FAO/GOVERNMENT COOPERATIVE PROGRAMME
Report prepared for the project
Small-Scale fisheries development, Bayawan, Negros Oriental
based on the work of
This report was prepared during the course of the project identified on the title page. The conclusions and recommendations given in the report are those considered appropriate at the time of its preparation. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained at subsequent stages of the project.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations or the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
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1.1 Terms of Reference
1.2 Background Information
2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION
2.1 Bayawan Fish Seed Bank
2.2 Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Fish Farm
3. PROJECT ACTIVITIES
3.1 Preparation of Project Lay-out Plan, Design and Specifications
3.2 Site Preparation
3.3 Construction of Building Facilities and Other Infrastructures
3.5 Trial Operation
3.7 Operation Proper
3.8 Technical Activities
3.8.1 Collection of milkfish fry
184.108.40.206 The fry sweeper
220.127.116.11 The fry dozer
18.104.22.168 The set fry trap net
3.8.2 Handling of milkfish fry
22.214.171.124 Storage and acclimation
3.8.3 Production management and operation
126.96.36.199 Nursery tanks
188.8.131.52 Transition tanks
184.108.40.206 Rearing tanks
3.8.4 Diseases and other causes of mortality
220.127.116.11 White spot disease
18.104.22.168 Fungus disease
22.214.171.124 Prophylactic treatment
126.96.36.199 Prevention of diseases and other causes of fry mortality
3.8.5 Harvest and transport
4. PROJECT OUTPUT
4.1 Bayawan Fish Seed Bank
4.2 Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Fish Farm
5. GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF PROJECT OPERATION
6. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
Appendix 1: LIST OF EQUIPMENT, SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS PROVIDED FOR THE PROJECT
Appendix 2: TRAINING ON MANAGEMENT OF MILKFISH SEED BANK
Appendix 3: LIST OF COOPERATIVE (SAMAHANG NAYON) MEMBERS WHO ATTENDED TRAINING ON MANAGEMENT OF MILKFISH SEED BANK
Appendix 4: LIST OF BUYERS AND SALES OF MILKFISH FINGERLINGS
Appendix 5: SALES OF MILKFISH AND PRAWN FRY GATHERED AT THE BFMCI CONCESSIONS OF FRY GROUNDS
Appendix 6: LIST OF FOREIGN AND LOCAL VISITORS AND CONSULTANTS WHO VISITED THE FISH SEED BANK PROJECT
The Government of the Philippines, with technical assistance from FAO and with financial aid from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), has been engaged in the small-scale fisheries development, Bayawan, Negros Oriental, project (GCP/PHI/037/CAN) whose main objectives were to: improve the fishermen's cooperative, provide adequate shore infrastructure and support services, introduce marketing systems, introduce/demonstrate improved fishing vessels and gear, organize an effective system of collecting, holding and marketing milkfish fry.
As part of project operations, FAO assigned Mr Romualdo S. Corrales as master fishfarmer from 1 October 1982 to 30 June 1985 with the following terms of reference:
to supervise and manage the construction of the fish seed bank;
to prepare specifications for the equipment required and ensure that the equipment is properly installed;
to supervise and manage the operation of the fish seed bank;
to train local cooperative members and their families on the proper methods of catching and handling fry;
to develop and implement a milkfish fry and fingerling marketing system, and
to ensure that all facilities are well maintained.
The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) and the South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme (SCSP) conducted a survey of identified pilot marine barrios in the Philippines in 1976. The purpose of the survey was to look into the socio-economic background of the artisanal fishermen and the fishery potentials of each marine barrio, the result serving as basis for the formation of a pilot small-scale fisheries development project. From among the marine barrios surveyed, Bayawan was selected.
The Philippine Pilot Small-Scale Fisheries Development Project in Bayawan became operational in March 1982. This project is concerned with various small-scale fishery enterprises geared at increasing the real income of artisanal fishermen.
This joint project of BFAR/CIDA/FAO started in October 1982, with the preparation of plans and specifications, designs and site.
On 1 October 1982, the author was assigned by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) under a Special Services Agreement as Master Fishfarmer purposely to establish and operate a fish seed bank which is one of the major components of the project.
The fish seed bank was established due to the abundance of milkfish fry in the project area of operation. Gathering and marketing of the fry is one way of supplementing the income of the artisanal fishermen.
The fish seed bank was constructed on 2.7 ha site at the northern tip of Bayawan River facing the Sulu Sea. It consists of various facilities which are mentioned and described below:
The fish seed bank is provided with one-storey office laboratory building. This is divided into four equal-sized rooms of 4 × 5 m each. One room is used as an office, another is used as laboratory where most of the monitoring equipment is set. A third room is used as control room, where switches of the air delivery system are located and where farm equipment is stored. The fourth room is used as quarters of the permanent staff as well as the personnel performing overtime work.
There are seven concrete culture tanks at the fish seed bank. Four of them are nursery tanks measuring 3 × 4 m; two are transition tanks of 3 × 8 m, and one is a rearing tank of 6 × 8 m. All these tanks are rectangular in shape. Sharp corners have been eliminated by rounding them up for better fish movement and water circulation. The production tanks are elevated to 1 m from the ground to protect them from flash floods and abnormally high tide.
