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Annex 1












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Ain El-Gazala fish farm. Fish production from this farm reached to 10 tons in 1992. This encouraged the Libyans to construct new fish and shrimp farms in Ain Kaam and a third one at Ain Ezzian is under consideration. There is an active cooperation between Libya, Egypt and Malta in the sector of aquaculture and fisheries.

2.2. In Egypt, the development and production of both fresh and mariculture is progressing simultaneous very well. The production of fresh water fish reached 60,000 tons during 1992 and few tons in 1992 from sea water farms. Egyptian authorities sold this year mother fish of telapia and shrimp (pepeaus japonecus) for the Libyan National Aquaculture Project and assisted this project by experts. Ten fresh water hatcheries constructed recently produce about 300 Millions figerlings/annualy of carp and telapia.

2.3. In Malta, as there is no fresh water farms, there is great interest to rear many different marine species and there is a diversification in fish production from the aquaculture farms well distributed in the Maltese sea water.

3. Research

The countries Egypt, Malta and Libya have adequate facilities of research either through aquaculture institutions or at the universities. Research activities are concentrated mainly on the culture of marine fish, shrimp and molluscs. ACtivities also include manufactured and live food research on artemia and algae.

4. Training

All the three member countries of this sub-region have good training programme. They have to complete each other to obtain maximum benefit from the available resources in aquaculture sector. There is well established cooperation between Egypt and Libya at present and it is just started between Libya and Malta, where a number of researchers were accepted to obtain higher degrees in fisheries and aquaculture from the University of Malta National Aquaculture Centre.

5. Constrains There are many constrains affecting the development of aquaculture in the three countries of this sub-region. They are mentioned in brief as under ;

5.1. Availability of aquaculture specialists in different fields such as aquaculture engineering, farm management, food production etc.

5.2. Qualified technicians in many specialties of aquaculture.

5.3. Availability of equipments to build and maintain fish farms.

5.4. Deficiency of manufactured and live food production.

6. MEDRAP II activities activities in this sub-region:

A workshop on fresh water culture was planned to be organized in Egypt in 1993but it was postponed to 1994 on the request of the Egyptian National Coordinator. Another activity on Mediterranean Artemia training course and site survey was planned to conduct inLibya last year. This also postponed to May 1994, both the activities are planned to be held in Tunis and Tripoli respectively. A preliminary meeting was held in Artemia information centre in Belgium during the period from7th to 9th of October 1993 to set up the preliminary agenda and to nominate the speakers and experts for this course.




The policy of fish farming in Egypt is based on shortage of fresh water needed for agriculture.

Therefore, depending on drain water mainly, and exploitation of reclaimed non-agriculture land into aquaculture.

The state strategy aiming establishing fish farms on areas of total one hundred thousand (100 th) feddans approximately to achieve an estimated fish productivity of about 100,000 one hundred thousand tons and the general authority for fish resources development has built regular fish farms on areas of 5 thousand feddans at northern governorate, and these are ideal projects to achieve double purposes :

  1. The first : Dissemination of aquaculture in non-reclaimed land which has no agri-products.

  2. The second : Exposing the production of these governmental fish farms with suitable prices, - the productivity of these governmental aquaculture has been value of five millions (L.E.).

Keeping in mind that some farms suffer of shortage of water supply and pollution problems, the total surveyed areas of aquaculture has reached more than hundred thousand feddans which are suitable for aquaculture.

To achieve successful activity for fish framing, the following aspects were accomplished:

  1. Establishing four hatcheries of fresh water reproduction of total productivity (3 hundred million) units annually of carp sp. and Tilapia.

  2. Establishing five hatcheries of freshwater in upper Egypt of total productivity equal to the northern hatcheries.

  3. Establishing about II stations to catch natural fries of marine fish sp. from the Mediterranean and Suez Canal with total production (200 million/year).

The method which is used in our aquaculture is the natural feeding essentially.

It is necessary for us to enter the field of marine aquaculture because of land limitation and lack of fresh water and that required marine hatcheries which are working on level of experiments as following:

  1. Established marine hatchery in Alexandria for sea bass, sea sea bream and mullet sp.

  2. Established marine hatchery in north of sinai for sea bass, sea bream and shrimp for research and experimental production during 1992–93.

  3. For fish belts, it has been established two factories with total productivity about (15,000) tons annually.

Under the expansion of the intensive aquaculture all over the world, Egypt has studied how to apply these methods according to our resources, the experiments proved that the intensive fish culture in cages succeeded.

So fish culture in cages extended for more than 100 km along the Nile as well as another units established during 1993 by the northern western coast, west of Alexandria.

