Field Document 1
January 1987

A report prepared for the Seafarming Project
at Teluk Hurun, Lampung
Sumatra, Indonesia


Samuel P. Meyers
Feed and Nutrition Consultant

This report was prepared during the course of the project identified on the title page. The conclusions and recommendations given in the report are those considered appropriate at the time of its preparation. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained at subsequent stages of the project.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations or the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.


A fully-equipped feed fabrication laboratory for aquatic diet formulation, together with appropriate staff instruction, has been completed at the seafarming site. A diet test programme has been developed with procedures established for ingredient replacement, cost reduction and determination of optimal fish growth and feed usage. The basis for a cooperative information-exchange programme has been established to ensure proper monitoring of test results and ultimate transfer of feeding technology to the village seafarming cooperative level in Indonesia.


The Food and Agriculture Organization is greatly indebted to the following individuals who assisted the author in the implementation of the project by providing information, advice and facilities:

Dr Banchong Tiensongrusmee, Project Leader, for his cooperation which facilitated the achievement of objectives,

Mr Budiono Martosudarmo, Mr M. Murjani and Mr Suhardi Pontjoprawino, senior project personnel,

Ms Astuti and Mr M. Kadhory in the Feed Laboratory,

Dr Max. W. Zaddach, nutritionist at Viterna, Bandar Lampung for supplying feed ingredients and developing computer and technical analyses of the dietary formulations,

Ms Fatimah Darmono, administrative assistant.

Rome, 1987

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This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.



1.1 Terms of Reference





5.1 Laboratory Equipment and Design



7.1 Siganids (Rabbitfish) Diet

7.1.1 Modified Rabbitfish Diet

7.1.2 Proposed Siganid Diet (25.4% Protein)

7.2 Diet for Seabass/Grouper

7.3 Finfish Broodstock Diet



9.1 Further Recommendations

9.1.1 Trash Fish

9.1.2 Vitamin Pre-mixes

Appendix 1: Summary of Accomplishments

Appendix 2: References

Appendix 3: Procedural Aspects for Feed Laboratory

Appendix 4: Instructions for Operation of Feed Laboratory

Appendix 5: Record of Consultant's Itinerary


1. Composition of Feed Ingredients Supplied to the Seafarming Project



The Government of Indonesia, assisted by the United Nations Development Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, is engaged in the project Seafarming Development (INS/81/008) whose main objectives are to develop seafarming in the coastal waters of Indonesia.

As part of the project operations, FAO assigned Mr Samuel P. Meyers as Fish Feeds Consultant from 6 July to 16 August 1986. The original terms of reference were as follows:


Prior to the author's arrival in Lampung, correspondence was established with Dr Banchong, the Project Leader, related to equipment procurement and project needs and goals. Feed processing equipment descriptions and price quotations were obtained from Insta Pro (Des Moines, Iowa) and Somerville (S) Pte (Singapore) for extruders and mixers, respectively. Following arrival in Jakarta, the Project Leader recommended procurement of all necessary major equipment (comparable to types originally proposed) from companies in Jakarta. This resulted in a significant savings in cost of procurement as well as advancing the initial date of operation of the feed manufacturing laboratory.

While the Insta Pro cooking extruder was not purchased, it is still being considered for later use in the project when phases of the work move from use of semi-moist diets to either dry and/or floating feeds. Extrusion is an extremely effective means to cook and shape raw ingredients into specialized products where size, shape, “mouth feel” and degree of heat conditioning are important factors in the success of the products as aquatic diets.

Invaluable assistance was provided to the author by the availability of various relevant external reports, especially those cited in the reference reports (Appendix 3). Mr Pontjoprawino was designated Technical Counterpart in communication with the feed laboratory personnel and coordinated translation of relevant instructional documents into the Indonesian language. Two Indonesian publications on basic fish feed manufacture and dietary considerations (Makanan Ikan, Publ. Penebar Swadaya, 1985; Pakan Ikan, Publ. C. V. Yasaguna, 1985) were made available to the feed laboratory personnel as ancillary instructional guides.

Two sections of this report, Procedural Aspects for Feed Laboratory (Appendix 4), and Instructions for Operation of Feed Laboratory (Appendix 5), are being translated into Indonesian to ensure proper communication of essential dietary and equipment details. These data will be included in the procedural manual planned, Project Deliverables (see Section 3). They are given here to illustrate the full scope of the author's activities as well as being appropriate to other fish feed/nutrition endeavours. Understanding and attention to basic procedures is a prerequisite to further dietary studies, and ultimately, more detailed nutritional analyses.


Based on evaluation of the needs of the project and for information to be used by other aquaculture groups in Indonesia, the following objectives were considered feasible and realistic. The data are planned both for project personnel and by a broad user population in Indonesia engaged in aquaculture.

  1. Basic instruction manual on feed equipment use and feed manufacturing. For use by Seafarming Development Project INS/81/008 personnel. Available for other comparable aquaculture projects.

  2. Short manual on seabass/grouper feeds and diet development. For distribution to seafarming workers and a supplement to feed instructions given in INS/81/008 Manual 5.