Fish Shade Building
This shade protects the production tanks from rain and sunlight. It is made of strong materials with asbestos roofing. The roof prevents the dilution of rain water and the heat of direct sunlight, thereby maintaining the desired water salinity and water temperature in the tanks.
Seawater Storage Tank
A centrifugal pump is provided to draw seawater from the well to the 40 t storage tank. The seawater cell is located near the shoreline. It consists of six culverts, each with 1 m in depth, placed one on top of the other. The water pumped into the reservoir is filtered by sand that surrounds the well. Water from the storage tank is allowed to flow into the production tanks by gravity through leadfree plastic PVC pipes.
Freshwater Storage Tank
An electric water pump is provided to draw water from the freshwater well to the freshwater storage tank. This is made of four culverts, each 1 m deep and placed one on top of the other. Water from this tank is mixed with seawater to obtain the desired salinity. Freshwater is also used for the laboratory and domestic needs of the staff.
The aeration system is one of the essential instruments in fish seed production. It supplies the cultured fish seeds with the desired oxygen and prevents water fouling due to excess food and faeces. It is through this aeration system that obnoxious water gases are expelled and whereby food is kept in suspension for easy picking by the fish.
Portable aerators and an air compressor are also provided for the aeration requirements of the project. Airstones and circular plastic porous tubes are used as final air outlets; all these are properly positioned and suspended off the bottom of the production tanks.
Electricity is provided from the community power line for the operation of the water pumps for the air compressor and portable aerators to supply the oxygen requirements of the fish, and for lighting the whole project. In case of power failure, the project is provided with a standby power generator for the same purpose which is vital in the operation of the fish seed bank.
Water Quality Monitoring System Equipment
For an organism to continue to live, its aquatic environment must be good and satisfactory. At least it must provide the minimum requirement for the sustenance of the organism. The factors in which growth and survival depend involve water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and water salinity. These factors are measured by and monitored with the use of the following equipment:
Dissolved Oxygen Digital Meter - measures the dissolved oxygen;
pH Digital Meter - measures water acidity or hydrogen ion concentration;
Thermometer - measures air and water temperature;
Refractometer - measures the salinity of the water.
Feed Handling and Feeding Equipment
Feeds are among the most important factors influencing the growth and survival of a cultured organism. Therefore, knowing the most suitable feeds and feeding rates is very important in the successful rearing and holding of the fish seeds to achieve the production target requirement. Feeds given to the cultured milkfish seed at the fish seed bank have been discovered to be nutritionally balanced and growth-efficient. Feeds are being measured and applied with the following laboratory equipment:
Harvard Trip and Cent-O-Gram Balance - to measure feeding rate and fish weight;
Fine-meshed Net - to sieve and segregate coarse grain feeds;
Feeding Ring - to confine and hold in temporary suspension artificial feeds for easy picking;
Blender/Ostirizer - to mix feeds in homogenized form so that they could be conveniently and easily eaten by the fish.
Complementary to the Bayawan Fish Seed Bank is the 10 ha Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Fish Farm. This is located in Tamiso, Bais City, 145 km south of Bayawan. It is being operated/managed by technicians of the BFAR. However, 5 ha of the area have been set aside by BFAR for the exclusive use of the BFMCI. The purpose of the farm is to hold and store excess milkfish fry and fingerlings in Bayawan. The project is to be utilized as a training centre for the technical aspect of fish seed operation and management among cooperative members who will eventually operate and manage the fish seed bank project. The project area has been fully developed. It is provided with a nursery, transition and rearing ponds which have been stocked with excess milkfish fingerlings from the Bayawan Fish Seed Bank for sale and disposal to small-scale fishpond operators in the locality.
To enhance the capabilities of the local staff in the operation and management of the fish seed bank, the national project manager sent the fish farm manager to one of the government hatcheries to observe the systems and methods, techniques and practices. The author was sent to Bangkok, Thailand for 15 days for the same purpose.
The author, in coordination with the project staff, BFAR, Regional Office Training Staff and personnel, conducted a three-day technical training on various methods and practices of milkfish fry catching/gathering, counting, acclimation, storing, feeding and rearing management for 51 cooperative members of the BFMCI in June 1983 (Appendix 2 and 3).
From August to December 1983, trial operations were conducted in holding and rearing milkfish seeds by using the facilities of the newly established fish seed bank. Some 70 000 milkfish fry were purchased from local fry dealers and were stocked in the different compartments of the production tanks. The operation was a failure. Most of the fry died. The mortality was believed to have been caused by unfavourable water conditions, the presence of harmful bacteria and incomplete artificial feeds.
This unfortunate incident prompted the management to recruit another aquaculture consultant to assist the local staff in the technical operation and management of the fish seed bank.
Of the 70 000 fry only 2 233 were recovered; these were sold to local small-scale fishpond operators.
