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An integrated approach to poultry cum fish farming is carried out by Rangayya (1977) who is proud of his two-in-one poultry cum fish farm. The poultry house, built on a wooden platform erected in a pond had 1,600 birds kept in two-tire battery type cages provided with feed troughs and water channels. The droppings of the chickens fall straight into the pond, about 0.2 hectare in size, stocked with fingerlings which serve a field of about half hectare under para grass.

Rangayya estimated the net additional income from fish at Rs. 1,000 (US$ 130). He was convinced of the usefulness of the system to increase small farmers' income and said that his pond could irrigate more area under grass. The battery system makes maintenance and management easy and economical while it also helps in the production of ‘clean’ eggs.

The village of Gudlavalleru with 8,000 population produce 70,000 eggs a day and 10,000 litres of milk. It has two milk chilling centres and a poultry marketing ubcentre. The State Bank of India has financed about 75 poultry farms in the village and the bank has attracted over 1200 saving accounts from the farmers (The Hindu, June 24, 1977).

The live-weight process production or farm raised catfish in the United States for May Catfish totalled 1.8 million pounds. According to Newton and Merkowsky (1977), the total production for the year is estimated to be almost 10 million pounds (4.5 million kg). Farmers are obtaining 60–65 cents per pound.

Research on the fertilizing efficiency of chicken manure in fish ponds, either alone or in Combination with cattle manure, has been done by Banerjee et al. (1969), who observed that a combination of chicken and cattle manure worked better than the cattle manure alone in fertilizing nursery ponds. It has also been reported that poultry manure is a complete fertilizer, with the characteristics of both organic as well as inorganic fertilizers (Banerjee et al. (1979). Ray and David (1969) found that chicken manure produced a large population of rotifers quicker than cattle manure. A fish yield of 670 kg/ha/90 day has been reported by Banerjee et al. (1979), using poultry manure and no supplemental feeds.

In Indonesia, the Chicken-fish farms usually practice monoculture of Common carp or Java carp stocking with 1 to 3 cm fry and 10g fingerlings. The alternative is polyculture of common carp, tilapia, nilem carp and kissing goramy. No supplemental feeds are given. Examples of inputs and yields for chickens and fish are given in the tables (5) & (6) below:

Table 5: Annual inputs and returns for 3 integrated mendong (Fimbristylls globum)-fish farms in Indonesia, excluding depreciation costs (unit of currency, Rupish (Rp): US$ 1.00=Rp 627).

  Water surface area (m2)
labor  6,00010,00018,600
fish seed20,00015,00012,000
seed15,00030,000 7,500
3.Net return (B - A)16,24035,00051,900
4.Rate of return as a % of A      40       64     136
field construction11,00026,00043,000
equipment  2,750  3,500  3,000
seedlings     800  2,000  3,200
fertilizer  1,050  8,750  8,750
pesticides         -         -     375
taxes     420  1,050  1,680
2.Output(D)60,000117,750   134,400  
3.Net return (D-C)32,28055,45057,595
4.Rate of return as a % of C     116       89       75
 Fish + Mendong
1.Total costs (A + C)68,720117,300   114,905
2.Total returns (B + D)117,240   207,750   224,400
3.Total net returns48,52090,450109,495
4.Total rate of return as a % of total costs       71       77         95

Source: Pullin & Shehadeh, 1980

Table 6: Annual Inputs and returns for 3 integrated chickenfish farms in Indonesia, excluding depreciation costs (walt of currency, Ruplah (Rp): US$ 1.00 = Rp 627).

  Pond area (m2)
pond construction     88022,00044,000
labor  7,200168,000   30,000
fingerlings17,000240,000   189,000  
feed21,900        -        -
fertilizer10,600  1,800  8,100
taxes     400     800  2,400
 Total(A)57,980432,600    273,500  
2.Output (B)130,600   1,201,800      610,350  
3.Net return (B - A)72,620769,200   336,850  
4.Rate of return as a % of A     125     178     123
chicken house     38,280   110,00011,000
labor   150,000   127,40036,000
stocking     48,000   525,00082,500
feed   985,5001,521,45040,590
medication              -     19,200       -
 Total (C)1,221,7802,303,050170,090   
2.Output (D)1,773,0003,585,000247,500  
3.Net return (D - C)   551,2201,281,95077,410
4.Rate of return as a % of C            45            56       46
 Fish + Chickens
1.Total costs (A + C)1,279,7602,735,650443,590
2.Total returns (B + D)1,903,6004,786,800857,850
3.Total net returns   623,8402,051,150414,260
4.Total rate of return as a % of total costs           49            75         93

It is estimated that each chicken produces about 40 g of excreta per day.

Fowler and Lock (1974) described the possibility of inclusion of poultry waste as a feed ingredient in catfish ration. Some farmers in Asia build poultry cages on a wooden platform above a fish pond, poultry feed together with spilled feed fall directly into the pond where it is consumed by the fish. This system is very practical, no cleaning of poultry cages is necessary, and poultry situated above the fish pond enjoy an excellent air circulation which has a significant cooling effect for laying birds which are particularly sensitive to heat stress. This system in terms of livestock waste management increases the profit derived from fish and totally eliminates the pollution problem. It is estimated that one laying hen will produce enough manure to generate about 6–8 kg/year of fish biomass. Manure derived from individual confined livestock species (annually) can support the following annual production range of fish biomass (Muller, 1980).

Manure fromFish biomass production (kg/year)
One dairy cow100200
One beef cattle90160
One sheep10  17
One laying hen6   8
One replacement bird4   5
One broiler3   4
One turkey7   8

The conversion ratio of manure to fish biomass is related to numerous factors, particularly the fish species, climatic conditions and pond water management.

It can be concluded that fish cultures are an excellent outlet, closing circularly integrated recycling systems without further pollution discharge. This is even more true when fish ponds can be switched over to cropping every second year, a system quite commonly used in Asia. This practice supports both high production of disease free fish and high crop yields.

In Alabama, Nerrie and Smitherman (1979) used pelleted chicken manure to feed tilapia stocked at approximately 10,000/ha. to 120 kg/ha/day of pelleted chicken manure was considered safe. Average fish production of 14 kg/ha/day resulted from using chicken manure, the pelleted manure supplemented with soybean and corn meals increased fish production to 22 kg/ha/day.

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