  3. Inventory booklet on feeds and feed manufacturing facilities in Indonesia for use in aquaculture. This booklet will comprise data supplier by project and appropriate government/industrial personnel to develop a compilation of available feeds, composition and data on fish/shrimp feed manufacturing facilities in Java and Sumatra. Information will be basic and relevant to concurrent and projected aquaculture efforts which involve feed ingredient availability, inventory, cost and location of facilities where shrimp/fish diets are now being, or will be, prepared on a commercial basis. The manual can be up-dated regularly to include new facilities and changes in the feed commodity market.

  4. Initial research note (Banchong/Meyers) on use of the E. spinosum seaweed gum as a binder for aquaculture diets. Information will be based on current work, additional feeding trials and analytical studies by the author at Louisiana State University. This published report should further stimulate development of the proposed seaweed culture project INS/81/008 Manual 4.


To ensure on-going availability of proper ingredients for diet formulation, feed manufacturing facilities in Lampung and Jakarta were visited by the author and project personnel. Data obtained have included ingredient availability, cost and composition. Sources of other dietary ingredients, i.e., vitamin pre-mixes, fish/vegetable oil, lecithin, etc. have also been examined. Particular attention was given to feed facilities in Lampung where most of the common ingredients needed, i.e., rice bran, soybean meal and various grain products are available.

As noted in the list of Project Deliverables (Section 3) an inventory booklet is planned which will facilitiate aquaculture endeavours pertaining to the critical feed component. This will avoid needless repetition of information and will make such data more readily accessible.

A supply of feed ingredients has been provided by a local feed company (Viterna) to begin initial compound diet formulation. Thus, it was not considered necessary to survey the variety of conventional and non-conventional feed ingredients that were available in the immediate area. Ingredients supplied included the following: fish meal, soybean meal, meat/bone meal, rice bran, wheat bran, wheat pollards, fish oil, vitamin pre-mixes. The analysis and source of these are noted below. Particular attention in the programme has been given to the nature of the fresh (trash) fish used and the gelation characteristics of the critical seaweed hydrocolloid binder. Availability of mussel meat in the seafarming project endeavour is yet another invaluable ingredient asset. Primary attention in this overall effort has been to formulate a feed package that could be ultimately utilized at the village cooperative level of the project. This may ultimately comprise dry mix of ingredients prepared on a least-cost commercial basis. In view of the importance of the fish oil in marine fish diets, a careful analysis of the various sources of oil available is in progress. This initially will focus on a sardine oil available in Indonesia as well as the fat/fatty acid composition of the fresh (trash) fish used.

Table 1

IngredientsProximate Analysis (in percent)
Dry matterProteinFibreFatAshCaP
Fish meal (local)925618154.22.5
Soybean meal (US)9142716.60.250.6
Meat/bone meal (Australia)9247112288.44.5
Rice bran (local)90111212100.051.6
Wheat bran (local)88131144.60.141.1
Wheat pollards (local)901553.840.090.7
Fish oil (local)       

11 In addition, both corn meal and coconut cake meal have been supplied to the project and analytical data have been given to the project director. Also, lecithin (a soy-derived product) and a vitamin pre-mix have been obtained to facilitate initial diet formulation. Specifications on the vitamin pre-mix were not available at the time of preparation of this report; however, in all likelihood this is a standard poultry pre-mix (see Appendix 1). Efforts are being made by the author to obtain a more appropriate vitamin pre-mix for the project.


A 12×15 ft well-ventilated building has been designated as the feed preparation laboratory facility. The location of equipment is noted in the following diagram:

A. Diet ingredients (coarse) or diet mixture (previously mixed in (B)) ground to fine uniform size (approx. 500 microns).

B. Thorough mixing of large volumes (20–40 kg) of previously-weighed dry ingredients for a standardized (15–25 min) time period.

C, F. Grinder used for preparation of seaweed and fish for inclusion in diet and for final extrusion of diet dough from mixer (E).

E. Mixer for addition of oil, ground fish and other wet ingredients, plus seaweed gum, for thorough mixing and gelatinization, prior to extrusion (F).

D. Stove is used for rapid melting of seaweed gum (10 min/100°C), followed by thorough mixing in a blender at the preparation table. Various ingredients, i.e., dry ingredient mixture, oil, seaweed and ground fresh fish/mussel can be processed at the preparation table.


Following prior correspondence on major equipment needs and inspection of such equipment in Des Moines, Iowa, USA and also in Singapore, it was decided to purchase comparable equipment (except for the Insta Pro extruder) in Jakarta, Indonesia. This allowed the project to expedite operation of the feed laboratory and also permitted purchase of equipment at a considerable cost saving.

1 To be used in standard maintenance and experimental formulas. Variables (see Diet Development Programme, Section 7) include fish meal levels, protein percentage changes, different attractants, fish meal type, etc.

2 Water/dry mix ingredient ratio kept constant. Final semi-moist diet should be in the range of 30–40% moisture. Mixing times kept constant to ensure uniformity between batches.

The four major pieces of feed manufacturing equipment installed included:

  1. Disc Mill (Model FFC-37) : used to grind course ingredients and compound diet to a fine particle size, thus giving superior binding properties to the final extruded diet.

  2. Feed Pre-mixer (Model NR-B-501) : used to thoroughly mix previously weighed dry ingredient to ensure diet uniformity.

  3. Grinder/Extruder (Model NR-A301) : this fish grinder is used for preparation of seaweed, fresh fish and mussel meat, as well as for final extrusion of the moist diet from the grinder diet head.