Prior to the operation of the fish seed bank, the following members who were technically qualified were recruited by the national project manager:
|Pedro T. Toledo, Jr.||- Fish Farm Manager|
|Jose Ricardo Llera||- Fishery Biologist|
|Elmira Ac-ac||- Fish Farm Caretaker|
|Aurelio Ansay||- Fish Farm Caretaker|
|Fernando Canto||- Security Guard|
|Eduardo Tizon||- Security Guard|
|Alfredo Manacio||- Security Guard|
|Victorina I. Ege||- Clerk-Typist|
Due to lack of funds to sustain and support the salaries and wages of the above-mentioned staff, BFMCI retained only three members to continue and maintain the operation of the fish seed bank, viz.:
|Pedro T. Toledo, Jr.||- Fish Farm Manager|
|Jose Ricardo Llera||- Fishery Biologist|
|Fernando Canto||- Fish Farm Caretaker/Security Guard|
In 1984 innovations and technical improvements recommended by the consultant were implemented. At this stage, 393 120 milkfish fry were purchased and stocked. Of the total number of fry purchased 15 200 died while being acclimatized in the different plastic basins; 12 000 were unaccounted for although this can be attributed to the estimation practices of all fry dealers in the selling process.
With the use of the newly acquired laboratory equipment made available to the project by FAO, parameters were constantly checked. Tanks were cleaned of faeces and excess food and water changed daily. Artificial feeds known to be nutritionally balanced and growth efficient were given to the cultured fishes six times daily at 5–10 percent of their body weight.
As a result of the operation and management practices adopted, the fish seed bank was able to effect a recovery rate of 78.5 percent which is considered high.
The project was able to sell 118 481 fingerlings valued at (Pesos) 31 218.000 to small-scale fishpond operators in the province at a minimal cost (Appendix 4). The rest were stocked at the Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Farm. They will be sold to fishpond operators during the off-season.
There are three types of gear used in catching and collecting milkfish fry in Bayawan and neighbouring municipalities in Negros Oriental province. These are:
This gear consists of a V-shaped bamboo frame and a detachable fine-meshed nylon net. The net which is mounted inside the frame is made of sinamay (Manila hemp cloth). A smooth surfaced fine-meshed cloth is sewn over the net which is at the apex to prevent the fry from stocking to the nylon net when the gear is surfaced to enable the operator to catch and collect the fry. The rim of the wing which is the base of the triangular net is provided with lead or stone sinkers so that when the bag is pushed forward it is always above the water line and the wing is below the water surface. This is because milkfish fry swim near the surface of the water. This fry catching device is operated by pushing it below the water surface along the shore where schools of milkfish fry are usually found. It is operated by one man.
This gear which is similar to a fry sweeper is bigger and can be operated in deeper waters. It is provided with a bamboo raft along the side of the bag net. The wings are made of split bamboo attached to a bamboo frame which serves as float. The catching section is made of sinamay or any smooth-surface clothing material. The raft is used to carry jars, pails, basins and other catching appliances. This gear can be operated by one or two men. It is usually pushed forward with the use of bamboo poles.
This gear is locally known as “tangab” or “saplad”. It is set across the mouth of tidal rivers, creeks and tributaries. It consists of a V-shaped barricade with walls or wings made of split bamboo or fine-meshed nylon nettings tied to bamboo poles for support. At each wing end, sinamay cloth or any smooth-surfaced clothing material which is rectangular in shape is placed below the water level to catch the fry which swim with the current.
There are several ways of setting this milkfish fry catching device. In small creeks or tributaries, the gear usually consists of one catching area with wings extending from it to both sides of the bank. In rivers, a series of this gear is set across the river mouth. This set trap net is operated before the start of the high tide until the near highest tide when no more incoming flow of water occurs. Although one man can operate this gear, ideally it should be operated by two or three men. One man is assigned to clean the catching area of floating debris, leaves and twigs, and to scoop the trapped milkfish fry. Another man is assigned to adjust the gear so that the net is always below the tidal water level. In some instances, the gear is installed in reverse position to catch the fry which are carried down by the receding tide.
Milkfish fry are handled with extra care to avoid injury and to lessen mortality. Upon arrival at the fish seed bank, they are placed in plastic basins for sorting and counting.
The fry are placed in a white basin to facilitate the removal of dirt and debris. An aspirator device can also be used to suck dirt, sand and dead fry at the bottom of the basin. Extraneous fry are removed with the use of a cylindrical device made of nylon netting with a mesh size wide enough to allow only milkfish fry to pass through; other fry are held inside. The two common extraneous fry which are gathered along with the milkfish fry are: the tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides) and ten pounder (Elops hawaiinensis). These closely resemble the milkfish fry. Only an experienced eye could be able to distinguish them by their longer and wider body, colour and by their swimming habits. These are voracious predators of milkfish fry in the nursery tanks.
There are other species which are sometimes caught with milkfish fry but these can easily be distinguished by their shape, size and colour. For conservation purposes, the extraneous fry should be returned to the sea or river.
The fry are scooped by using a small bowl, cup or a small scoop net.
For easy counting and estimation, 1 000 fry are placed in a plastic basin with water. This will serve as the sample or model which has to be approximated later.
