineering study. Vol 1: Bangladesh coastal aquaculture project. Prepared by Development Consultancy Services Ltd and Engineering Consultancy Services Ltd, Dhaka on behalf of the World Bank.
Anonymous, 1985f. Twenty year fishery development plan for Bangladesh. Prepared by John C Marr & Associates on behalf of FAO/UNDP.
Anonymous, 1986a. Bangladesh Second Aquaculture Development Project. Preparation report. Prepared by Aquatic Farms Ltd, Hawaii, USA on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh and the Asian Development Bank.
Anonymous, 1986b. Draft feasibility report on package 1: Khulna Coastal Embankment Rehabilitation Project (TA no 665-BAN). Vol I. Prepared by Agricultural Development Corporation (ADC), Seoul, South Korea in association with Associated Consulting Engineers (Bangladesh) Ltd.
Anonymous, 1986c. Draft feasibility report on package 1: Khulna Coastal Embankment Rehabilitation Project (TA no 665-BAN). Vol III. Prepared by Agricultural Development Corporation (ADC), Seoul, South Korea in association with Associated Consulting Engineers (Bangladesh) Ltd.
Anonymous, 1986d. Socio-economic impact and constraints of shrimp farming in Bangladesh. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, project proposal no 4, 59 pp.
Anonymous, 1986e. Brackishwater Aquaculture Research Station (BARS): design - phase 1. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 3, 22 pp.
Anonymous, 1986f. Research plans for nutrition and feed technology. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 4, 146 pp.
Anonymous, 1986g. Research Plans for the Brackishwater Fisheries Research Station (BFRS). Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 5, 24 pp.
Anonymous, 1987a. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh. Five Year Masterplan: General research plan. FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010. Arnhem: Euroconsult BV, 149 pp.
Anonymous, 1987b. Brackishwater Fisheries Research Station (BFRS): design - phase 2. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 13, 125 pp.
Anonymous, 1987c. Five Year Masterplan: Equipment and civil works (final version). Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 14, 26 pp.
Anonymous, 1987d. Advice on literature. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 15, 50 pp.
Anonymous, 1988a. Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Fisheries Research Institute (FRI): Revised project. Mymensingh: Fisheries Research Institute, 112 pp.
Anonymous, 1988b. Project of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Integrated resource development of the Sundarbans reserved forest. UNDP project document, BGD/84/056/A/01/12, 27 pp plus annexes.
Anonymous, 1988c. Regional overview, status of facility and coastal aquaculture research proposals. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 19, pag var.
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 1986. 1986 Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Ministry of Planning, 1048 pp.
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 1985. Statistical Pocket Book of Bangladesh 1984–85. Dhaka: Ministry of Planning, 654 pp.
Chowdhury, A Q, 1986. Fishermen community and development of closed water fishery in Bangladesh. [Mimeographed.]
Cowan, L, 1984. Crab farming in Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines. Information series Q 184009, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, Australia, 85 pp.
Euroconsult BV, 1985. Government of Bangladesh and FAO/UNDP. Second Agricultural Research Project - Fisheries Component. FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010. Technical assistance report no 1 (revised version). Arnhem: Euroconsult BV, 90 pp.
FAO, 1974. FAO Species Identification Sheets for Fishery Purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 57) and Western Central Pacific (Fishing Area 71). Vol I-IV. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, pag var.
Funegaard, P, 1986. Shrimp seed - Any to sell? Come to Satkhira, Bangladesh. FAO Bay of Bengal News, no 22.
Heasman, M P & D R Fielder, 1983. Laboratory spawning and mass rearing of the mangrove crab, Scylla serrata (Forskål) from first zoea to first crab stage. Aquaculture, 34 (3–4): 303–316.
Hora, S L & T V R Pillay, 1962. Handbook of fish culture in the Indo-Pacific region. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, (14): 204 pp.
ICAR, 1978. Third Workshop All India Coordinated Research Project: Brackishwater Prawn and Fish Farming, 9–10 November 1978, Cochin, India. Published by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Pag var.
ICAR, 1981. Fourth Workshop All India Coordinated Research Project: Brackishwater Fish Farming, 24–25 October 1981, Kakinada, India. Published by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, pag var.