  4. Dough (diet) Mixer (Model CH-200M) : used for final controlled mixing of the ground fish/mussel, fish oil and vitamin pre-mix ingredients with the dry ingredient component, allowing thorough controlled mixing of all ingredients. This is followed by addition of the seaweed gum and formation of a tight homogenous dough for final extrusion.

Other accessory equipment included a two-burner pressure stove, a blender (to homogenize seaweed into a thick, viscous gum) and preparatory material, i.e., pots, containers, stirrers, etc. Calibrated balances were purchased for accurate weighing of all ingredients.


E. spinosum, a carrageenan-containing seaweed (65–67% carrageenan) is applied as a stabilizing agent (binder) for the presently used dry chicken feed formula. The seaweed, characterized by excellent hydrocolloid properties, is available locally at the seafarming site and is one component of the total seafarming effort. As noted in the reference reports (Appendix 3), extensive culture of E. spinosum is being proposed as an economic venture. Fresh E. spinosum also is available in Bali, Indonesia, at a cost of Rp 30–50/kg1 (wet weight). Dry weight cost is estimated at Rp 300/kg.

  1. The current procedure has involved used of 30% (1.5 kg) wet whole seaweed with 70% (2.5 kg) of the dry pre-mix. The whole (intact) seaweed is heated in a container for a variable period of time at an estimated temperature. After cooking, the seaweed is ground through a hand-operated grinder and this product together with the liquid gum is added to the dry pre-mix, followed by additional unheated water to prepare the final gummy dough. This is then hand-extruded into thin strands, comprising the final fish food which is supplied moist to the rabbitfish (Siganus).

  2. Problems with the aforementioned procedure have been attributed to:

  3. A modified procedure was developed to obtain maximal gelling properties and to reduce the concentration of seaweed needed. Also, the approach allows better uniformity and control (standardization).

1 Exchange: US$ 1.00 = Rp 1 126 (Rupiahs) (August 1986)

Seaweed (known weight)


add to standardized volume of hot (95–100°C1) water

stir and melt seaweed for standard time (to be established)

check gum thickness (viscosity) (with calibrated tube) add to dry mix with additional (known volume) hot water if needed

thoroughly mix (knead) dough until gelatinized (gummy). Extrude into strings of fish food

The aforementioned changes have allowed reduction of the amount of seaweed used from 1.5–2.5 kg dry feed to 0.5–1.5 kg dry feed - a ⅔ reduction. Other refinements facilitate gum manufacture, thus saving in time and material. These include grinding and subsequent freezing of large quantities at one time rather than on a daily basis as has been previously done.

Further studies are planned by the author at his University on the various types of carrageenans present in E. spinosum as well as quantitative analyses of the gelation process (viscosity) and factors involved. This information is relevant since in all likelihood, the cations, notably calcium and magnesium, present in the dry ingredient mixture will further enhance the desired gelation process.


Feeding practices at the Seafarming Project site have been of two basic types:

  1. Seabass (Lates calcarifer) and grouper (Epinephelus spp.) - a variety of whole or chopped small fresh (trash) fish.

  2. Rabbitfish (Signaus spp.) - commercial chicken feed (17% protein) obtained locally, with seaweed as binder and extruded through a small bench-mounted hand extruder.

Both trash fish and semi-moist extruded chicken feed mixture are stored frozen until ready for use.

1 Usually 40–45% of dry mixture (W/V basis) (i.e., 10 kg dry mix/4–4.5 l water). Actual quantity of moisture depends on formula and ingredients used. Finely ground ingredients require more water.

Following evaluation of the aforementioned practices the author has recommended a series of dietary changes, along with suggested diet alterations to optimize growth and to ultimately reduce project costs. Basic dietary considerations have been stressed, including:

All of the dietary tests proposed are more or less sequential, leading to gradual improvement of the formulation as well as providing a series of options for various dietary preparations, reflecting cost and ingredient availability.

Performance results are predicated on net weight gain/weight feed used (feed conversion ratio) including increment of growth/g/day over the test period and the final consideration of total fish biomass/density/unit area. Feed efficiency is a reflection of growth and is correlated with stocking density in the net cage.

An initial series of test variables have been outlined following establishment of growth response to Diet No. 1–786. These are directed toward ultimate reduction in feed costs, adaptation to local use conditions and response to graded levels of fish meal. Evaluation will be based on initial fish growth, expressed as:

(net weight gain/weight feed used/period of growth)

Particular attention will be given to increments (g) of fish growth/day and to determinations to ascertain whether an increase in total fish biomass/ density unit area can be achieved with a concurrent reduction of feed costs.

The probable sequence of these tests will involve:

  1. Ratio of ground fresh fish to dry compound ingredients, with efforts directed to examine the effects of fresh fish reduction from 46% to as low as 35%. The ultimate goal is to ascertain the effect of deletion of total fresh fish from the diet.

  2. Modification of the protein level from 50% to 40% or lower, to see if a more efficient protein/energy ratio will have a significant sparing effect on the amount of protein needed.

  3. When available, a comparison will be made of fish meal types (local, Thai, Chile) to establish the effect of quality of the meal on fish growth).