Other basins of similar size with the same volume of water are stocked with fry from the uncounted collection up to the point where the number of fry in each basin approximates that of the model basin. In this way the total number of fry can be computed by the number of basins that can be made out of the total collection. This method of counting and estimation may result in a slight inaccuracy. However, this is the most practical method used to facilitate the counting of fry for stocking purposes and in the “buy and sell” transactions.
After counting the fry, they are placed in a plastic basin for acclimation and storage before stocking. In this seed bank project, plastic basins, 7 cm deep and 5 cm wide are used. These can hold approximately 5 000–7 000 fry with saline water 4–5 cm for a week or more.
During the acclimation period the basins are placed in shaded areas to protect the fry from direct sunlight and to minimize the rise of the temperature of the water. The fry are fed three times a day for four to five days before stocking them in the nursery tanks. During this period, weak fry die and are discarded.
The feeds consist of the yolk of a hard boiled egg; plain or roasted corn starch, and bubbles of prepared baker's yeast fortified with vitamin B complex. Excessive feeding is avoided.
The water in the basins is partially changed every two hours after feeding. This prevents water fouling and the development of harmful fungi and bacteria. In this way the mortality rate is reduced.
Fry are reared in concrete tanks through three stages, namely: nursery (four tanks, each 12 m2), transition (two tanks, 24 m2 each) and rearing (one tank, 48 m2)
The operation in these tanks for one crop cycle is described below.
Two days before stocking, all tanks are cleaned: scrubbed, washed and disinfected with Purex Bleach which is a household cleaning and disinfecting solution with about 5% sodium hypochlorate. To use Purex Bleach as tank disinfectant, a 10% solution of the concentrated substance is prepared. This solution is sprinkled over the tank bottom and the sides. Then with a piece of clean cloth moistened with the solution, the bottom and the sides of the tanks are scrubbed thoroughly. This cleans the tanks of harmful bacteria and other organisms and prevents possible water fouling from decaying organic matter that may have been left behind during the previous operation. After allowing the disinfectant to stand for about two hours, the tanks are thoroughly rinsed with clean water.
Subsequently, the tanks are filled with clean brackishwater from the seawater storage tank through gravity. The parameters are monitored to keep the culture water suitable for the fry: salinity is kept between 10 and 15 ppt; water temperature between 25° and 30°C; dissolved oxygen between 6 and 7 mg/1; and pH between 7 and 8.
All nursery tanks are provided with circular plastic porous tubes connected by pipe to the compressed air storage tank which supplies the fry with the desired dissolved oxygen from the portable electric aerators that are set up in air lifts for better water movement and circulation.
The acclimated fry are then transferred to the culture tanks. The four tanks can accommodate 100 000 fry (25 000 per tank) for rearing to pre-fingerling size in 30 days with water depth maintained at 5–10 cm. At 4 h intervals the following feeds are given to the fish in succession, one kind after the other:
Yolk of 2 hard-boiled chicken eggs, finely mashed and dissolved in water and homogenized by using a blender;
Four cups bubbles of prepared baker's yeast fortified with vitamin B complex;
Plain or roasted corn starch, at 5% of the body weight of the fry;
Nutrend (a soy and wheat cereal complete infant food at 5% of the fish body weight);
Four cups filamentous algae juice (squeezed through a cheese cloth and measured in a 150–cc cup).
A circular feeding ring made of improvised white plastic hose is provided for each tank and placed near the discharged (outlet) pipe for easy removal of excess food by draining. For water circulation, each tank is provided with an airlift set up by using the portable aerators. The airlift tube is made of PCV pipe 1 m long and 0.6 cm in diameter. About 75% of the water in the nursery tanks is replaced daily.
A microscopic examination of the water and the fry in each tank is conducted at least every three days to determine whether or not the water and the fish are infected with parasites. This is aside from the ocular inspections and observations made during feeding time.
After 30 days the fingerlings in the nursery tanks are seined with the use of fine-meshed catching net and transferred to the transition tanks. Forty-five thousand fingerlings are usually reared in each tank (90 000 for the two transition tanks) for another 28 days.
The operations in the two rearing tanks are the same as in the nursery tanks except that the water is raised to 15 to 20 cm. Water parameters are maintained and the same precautions are taken as in the nursery tanks.
Another set of artificial feeds is given at 4 h intervals as follows:
Sieved Quaker oats, 5% of body weight;
Plain or roasted corn starch, 5% of body weight;
Wheat flour and corn bran fortified with V-22 food additive, 5% of body weight;
Natural fish food, lab-lab (microbenthic algae) and lumot (filamentous algae), 10 to 15 kg.
After 28 days in the transition tank, about 85 000 fingerlings which have survived the original 100 000 fry are transferred to the rearing tank for 10 or more days.
The rearing tank operation is similar to the operation in the nursery and transition tanks except that the water in the rearing tanks is further increased to 25 to 30 cm. All water parameters are maintained and all precautions observed.
Another set of artificial feeds is given at 4 h intervals:
Quaker oats, five percent of the body weight;
Plain or roasted corn starch, 5% of the body weight;
Corn bran, 5% of the body weight;
Natural fish food (lab-lab and lumot), 10 to 15kg.