Jhingran, A G, 1984. The Fish Genetic Resources of India. New Delhi: Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 82 pp.
Jhingran, V G, 1982. Fish and Fisheries of India. Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 954 pp.
Karim, M, 1986a. Site selection for the Brackishwater Fisheries Research Station (BFRS). Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 11, 44 pp.
Karim, M, 1986b. Integrated farming of shrimp, fish, paddy and goat at Satkhira. FAO Bay of Bengal Programme, Madras, India, report.
Karim, M, 1986c. Brackishwater shrimp culture demonstration in Bangladesh. SIDA/FAO Bay of Bengal Programme, Madras, India, report BOBP/REP/35, 40 pp.
Karim, M, 1987. Brackishwater aquaculture in Bangladesh: A review. Fisheries Research Institute - Bangladesh, FAO/UNDP TA Project BGD/83/010 report no 12, 36 pp.
Kibria, C, 1983. Prawn and shrimp resources of Bangladesh, Dhaka. [Mimeographed.]
Librero, A R et al, 1977. Milkfish farming in the Philippines: a socio-economic study. Philippines Council for Agricultural and Resources Research, Los Banos, Laguna, research paper series 8.
McVey, J P & J R Moore, 1983. CRC Handbook of Mariculture. Vol 1: Crustacean Aquaculture. CRC Series in Marine Science. Boca Raton: CRC Press Inc, 442 pp.
Mahmood, N, 1986. Effects of shrimp farming and other impacts on mangroves of Bangladesh. Paper presented at the Third Session of the IPFC Workshop on Inland Fisheries/Mangrove, 22–25 June, Bangkok, Thailand.
Majumder, M R, 1983. Shrimp culture status and extent in Cox's Bazar area, Dhaka. [Mimeographed.]
Menon, A G K, 1974. A Check-List of the Fishes of the Himalayan and the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Special publication of the Inland Fisheries Society of India, 136 pp.
Misra, K S, 1959. An aid to the identification of the common commercial fishes of India and Pakistan. Records of the Indian Museum, 57 (1–4): 1–320.
Muir, J F, 1989. Finalisation of engineering plans, Brackishwater Research Station, FRI, Paikgacha. FAO/FIRI report, 5 pp.
Nash, C E & Z H Shehadeh, 1980. Review of breeding and propagation techniques for grey mullet, Mugil cephalus L. ICLARM Studies and Reviews, (3): 87 pp.
Rackowe, R, H Branstetter, D King & G Kitson, 1983. The international market for shrimp. ADB/FAO Infofish Market Studies, 3: 79 pp.
Rahman, M A, 1986. Socio-economics of aquaculture deveopment. Country paper - Bangladesh. Paper presented at the Workshop on Socio-Economics on Aquaculture Development sponsored by NACA, 28–31 October 1986, Bangkok, Thailand.
Santos, C de los, 1978. Modern Aquaculture for the Philippines. Iloilo City: Yuhum Press, 224 pp.
Schuster, W H, 1960. Synopsis of biological data on milkfish, Chanos chanos. FAO Fisheries Species Synopses, (4): 58 pp.
SEAFDEC, 1983. Milkfish and other finfishes: a compilation of SEAFDEC AQD technical papers. Tigbaun: SEAFDEC, vol 1, 166 pp; vol 2, 120 pp.
Shafi, M & M M A Kuddus, 1982. Bangladesher Mathso Shampad (Fisheries of Bangladesh). Dhaka: Bangla Academy, 444 pp. [In Bengali.]
Smith, W G, 1982. The tidal study area. A preliminary report. Fisheries Resources Survey System FAO/UNDP, Dhaka. [Mimeographed.]
Srivastava, U K, B H Dholakia & S Vathsala (ed), 1987. Brackish Water Aquaculture Development in India. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Co, 257 pp.
Villaluz, D K, 1953. Fish Farming in the Philippines. Manila: Bookman, 336 pp.
Proposed Study Area
Figure 1. Proposed study area for the identification of brackishwater species of fish as potential candidates for commercial aquaculture.