As noted, mussel meat is included in the diet at a 2% level, mainly to serve as a feeding stimulant, but it may also provide potential growth-stimulating substances, i.e., lipids, cholesterol, phospholipids, oil-soluble vitamins (notably Vitamin E), etc. Other available attractants, such as squid meat or fresh shrimp heads may also be evaluated and could have particular application in young fish or broodstock formulations (Section 10).


Presently being used is a rather poor quality, locally obtained broiler feed mixture as the complete diet. The only addition at the project site is the seaweed binder at 30% (wet weight basis). The ingredient tag on the feed indicates a composition of yellow corn, wheat bran, rice bran, fish flour, soybean cake, coconut oil cake, diacalcium Fosfat plus vitamins and trace minerals. Proximate Analysis: protein 18%, fat 3%, fibre 6%, metabolizable energy 2 700–3 000 kcal/kg, cost is Rp 375/kg (fob Hurun).

There are serious problems with use of the aforementioned feed and as noted subsequently, these have been corrected.

  1. Excessively coarse - must be ground to 500 micron size in the disc mill.

  2. Excessive amounts of corn - should be replaced with rice bran which probably is a more digestible carbohydrate source of fish.

  3. Low (18%) protein - fish meal must be added to raise protein level to 22–25%.

  4. Fat composition (saturated) is a problem - fish oil should be added to supply necessary unsaturated, as well as potential, essential fatty acids.

  5. Vitamin mix is questionable - one designed more for aquatic animals should be used or one not deficient in any of the required vitamins.

As an interim solution and to utilize the approximate 700 lb of broiler mixture in storage, the following approach has been recommended in use of a modified rabbitfish diet.

7.1.1 Modified Rabbitfish Diet

Broiler mixture (ground)70
Rice bran8
Fish meal15
Fish oil2
Seaweed gum15

1 Based on dry weight. Actual addition is 0.4 kg wet weight/2 kg formula

The aforementioned mixture and the proposed new formula, noted below, are based on a semi-moist (seaweed gum) diet; however, reports suggest that a dry diet probably will be feasible for siganids. The author will provide the project with further information on this subject for which dietary trials may be scheduled in 1987. It should be noted that the proposed siganid diet is even less expensive (based on ingredient cost) than the previously used broiler feed. Additional cost savings should accrue in improved feed usage and growth profile.

7.1.2 Proposed Siganid Diet (25.4% protein)

Fish meal15
Soybean meal25
Rice bran27.5
Wheat pollards10
Corn meal5
Coconut oil cake10
Fish oil2
Vitamin pre-mix10.5
Seaweed gum25


An initial semi-moist formula (No. 1–786) has been proposed for seabass and grouper. Composition is as follows:

Diet No. 1–786

IngredientPercentAmount for 1 kg
Ground fresh fish46460
Fish meal25250
Meat/bone meal440
Wheat pollards440
Fish oil330
Vitamin pre-mix110
Mussel meal220
Seaweed binder53

1 See vitamin pre-mix, Appendix 1

2 Based on dry weight. Actual addition is 0.4 kg wet weight/2 kg formula

3 Seaweed is added in ground wet weight form at 0.2 g/kg formula. Final dry weight (sun-dried) analysis calculates at approximately 5% addition rate

The dry mix ingredients, together with the vitamin pre-mix, can be weighed in bulk quantities, i.e., 10–20 kg, mixed thoroughly and stored in closed containers until used. Amounts prepared depend on usage rates, with no more than several weeks storage period of the composite dry mix.

Dry mix ingredients, including the fish oil and vitamin pre-mix, were all obtained from a commercial feed plant (Viterna) in the Lampung area. The fresh fish, mussel meat and seaweed were collected locally at the seafarming site.

The fresh trash fish comprises a mixture of 3 to 4 types available:

Common Local NameScientific Name
TeriStelophorus spp.
PetekLeiognathus spp.
SelarSelaroides spp.
TanjanSardinella spp.

The fresh ground fish presently is calculated on a wet weight basis in the formula for practical purposes. Proximate analysis of the ground fish used as well as the complete diet formulation is underway and this information will be utilized at the project when available. Actual diet preparation steps have been kept to a minimum:

  1. Weigh appropriate amount of prepared dry mix.

  2. Add calculated amount of fish oil and pre-weighed ground fish and mussel.

  3. Melt calculated amount of pre-weighed seaweed

  4. Add 2 and 3 to dry mix 1 in dough mixer, mix to form a tight gelatinuous dough and extrude.


Interest has been shown by project personnel in formulation of a possible broodstock diet to use in their efforts toward completion of the life cycle of the fish. A tentative formula has been given using both available ingredients and information extrapolated from comparable fish culture in Malaysia. The author stressed that this is an initial composition diet and that considerable work is needed to more accurately delineate the optimal proportion of dietary ingredients.

Semi-moist broodstock diet proposed for finfish in Malaysia:

Fresh trash fish140
Soybean meal (dry)119
Fish meal (dry)110
Wheat pollards (dry)115
Fresh shrimp heads5
Fish oil13.5
Fresh squid3
Fresh mussel meat12
Vitamin pre-mix12.5

1 Available in Lampung and presently being used as components of the No. 1–786 semi-moist fish diet. Except for use of fresh shrimp heads and squid, increased vitamin pre-mix and changes in concentrations of dry ingredients, the above diet and No. 1–786 are basically comparable.