After 10 days or so the fingerlings are sold to fishpond operators around the area and in the neighbouring municipalities of the Negros Oriental province. Usually the fish are kept for 10 more days, but it is best if they are disposed of prior to this.
Much of the success in the mass production of fish seeds depends on the aquaculturist's knowledge of the different diseases that may infect the fish and the prevention and/or proper prophylactic treatment thereof.
Like any other fish seeds, the milkfish fry generally have a natural resistance to diseases as long as they are not weakened by inadequate or unsuitable food and adverse physico-chemical conditions of their environment. A healthy fish has a good natural colour. Discoloration may be sign of distress, and if this occurs without apparent reason and continues for a long period then the fish shows symptoms of a disease.
External diseases may become evident by the fading of the natural colour of the fish, the formation of a slimy grey excretion covering a small or a large area of the body; white or brownish or even black spots may also be seen. Skin diseases are also recognizable from the way the fish swims for it may rub its body against the wall, stone and other surfaces. Pale gills may also be a sign of infection.
This disease is characterized by the appearance of white or greyish spot on the fins and the skin of the fish. Under the microscope the causative organism may be seen penetrating the mucus and the upper layer of the fish epidermis where it affects the red blood corpuscles. This organism reproduces rapidly and is always in search of a new host. Definite identification of these diseases will be required.
Fungus infection is one of the more common diseases among freshwater and brackishwater fishes. It is sometimes called dermatomycosis. It is characterized by the growth of thin threads of dirty white or grey colour on the skin of the fish. It sometimes resembles a cotton wool pad. Fungi attack fishes that have been wounded or have been weakened by parasites or adverse living conditions. Thus, fishes which have been infected with white spot or any micro-organism which causes injury to the skin, often develop fungus infection. However, fishes which are healthy and unhurt are seldom infected with fungi, although the spores may be present in culture water.
The development of the fungus depends on poor water condition and environment. On dead fishes, fungus growth is very fast while on the living fish it may take several days before a larger area of the skin is covered. If infection has occurred, fungi penetrate the epidermis, then the underlying muscle begins to degenerate and the fish may ultimately die.
Although there may be other medicines to cure the fish infected with white spot and fungus diseases, the Bayawan Fish Seed Bank uses methylene blue which has been found to be effective and locally available. For use, four to five drops of medically graded methylene blue are mixed with one gallon of water and the infected fish is bathed in the concoction until the causative organism dies.
Before the fry are stocked in the tanks, pests and predators are carefully sorted and discarded.
Daily change of water should be made to prevent water fouling and the development of harmful bacteria and other organisms.
At the fish seed bank, 75% of the culture water is changed daily.
Microscopical examination of fish and water is done every three days.
Feeding rings are placed near the discharge pipes for easy disposal of unconsumed food and faeces.
Dead fish and organic matter that may have settled on the tank bottom are siphoned daily.
Overstocking of tanks to prevent overcrowding and weakening of the stock is avoided. Present stocking rates used in the different rearing tanks appear suitable but the upper and lower limits which make up the optimum stocking range have not yet been determined.
After 60 or more days when the individual fish body weight ranges from 1.30 to 1.50 g and the body length is from 15 to 20 mm, the fry are harvested and sold to fishpond operators who need milkfish fingerlings.
Water in the rearing tank is partially drained, then the fry are seined and transferred to a big white plastic basin where they are counted. The fingerlings are packed in two polyethylene bags, one inside the other, 50 cm wide by 100 cm long. Each bundle is placed inside a woven buri bag locally called “bayong” to prevent the plastic bags from being punctured and also for easy handling.
In packing the fingerlings, each polyethylene bag is filled one third with water from the rearing tank. About 1 000–1 200 fingerlings are put into each set of two plastic bags. The bag is pressed down to let out the residual air and the mouth of the bag is closed enough to allow the insertion of a rubber hose attached to a tank of compressed air. The hose extends into the water. As air is allowed inside it aerates the water. This process is continued until air fills the bags. The mouth of the inner plastic bag is tightly closed with rubber bands. The outer bag is also similarly closed. For long–distance travel it is advantageous to put 250 g of crushed ice on top of the plastic bags to prevent an increase in temperature which reduces fish movement. Fish packed in plastic bags can be transported by land, water or air for hours. The seed bank had transported fry in this manner for 4–5 h with a very low mortality rate.
Other activities of the master fishfarmer:
Designated as Officer-in-Charge of the Philippine Small-Scale Fisheries Development Project while the national project manager was on an educational tour in Japan and Malaysia;
Represented the national project manager in briefing the BFAR Regional Director and his staff on the project development, accomplishments and other project activities;
Represented the national project manager in several cooperative board meetings;
Conferred with the president of the Negros Oriental Fishpond Federation to advertise the availability of fry/fingerlings at the Fish Seed Bank for sale at minimal cost to fishpond operators;
Assisted in the supervision of the construction and development of the Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Fish Farm in Tamiso, Bais City;
Supervised the construction of a stationary fry fishing gear and tested its catching effectivity;
Conducted lectures and disseminated information on the objectives and operation of the Fish Seed Bank to graduating high school students of the Negros Oriental Agricultural School and to the science teachers and their students at the Bayawan Elementary School, Bayawan;
Rendered technical assistance to several fishpond operators in the province on the different methods of culturing milkfish;
Submitted freshwater and seawater samples for analysis to the Chemistry Department, Silliman University and to the Provincial Laboratory, Dumaguete City;
Prepared and submitted the 1983, 1984 and 1985 budgetary requirements and project outlines;
Prepared and submitted weekly, monthly and quarterly accomplishment and progress reports of the Fish Seed Bank;
Attended regular staff conferences called by the national project manager;
Briefed and entertained local and foreign visitors regarding operations of the Fish Seed Bank (Appendix 6); and
Performed other duties assigned by the national project manager.
