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Boyd, C.E., 1979 Water quality in warm water fish ponds. Auburn University, Alabama, U.S.A., 359 pp.

Buck, D.H., R.J. Baur and C.R. Rose, Experiments in recycled swine manure in fishponds. FAO Technical Conference on Aquaculture, Kyoto, Japan, 1976. FIR:AQ/Conf/76/E.29

Cho, C.Y., 1985 C.B. Cowey and T. Watanabe, Finfish nutrition in Asia. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. 154 pp.

Edwards, P., 1985 Aquaculture research and training. ICLARM newsletter January 1985, pp. 9–11 Asian Institute of Technology, GPO 2754, Bangkok 10501, Thailand

Filewood, L.W.C., 1967 Fishpond culture in the New Guinea highlands. Publ. by Dept. of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, Division of Fisheries, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

Glucksman, J., 1971 Floating cages for fish culture. Harvest, 1;115-7

Huet, M., 1970 Textbook of fish culture. English edition by Fishing News (Books) Ltd., Farnham, Surrey, U.K. 436 pp.

Marek, M., 1975 Revision of supplementary feeding tables for pond fish. Bamidgeh, Bulletin for Fish Culture in Israel, 27(3): 57–64

Moav, R. et al., 1977 Genetic improvement in aquaculture industry. Technical Conference on Aquaculture, Kyoto, Japan. FIR:AQ/Conf/76.R.9, FAO

Moav, R. et al., 1977a Intensive polyculture of fish in freshwater ponds I Substitution of expensive feeds by liquid cow manure. Aquaculture 10, pp.25–43

Morrison, F.B., 1948 Feeds and feeding. The Morrison Publishing Company, Ithaca, New York, 1206 pp.

Schroeder, G., 1975 Night time material balance for oxygen in fish ponds receiving organic wastes. Bamidgeh, 27(3): 57–74 27(3): 57–74

Suzuki, R., 1976 The culture of common carp in Japan. Ueda Branch Station Freshwater Fisheries Research Laboratory, Komaki, Ueda, Nagano prefecture, Japan, FAO, FIR AQ/Conf/76/E.51

Woynarovich, R. and L. Horvath, 1980 The artificial propagation of warm-water finfishes - a manual for extension. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap., (201):183

Zhong Lin et al., 1980 Pond fish culture in China. Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, China National Bureau of Aquatic Products, Guangzhou, China. 135 p.


Fig. 1 Demand feeders


Fig. 2 General purpose concrete tanks


Fig. 3 General purpose concrete tanks (details)


Fig. 4 Two systems of incubating eggs obtained by stripping


Fig. 5 Kakaban, fry net and hapa


Fig. 6 Stages in harvesting fry from a pond


Fig. 7 Fry-sorting trough


Fig. 8 Three self-supporting siphons

Map 1. Aiyura ponds, November 1985 Scale: 1:1 000

Map 1.

Map 2. Aiyura ponds, February 1986 Scale: 1:1 000

Map 2.

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