It is recommended that a broodstock diet initially be based on No. 1–786 with the meat/bone meal replaced with an increased percentage of vitamin pre-mix and fresh mussel meat. Other possible modifications include an increase in the fish oil level to 5% and inclusion of soy lecithin (a soy-derived product rich in phospholipids) cholesterol and a variety of biochemicals, i.e., specific fatty acids, valuable in fish metabolism. The author has arranged for soy lecithin to be available in Lampung for such dietary trials.

Initial proposed broodstock diet:

Fresh ground fish46
Fish meal20
Soybean meal12
Wheat pollards4
Fresh mussel meat4
Fish oil4
Vitamin pre-mix2
Seaweed binder5


In addition to a general lecture and demonstration on Diets and Marine Fish Nutrition, a list of detailed instructions have been prepared for operation of the feed laboratory (Appendix 5). These and other procedures will be presented in a final pamphlet (Section 3). In addition, personnel involved in feed preparation have been provided with nearly daily instructions in all phases of fish feed manufacture, as well as to approaches for initial tests needed to evaluate the compound diets. Such matters as storage and handling of ingredients, accuracy of weighing, the necessity for a good schedule preparation, storage of prepared feed and procedures in handling fish in the experimental tanks have all been covered. Special attention has been given to sanitation and the need to maintain the feed facility and all of its equipment under proper operating conditions.


The following are summary statements pertaining to recommendations on the seafarming project:

  1. A series of baseline (control) data are needed in the net cages with seabass, grouper and rabbitfish to establish response to currently used trash fish (seabass, grouper) and broiler diet (rabbitfish). Critical inputs should be growth/unit time period and increment growth/day.

  2. Concurrent with the above, an initial four to six week test period should begin with the seabass/grouper diet and the modified broiler diet. Data obtained should allow both comparison with the presently used feed and evaluation of the new formulations. Critical data inputs again are growth/unit time period and increment growth/day.

  3. The experimental objectives, as outlined by the author, in the diet development portion of this report should be instituted on a scheduled basis. Primary objectives are trash fish reduction (and ultimate replacement), along with cost analysis comparisons to traditional feed ingredients.

  4. Careful attention must be given to more quantitative analyses of feed conversion rates in net cages, especially to avoid overfeeding and loss of feed.

  5. Close cooperation is encouraged with the local (Lampung) feed company contacted in regard to their supply of dietary ingredients and technical analyses, as well as their computer programme for diet evaluation and cost analysis.

  6. Proximate analysis of trash fish, seaweed and mussel, including dietary cost factors, should be completed as soon as possible.

  7. Emphasis must be placed on accurate recording of all data involved in feed manufacturing and fish growth response. A programme (at least quarterly) of progress review and projected tests must be established. Continual attention to detail should be stressed by supervisory persons.

  8. Both the seaweed and mussel farming phases warrant acceleration in terms of their significant economic potential in aquaculture diets. Regional assessments of this consideration should be made in any proposed marketing analysis.

  9. Liaison should be maintained with the author in terms of fish growth response and other data, particularly over the next six-month feeding trial period.

  10. Reports and data and technical information relevant to the author's liaison with the project should be made available to all key and responsible project personnel.

  11. Following the initial diet testing phases of the project, consideration should be given to appropriate advanced training of designated personnel in fish dietary analyses to facilitate development of the long-range aspects of the programme.


9.1.1 Trash Fish

Fresh small trash fish are currently used as the sole food for seabass and grouper. This practice is common elsewhere for culture of these fish. The various trash fish is frozen, stored in a freezer unit and thawed and used when needed. In most instances the trash fish is hand-cut into small pieces and then distributed into the fish net cages.

Initial observation suggests that at least four different types of trash fish are used. Apparently, no particular attention is paid to the combination of these utilized. This is important in view of the significant variability in the composition of each fish species and its effect on ultimate seabass/grouper growth. Uniformity in application is needed to ensure more uniform results. Also, information is needed on the proximate composition of each of the species used, cost and a more definitive data on seasonal availability. This will allow a more calculated approach to the use of such fish in the compound diet and will permit adjustment of the dry components to compensate for any significant nutritional differences in the particular species of trash fish used.

Thus, the following information is being gathered and will be available to the seafarming project.

  1. Type, cost and availability of each fish currently used as a dietary component. Already the project technical counterpart has supplied the following information to the author:

    Trash fishPrice/kg
    Peak season of availability
    Stelophorus spp.450500May-October
    Leiognathus spp.300350May-October
    Selaroides spp.600650July-September and
    Sardinella spp.600650July-September and
  2. Proximate analysis of the more common species especially in regard to fat levels present. If possible, amino acid data will also be collected.

  3. Based on the aforementioned (Nos. 1 and 2), recommendations will be made on proper use of available trash fish and any ingredient adjustment needed in the dry mix component of the diet.

The final result will allow a more efficient use of the fresh fish as a dietary supplement and give a more valid approach to satisfying the nutritional needs of the finfish by varying the combination of trash fish used and the dry ingredients of the diet.