The completion of the fish seed bank and the different facilities and infrastructures, the installation of farm and laboratory equipment and the acquisition of supplies and materials made the holding and rearing operation of milkfish fry possible.
At present, the Fish Seed Bank is being utilized by the BFMCI to hold and store milkfish fry which are gathered by cooperative members from the BFMCI concessions of fry grounds. These fry are sold to different fishpond operators and to fry dealers in the province. At the time of reporting, 1 169 709 fry of milkfish and prawn have been caught from the BFMCI area and sold to the different fishpond operators and dealers for 121 913.000 (Appendix 5).
One half of the 10 ha Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Fish Farm was made available for the use of the BFMCI. This complement of the fish seed bank project is provided with nursery, transition and rearing ponds. It will be used as the venue for future training and seminars on fry management operation for cooperative members who will be left behind or who will be directly involved with the management and operation of the Fish Seed Bank.
The successful construction of the Fish Seed Bank, the Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Fish Farm and the installation of laboratory equipment and the acquisition of supplies and materials needed in the operation of the project made possible the gathering and rearing of milkfish fry.
The discouraging results of the trial operation conducted in 1983 convinced the management to recruit an aquaculturist consultant who innovated some of the facilities of the project. This led to a successful operation of the bank with a significant recovery rate of 78.5%.
This prompted the BFMCI to acquire fry ground concessions from the local government of Bayawan and to utilize the Fish Seed Bank facilities in rearing milkfish fry caught and gathered at the area by BFMCI cooperative members.
About 1 167 000 fry of milkfish and prawn were caught and reared and later sold by the BFMCI for P 121 913.000. This activity has considerably increased the income of the cooperative members, who are the only people authorized to gather fish seed in the concessions and the income of the BFMCI. This activity of the Fish Seed Bank will definitely provide a continuous supply of fry for the small-scale fishpond operators in the province, even during the lean months and also stabilize the price of milkfish fry in the area.
The activities of the project are known within the province and the fry from the Fish Seed Bank have gained wide acceptability. It is the author's belief that the successful operation of the project will help increase the real income of the fishermen as well as that of the BFMCI as a whole.
The fish Seed Bank lacks technical personnel and no-one is assigned to manage the Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Fish Farm for the BFMCI;
The Fish Seed Bank has no security force to safeguard the properties of the project. This is also true with the Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Fish Farm;
The Fish Seed Bank has no established markets for its fry or fingerling produce;
The Fish Seed Bank lacks technical personnel knowledge on fish diseases;
Some cooperative members engaged in gathering fry do not know the proper catching and culturing methods.
The BFMCI should recruit additional technical personnel to complement the existing staff of the Fish Seed Bank and the Bais Small-Scale Demonstration Farm;
The BFMCI should hire security guards to protect its properties;
The BFMCI should tap other fishpond areas in the province which can absorb the fingerling stocks of the project;
The technical personnel of the Fish Seed Bank should undergo training on fish diseases, their treatment and control;
The BFMCI should request other technical training from BFAR on fry catching and mangement for the cooperative members who were not able to attend the first training programme;
The BFMCI should try to secure additional concessions of fry grounds in the locality so as to be able to fully utilize the facilities of the project;
The BFMCI should exert efforts to assume the management of even one fifth of the government fry grounds.