9.1.2 Vitamin Pre-mixes

The following vitamin pre-mix composition has been recommended for seabass/grouper as well as for siganids. Since exact vitamin needs of these fishes are unknown, the levels given are extrapolated from other studies and probably represent a composite of the most accurate information available at this time.

The following level of vitamins are recommended (mg/kg of dry diet) :

(mg/kg dry diet)
Thiamine HCl120
Pyridoxine HCl120
Nicotinic acid150
Ca pantothenate100
Folic acid5.0
Choline HCl1 200
Na ascorbate1 000
Vitamin A5 000 (IV)
Vitamin D1 000 (IV)

Currently, several commercial vitamin pre-mixes may be used, recognizing that these may not completely satisfy the vitamin requirements of the fish species. One, Rovimix 428/3, is a vitamin concentrate for poultry feed supplementation (Roche Pharmaceuticals and Chemicals, Ltd., Hong Kong). Most commercial feed manufacturers will probably be using this pre-mix in their formulation. Rovimix 428/3 is deficient in ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and its concentration of other vitamins probably is not optimal for marine fish diets.

Another vitamin pre-mix, developed for use in complete diets for warm water fish, is Agrimate, produced by Agrimate Sendirian Berhad (subsidiary of Chemopharm Sdm. Bhd) in Petaling Java, Selangor, Malaysia. In correspondence with the author, the following compositional information on this product was provided:

Agrimate Fish Vitamin Pre-mix1
Vitamin A2 750 000IU
Vitamin D3550 000
Vitamin E25 000
Vitamin K35 000mg
Choline250 000
Niacin50 000
Riboflavin10 000
Pyridoxine10 000
Thiamine10 000
Calcium D-Pantothenate25 000 mg
Folacin2 500
Vitamin B1210
Ascorbic acid50 000
Dosage2.0 kg/t feed
Packing25 kg drum

1 Price: US$ 8.20/kg ex-kuala Lumpur

In the interim, the author is now working with the Roche organization in Jakarta to ascertain the cost of a vitamin pre-mix formulated to meet the anticipated requirements of warm water marine fishes. These data will be compiled and submitted to the seafarming project in a separate technical report. Efforts will be made to have an appropriate vitamin mix inventoried by Viterna to make it readily available for the seafarming project and for their own formulations.

Appendix 1

(for on-site period 14 July-6 August 1986)

  1. A complete feed laboratory has been designed and all of the necessary processing equipment purchased (in Jakarta) installed and operational.

  2. Instruction of appropriate personnel in equipment operation, and maintenance and procedures for diet formulation.

  3. Training of personnel in diet preparation with explanation of specific ingredients and modification in formulation where necessary.

  4. Lecture on “Consideration in Feed Development with Emphasis on Fish Nutrition” presented and formal copies prepared for distribution to project personnel.

  5. Formulation of initial nutritionally-balanced diets for signids, seabass and grouper based on locally available ingredients.

  6. Establishment of experimental test protocol to subsequently evaluate such diets and to ultimately modify these to obtain further growth data and final reduced feed costs.

  7. Survey of ingredients and contact with local feed plants in Lampung to ensure continued support in ingredient availability and possible analytical assitance. Comparable data, especially source of fish meal and proper vitamin pre-mixes, were obtained from the Jakarta area.

  8. Analyses of ultimate requirements for diets formulated by cooking extrusion technology, culminating in dry or floating feeds.

  9. Establishment of project needs with chief technical adviser in terms of deliverables, especially procedural manuals and a basic manual in fish diets and nutrition for feed manufacturing project personnel.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of aforementioned diets in terms of fish response and instruction in techniques for evaluation of attractability of the diet.

  11. Development of plans for continuation of cooperation between the project and the author upon return to his home University. This will involve technical matters, i.e., seaweed gum analyses and gelation characteristics, as well as on-going evaluation of test results based on the author's recommendations.

Appendix 2

FAO. 1984 Malaysia coastal aquaculture development. Rome, FAO, FI:DP/MAL/77/008/2, 278 p.
Chapter 1. Diet development for seabass, grouper and penaeid shrimp culture in Malaysia, K. W. Chow, 1–18
Chapter 3. Feed formulation for penaeid shrimp, seabass, grouper and rabbitfish culture in Malaysia, A. Kanazawa, 61–78
Chapter 13. Fabrication of feed suitable for small holder aquaculture, I.A. Hassa, S. Sayuth and C. S. Chiam, 261–278

FAO. 1986 Malaysia feeds for seabass and tiger prawns by M. New. Rome, FAO, FI:DP/MAL/79/018/2, 64 p.

FAO. 1986 Package technology for seaweed culture. I. Small holder for the red seaweed, Eucheuma farming, based on the work of B. Tiensongrusmee, S. Pontjoprawrio and I. Soedjarwo. Rome, FAO, INS/81/008, Field Guide 4 (in preparation)

Soegiarto, A. and Sulistijo. 1984 Potential for marine algae for biotechnology products in Indonesia. A contribution to the Workshop on Marine Algae Biotechnology, December 1984. Jakarta, Indonesia, Indonesian National Research Council and U.S. National Academy of Sciences

Appendix 3

  1. Pre-mixes of all diets can be prepared in volume - estimate weekly needs.

  2. Once dry ingredients are carefully weighed, they must be thoroughly mixed.

    1. large volumes 20–30 kg in feed mixer: 10–15 min
    2. small volumes 2–20 kg in dough mixer: 10–15 min (large or small bowl, always overmix)
  3. Disc-mill all dry mixes. Try and do this on a single day, preparing bulk amounts needed for the following 1–2 weeks.

  4. All individual dry ingredients must be:

  5. Note: Finely-ground dry mixes require extra hot water when melting seaweed. Heat another pot of hot water and use small 100–200 ml to stir in blender to remove remaining gum. Add to mixture in dough stirrer. Mix initially on speed 1 (5 min) then on speeds 2 and 3 for an additional 5–10 min until a tight gummy dough is formed. Stop machine occasionally to check. Add small amounts of hot water if needed. Once a formula is made, use the same amount of water each time. Dough should be no more than 45–50% water. Establish a standard procedure.

  6. Both fish and mussel meat add extra water to the mixture; avoid adding excessive water when melting seaweed. Hot water can always be added, but cannot be taken out. Again, establish a standard procedure.

  7. Do not store diets in freezer for more than 1 week. These should be coded and dated.

  8. Establish a weekly routine in feed manufacturing.

  9. Use similar proportions of fresh fish species. Be consistent perhaps passing fish twice through the grinder to ensure thorough blending.

    Note: Both seaweed and fish/mussel can be ground in sufficient amounts for 1 week and stored in weighed bags in the freezer until needed.

  10. All equipment must be kept clean. Parts should be oiled where needed and close adherence paid to the lubrication schedule.

  11. Follow sample analysis procedure precisely (see pages of instruction).

  12. Coordinate diet manufacture with fish management personnel.

  13. Maintain charge/responsibility for all feed manufacture.

  14. Siganid test procedure - tests to be run for a four-week period with two to three data weight points (initial, half-way through test and at completion). Larger die size on extruder may have to be used depending on fish size and growth.

  15. Siganid Tests:

    1. Control current unground boiler diet. This is a control for comparison with test diets.

    2. Current broiler feed - ground. This is a control check on particle size.

    3. Test 2 - Modified Diet (in percent)

    Broiler diet - ground70
    Fish meal15
    Rice bran8
    Fish oil2

    (All diets based on 5% seaweed (dry weight) - use ground wet seaweed at 0.4 kg/2 kg diet)

    Once test 3 has been run (with satisfactory growth comparison) continue until most of the current broiler diet in stock is depleted. This depends on the results of test 3.

    1. Test 3 - New Compounded Diet (25.7% protein) (in percent)

    Fish meal15
    Soy meal20
    Rice bran27.5
    Wheat pollards10
    Corn meal15
    Coconut meal cake10
    Fish oil2
    Meat/bone meal5
    (plus seaweed binder at 5%)

    1 New ingredient to be placed in feed inventory


    Test 1 with 2. Effect of particle size
    Test 2 with 3. Effect of increased protein, fish meal/oil
    Test 3 with 4. Comparison with new formulation

  16. Seabass/Grouper Tests

Note: Here standard trash fish is the control.

Proposed Diet
(28.1% protein - wet weight basis)
(in percent)

Ground fresh trash fish46
Fish meal125
Soy meal110
Meat/bone meal14
Wheat pollard14
Fish oil3
Vitamin pre-mix11
Mussel meat2
Seaweed binder5

1 Comprise dry mix

Fish/mussel can be ground in blender, weighed in appropriate amounts and stored (for 2 weeks) in pre-weighed bags in the freezer. Both frozen fish/mussel must be thawed carefully in a bag suspended in hot (not boiling) water.

  1. Adaptation (conditioning) of fish to prepared diet is critical.

  2. You may have to use a ground fish ball (80–90% ground fish/mussel and wheat pollard as an extender, using enough to make dough gummy. Seaweed is used at 0.4 kg wet ground/ 2 kg diet. Melt seaweed in a very small amount of water, in 25% of the ground fish/mussel mixture (which is 80% water). This requires trial and error and must be tested.

  3. You must fool the fish into taking a seaweed-bound extruded diet that is recognized as fresh fish.

  4. Once the fish is accepting the seaweed-ground fresh fish diet (from 60–90% fish), you can begin the test. Fish must be closely observed in the net cages daily.

  5. Again, obtain data and observation points as in the siganid test. These are:

    Remember, weight gain may rapidly increase and then level off, thus the need for sound data points. Test is inconclusive without a proper control. It is better not to run the test if the control and proper number of fish are absent.

  6. Once you have proper data on the control/test diet, then you can try a second diet. This will reduce the level of trash fish used and the diet cost.

  7. Test Diet No. 2

    Proposed Diet
    (26.4% protein - wet weight basis)
    (in percent)

    Trash fish35
    Fish meal25
    Soy meal10
    Meat/bone meal4
    Wheat pollards15
    Fish oil5
    Vitamin pre-mix1
    Seaweed binder5
  8. Follow precise procedure as with Test Diet No. 1. It may be better to compare Diets No. 1 and No. 2 at the same time (using similar age/size fish under comparable water/cage conditions).