|A. Farm||1||unit||Centrifugal Pump 0.75 HP|
|1||unit||Diesel Engine Generator|
|1||unit||Gasoline Engine Pump|
|1||unit||Air Compressor with Stainless Air Tank|
|1||unit||Deep Well Pump with Injector|
|B. Laboratory||1||unit||Compound Microscope with Electric Bulb|
|1||unit||pH Digital Meter|
|1||unit||DO Digital Meter|
|1||unit||Harvard Trip Balance|
|C. Glasswares||3||units||Graduated Cylinder of Different Sizes|
|11||units||Beaker of Different Sizes|
|66||units||Test Tubes with and without Cover|
|A. Farm||62||units||Plastic Bag (long)|
|37||units||Plastic Bag (small)|
|2||units||Oxygen Tank (big) with Regulator|
|2||units||Oxygen Tank (small)|
|18||units||Air Control Valve|
|82||units||Hose Valve Connector|
|1||roll||PVC Reinfroced House, 120 psi|
|B. Office||1||unit||Executive Table|
|1||unit||Manual Typewriter (long carriage)|
|1||unit||Filing Cabinet with 4 drawers|
|June 21, 1983||8:00am – 9:00am||Registration||BFAR-CIDA-FAO Secretariat||MHS Building|
|9:00 – 9:30||Course Orientation||National Project Manager||-do-|
|9:30 – 10:00||Introduction to Course Design||Romualdo S.Corrales||-do-|
|10:00 – 10:30||B r e a k|
|10:30 – 11:00||Meaning of Management||Romualdo S. Corrales||-do-|
|11:00 – 11:30||Bangus Fry Identification||Louie Alcantara||-do-|
|11:30 – 12:00||Bangus Fry Counting & Estimating||Louie Alcantara||-do-|
|12:00am – 1:00pm||L u n c h|
|1:00 – 1:30||Bangus Fry Handling and Storage||Romualdo S. Corrales||-do-|
|1:30 – 2:00||Bangus Fry Transporting||Romualdo S. Corrales||-do-|
|2:00 – 2:30||Bangus Fry Stocking Density||Louie Alcantara||-do-|
|2:30 – 3:00||Bangus Fry Feeding & Feeding Habit||Louie Alcantara||-do-|
|3:00 – 3:30||B r e a k|
|3:30 – 4:00||Acclimation||Louie Alcantara||-do-|
|4:00 – 4:30||Fry Culture and Management in Tanks||Romualdo S. Corrales||-do-|
|4:30 – 5:00||Record Keeping||Louie Alcantara||-do-|
|5:00 – 6:00||Open Forum||R. Corrales & L. Alcantara||-do-|
|June 22, 1983||8:00am – 12:00am||Practicum: Accrual Construction of Fry Dozer||R. Corrales & L. Alcantara||Fish Seed Bank|
|12:00 – 1:00||B r e a k|
|1:00 – 5:00||Practicum: Continuation||R. Corrales & L. Alcantara||-do-|
|June 23, 1983||8:00m – 12:00am||Practicum: Actual Catching and Gathering of Bangus Fry||R. Corrales & L. Alcantara||BFAR Reserve Fry Ground Area|
|12:00 – 1:00pm||B r e a k|
|1:00 – 3:00||Practicum: Actual Application of all previously discussed topics||R. Corrales & L. Alcantara||Fish Seed Bank|
|4:00 – 5:00||Training Evaluation||R. Corrales & L. Alcantara||MHS Building|
|SUBMITTED BY:||RECOMMENDING APPROVAL:||APPROVED:|
|(SGD) ROMUALDO S. CORRALES|
Master Fish Farmer
|(SGD) DIONISIO B. DE LA PENA,JR.|
National Project Manager
|(SGD) ERLING OSWALD|
Project Coordinato Acting Programme Leader, SCSP
|DATE||QUANTITY||UNIT PRICE||TOTAL||NAME OF BUYER||ADDRESS|
|January 13,1984||900||0.35||315.00||F.G. Daudiel||Bayawan, Negros Oriental|
|January 13,1984||1,333||0.30||400.00||W. Maypa||Bayawan, Negros Oriental|
|June 5,1984||4,600||0.25||1,150.00||F.J. Vicuña||Bais City|
|June 5,1984||5,400||0.20||1,080.00||F.J. Vicuña||Bais City|
|July 17,1984||10,000||0.25||2,500.00||F.G. Gaudiel||Bayawan, Negros Oriental|
|July 27,1984||300||0.30||90.00||F. Camomoy||Dumaguete City|
|August 9,1984||10,000||0.3325||6,650.00||F.del Prado||Bais City|
|September 26,1984||29,800||0.20||5,960.00||F. Trinidad||Amlan, Negros Oriental|
|September 26,1984||200||0.30||60.00||F. Trinidad||Amlan, Negros Oriental|
|September 29,1984||1,000||0.30||300.00||F. Tangente||Bayawan, Negros Oriental|
|November 21,1984||10,000||0.37||3,700.00||F.J. Vicuña||Bais City|
|November 24,1984||2,903||0.37||1,074.11||J. de Asis||Tanjay, Negros Oriental|
|November 24,1984||23,045||0.20||4,609.00||J. de Asis||Tanjay, Negros Oriental|
|December 18,1984||9,000||0.37||3,330.00||F.G. Gaudiel||Bayawan, Negros Oriental|
|DATE SOLD||QUANTITY||PRICE/THOUSAND||TOTAL AMOUNT|
|March 27, 1985||42,500||150.00||6,375.00|
|April 3, 1985||31,500||150.00||4,725.00|
|April 7, 1985||115,000||150.00||17,250.00|
|April 13, 1985||62,000||150.00||9,300.00|
|April 23, 1985||140,000||160.00||22,400.00|