  1. All data must be recorded and evaluated. Examine results of one test before beginning another.

  2. Oral data are not valid. Carefully design test (number of fish, size, net cages, feed needed) before you begin.

  3. Once both fish (siganids, seabass/grouper) are on compounded feeds and the data are accumulated, then further diet improvements can be considered. These include: percent protein, percent fish oil, energy/protein, percent fresh fish.

  4. Schedule feeding trials over the next six-month period figuring such factors as:

As noted, these trials should be closely monitored and information supplied to the author at regular intervals. While time and availability of fish did not allow initiation of the trials during the author's on-site period, the aforementioned (and other) detailed instructions should allow dietary evaluation to begin in an orderly fashion.

Appendix 4

  1. All equipment must be operated according to instructions and only by authorized staff. All safety procedures must be followed. Feed facility must be kept clean after each daily operation.

  2. Equipment must be thoroughly cleaned after use, any metal contact parts lightly coated with palm oil to prevent corrosion. Follow instructions for each apparatus.

  3. Proper lubrication/maintenance schedule for equipment must be kept.

  4. Only one piece of equipment to be operated at one time to avoid power overload.

  5. Become thoroughly familiar with the use of each piece of equipment and the feed preparation procedure and schedule.

  6. All feed and individual ingredients must be kept dry and stored in separate market containers in a dry and ventilated facility. Vitamin pre-mixes require special storage.

  7. All diet mixes must be coded for identification. Do not mix containers.

  8. A weekly schedule of operation should be established and kept in a record book.

  9. Batches of compound diet to be used daily can be prepared in bulk (mixer/disc mill) at one time for use over a weekly period. This can be a standard procedure at the start of each week. Store in marked bulk containers and use a weighed amount daily according to diet specifications.

  10. Both seaweed and fish can be ground to size in bulk and stored in the freezer in pre-weighed bags for use with each diet. This can also be done on a weekly basis.

  11. Daily scheduled procedure will involve the use of a prepared dry diet mix and seaweed/fish portion mixed in the dough mixer, together with special ingredients resulting in final extrusion as a semi-moist diet.

  12. Precautions to watch:

  13. Weekly or bi-weekly conferences with all feed manufacturing personnel and those feeding fish should be held to discuss problems, observations and planned new tests. No problem should go undiscussed or unsolved.

  14. Close observations on response of fish to moist feed used is critical. The best diet is only as good as its acceptance by the fish and the growth response obtained.

  15. No lapse in care or attention should be permitted. Changes in source of ingredients different trash fish used, etc., can affect results and should be carefully monitored.

Appendix 5

July 6Depart Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA to Des Moines, Iowa, USA
July 7Meeting with Insta Pro International personnel concerning cooking/extrusion equipment procurement and project specifications
July 8Departure for Singapore
July 10In Singapore, meetings with equipment manufacturers on project requirements:
- pellet extruders, grinders, mixers (CPM Pacific Pte. Ltd.)
- dough mixers (Sommerville (S) Pte. Ltd. (Hobart))
July 11Arrive Jakarta. Briefing FAO Headquarters (Nicholas H.B. Hughes, Acting FAOR; Ms Budiangsih Sunyato, Senior Programme Assistant; Dr Banchong Tiensangrusmee, Project Officer-in-Charge)
July 12In Jakarta. Conference with local feed manufacturing company (P.T. Indotama Kencana Makmur) on disc mill, mixer, grinder/extruder. Meeting with Ms Ennie Suetopo, Chief Sub-Directorate of Foreign Cooperation, Directorate General of Fisheries
July 13Arrive Bandar Lampung
July 14Seafarming Project Site, Teluk Hurun. Personnel meetings, facility inspection
July 14- August 7Engaged in specified project work. During this period, further meetings and visits in Lampung were arranged
July 15Meeting with Nanang Rudayat, head of the Fisheries Service of Lampung Province. Visit to P.I. Vista Grain Corp., for feed ingredient discussion
July 16Inspection of project mussel culture facility
July 21Project personnel in Jakarta to obtain data on feed ingredients, fish meal types, vitamin pre-mixes and feed manufacturing facilities
July 22Receipt of project equipment and initial installation
July 23Visit to two additional feed manufacturing plants in Lampung (Viterna (P.T. Jaka Utama Kraftfutter), Comfeed Indopell Royal). Arrangements made with Dr Max Zaddach of Viterna for feed ingredient procurement and diet computer analysis
July 27Visit to local shrimp farm in Lampung and inspection of feed manufacturing ingredients
July 28Lecture on consideration in Feed Development with Emphasis on Fish Nutrition
July 29Feed manufacturing demonstration
August 7Arrive Jakarta. Briefing FAO Headquarters with Mr H. Dall, FAO Resident Representative
August 8Briefing with Ms Ennie Suetopo, Sub-Directorate of Foreign Cooperation, Directorate General of Fisheries, Jakarta. Visit with Roche Pharmaceuticals and Chemicals, Ltd., for vitamin pre-mix specifications
August 9Depart for Singapore
August 10/11In Singapore. Meeting with American Soybean Association about ingredient procurement. Visit to Primary Prod. Department, Aquaculture Department Changi, Point Singapore for grouper culture diets
August 12Depart to San Francisco, California, USA
August 13/14Holidays
August 15Arrive Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

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