|April 25, 1985||15,000||150.00||2,250.00|
|April 30, 1985||30,000||150.00||4,500.00|
|April 30, 1985||10,000||60.00||600.00|
|May 4, 1985||15,000||150.00||2,250.00|
|May 4, 1985||3,000||150.00||450.00|
|May 9, 1985||15,000||135.00||2,250.00|
|May 14, 1985||15,000||90.00||1,350.00|
|May 15, 1985||22,000||70.00||1,540.00|
|May 16, 1985||14,000||90.00||1,260.00|
|May 17, 1985||13,300||90.00||1,197.00|
|May 19, 1985||42,500||90.00||3,825.00|
|May 22, 1985||6,000||60.00||600.00|
|May 22, 1985||53,000||75.00||3,975.00|
|May 27, 1985||50,000||75.00||3,750.00|
|May 28, 1985||50,300||75.00||3,772.00|
|May 31, 1985||34,300||80.00||2,744.00|
|June 1, 1985||20,600||80.00||1,648.00|
|June 3, 1985||10,000||60.00||600.00|
|June 3, 1985||33,000||80.00||2,640.00|
|June 5, 1985||31,300||80.00||2,504.00|
|June 7, 1985||32,000||60.00||1,920.00|
|June 8, 1985||30,000||60.00||1,800.00|
|June 10, 1985||28,000||65.00||1,680.00|
|June 12, 1985||100,200||65.00||6,513.00|
|June 15, 1985||20,000||65.00||1,300.00|
|June 19, 1985||10,000||65.00||650.00|
|June 20, 1985||60,500||60.00||3,630.00|
|June 1, 1985||500||130.00||68.90|
|June 3, 1985||350||130.00||45.50|
|June 5, 1985||200||130.00||26.00|
|June 7, 1985||1,629||130.00|
|1. Dr. Herminio R. Rabanal||- Aquaculture Consultant, FAO|
|2. Mr. Carlos David||- Aquaculture Consultant, Local|
|3. Mr. Erling Oswald||- Management Consultant, FAO|
|4. Engr. Atilano Jabil||- Civil Work Consultant, Local|
|5. Anselma Legaspi||- Fish Processing and Technology Consultant, Local|
|6. Arsenio de Jesus||- Fish Net & Design Consultant, Local|
|7. Engr. Paulino Canuela||- Fishing Boat & Design Consultant, Local|
|1. Mr. Reginald Dorrett||- Canadian Ambassador to the Philippines|
|2. Ma. Cathy Mains||- Project Director, Small-Scale Fisheries Development Project, Canada|
|3. Mr. Lennox Hinds||- Fishery Specialist, Canada|
|4. Ms. Celine Fittes||- 2nd Secretary, Canadian Embassy, Manila|
|5. Dr. Ulrich J.G. Grieb||- FAO Representative, Manila|
|6. M. Hotta||- Marketing Specialist, FAO|
|7. Michael Gardner||- Project Evaluator, Canada|
|8. Jim Carmichael||- 2nd Secretary, Canadian Embassy, Manila|
|9. Bayo Imevbori||- Photographer, FAO|
|10. Gunther Hillenbrand||- Photographer, FAO|
|11. P. Banbour||- Photographer, Canada|
|12. Tohru Morikawa||- Executive Director, Japan Marine Products Importer Association, Japan|
|13. Tomomasa Kageyama||- JICA Representative, Japan|
|14. Masanori Doi||- Fisheries Marketing Consultant, Japan|
|15. Dr. Tadachi Tamamoto||- Prof. Fishery Economics, Nihon University, Japan|
|16. O. M. Linton||- Post Harvest Technology, Consultant, CIDA ASEAN|
|17. M. Hotta||- Fish Marketing Consultant, FAO|
|18. Ms. Maria Conti||- Journalist/Photographer, FAO|
|19. G.A. Mishma||- Nepalese Fishery Officer on Study Tour|
|20. R.S. Yadar||- Nepalese Fishery Officer on Study Tour|
|21. R.C. Ras||- Nepalese Fishery Officer on Study Tour|
|22. R. Ismael||- Malaysia Fishery Official on Study Tour|
|23. A. Hassan||- Malaysia Fishery Official on Study Tour|
|24. R. Haun||- Malaysia Fishery Official on Study Tour|
|25. H. Omon||- Malaysia Fishery Official on Study Tour|
|26. R. Yhanoh||- Malaysia Fishery Official on Study Tour|
|27. N. Krishnasany||- Malaysia Fishery Official on Study Tour|
|1. Felix R. Gonzales||- National Director, BFAR, Manila|
|2. Sixto V. Laron||- Regional Director, BFAR, Region 7, Cebu City|
|3. Antonio C. Avisado||- Regional Director, BFAR, Region 7, Cebu City|
|4. Fernando P. Bernardino||- Asst. Regional Director, BFAR Region 7, Cebu City|
|5. Lorenzo G. Teves||- Governor, Negros Oriental|
|6. Emilio Macias||- Vice-Governor, Negros Oriental|
|7. Aurora B. Reyes||- Chief, Coordinating Staff, BFAR, Manila|
|8. Bonifacio Gamo||- Board Member, Negros Oriental|
|9. Felix Gaudiel, Jr.||- Provincial Attorney, Negros Oriental|
|10. Raul P. Martinez||- Municipal Mayor, Bayawan, Negros Oriental|
|11. Marietta Caugma||- Budget Officer, BFAR, Manila|
|12. Presentacion Ramos||- Regional Accountant, BFAR Region 7, Cebu City|
|13. Lina Masucol||- Resident Auditor, BFAR Region 7, Cebu City|