Fish culture in rice fields:

Egypt started culturing carp sp. in rice fields in 1983 in (500) feddans, increased gradually until reached (500) thousand feddans in 1993 with total productivity (30,000)tong without governmental investment except the prices of fries which paid by ministry of Agriculture to encourage the farmers to apply these methods, the profits of this method return to the farmers and the total crop of rice increased about 10%.

The total catch in 1993 from the aquaculture about (60,000) tons.



Beirut, 3–5 November 1993




With no freshwater bodies or sheltered bays available, Malta has embarked on exposed-site farming whose development is guided and monitored by the authorities.


The authorities have provided a system and the infrastructure necessary for such development by:

  1. Setting up in 1988 the National Aquaculture Centre as the state-run institution to assist the establishment of this new industry. This is done by providing advice to propective investors, organising training programmes at various levels liaising with other relevant public departments in their formulation and execution of policies.

  2. Amending the industrial Development Act to include aquaculture as a manufacturing industry. Since aquaculture in Malta is largely export-oriented, investors in this new industry qualify for numerous incentives offered by the Malta Development Corporation such as a 10 year tax free holiday on profits and duty-free importation on all materials. A major setback to the growth of the industry is a 15% duty tariff applicable on our products when exported to the E.C. Countries which are currently the exlusive markets.

  3. Providing a National Aquaculture Plan and ancillary policy framework within which to develop and control the growth of the industry. The policies provide guidelines for potential investors both in terms of the type of activity being encouraged and also in terms of environmental considerations pertaining to the issue of the relevant permits.


This has led to a rapid growth of the aquaculture industry since the first ever commercial farm was established in 1990 as follows :

On-Growing farmsHatcheriesEmployment
(Tons) '000 of JuvenitesTotal value of Products
Full TimePart-Time
199015- 50,00055
19913200- 2,000,0002012

Note: The industry is based on bass and bream and these figures are for the two species together.


Research and development work is largely conducted at the National Aquaculture Centre in cooperation with the University of Malta and the Malta council for science and Technology. A number of undergraduate and post-graduate students both locally and foreign (Norway, UK, Lebanon, Libya) are currently carrying out research on various aspects of aquaculture with special emphasis being placed on reproduction, nutrition and diseases as well as environmental impact of aquaculture.


Malta has actively participated in various international programmes organised by bodies such as MEDRAP, GFCM and CIHEAM. The intention is to strengthen this participation and to support activities in king as much as its limited resources allow.

Malta has also been nominated as the focal point for pathology within the MEDRAP framework.








    Libya participated actively in all the MEDRAP activities carried-out during the year 1993, in order to obtain knowledge on modern technology and experience from those countries well ahead in aquaculture.

    The experimental projects on marine aquaculture in Libya are carried-out by the National Aquaculture Project (recently renamed as National Institute of Aquaculture) with the cooperation of Marine Biology Research Centre (MBRC). Two experimental farms named Ain El Gazala and Ain Kaam are the major on-going projects. A third one is under construction at Ain Ezziana.

  2. Diversification of aquaculture in Libya

    Aquacultural activities in the country shifted from fresh water to marine due to the lack of fresh water resources and the rejection of fresh water species by the local communities.

    The cultivated fish species in Libya are seabass, seabreams, Mugil, Telapia, Shrimp (Pepeaus japonicus) and mollusc (Mytillus edulis). These activities are aimed at the development of aquaculture in Libya by building hatchery, nursery and fattening tanks with advanced techniques to reach aquaculture potentials with long term objective, for the commercial exploitation by the public as well as the private sectors in the country.

  3. Training

    In order to achieve aquaculture potentials, in addition to the participation in training with-in MEDRAP II frame work, a number of researchers from the National Aquaculture Project and from MBRC, Participated in various training courses in Egypt and Belgium.

  4. Improvement of live food production

    As a continuation to the activities to improve live food production in Libya, two live food researches participated in the Seventh Larvicultural and Artemia Training Course in the Artemia Centre in Ghent University, Belgium. A small scale solar salt production unit integrated for brine shrimp artemia production in the MBRC premises is under construction.

  5. Environmental management of aquaculture development

    A study programme was initiated with the cooperation between National Aquaculture Project and MBRC to study the impact of aquaculture on the environment of both Ain El-Gazala and Ain Kaam for aquaculture development. Recently started a terrestrial and coastal survey of different places by visiting the sites and exploiting remote sensing techniques for the selection of suitable sites for the development of aquaculture. As part of the technical assistance package to the fisheries sector from FAO, during the two weeks GIS consultancy we could gather necessary information to set up a database of aquaculture sites and gave necessary training to the national counterpart staff. An aquaculture expert is expected to come and start functioning before the end of 1993. Fish handling and Processing Expect (24 m/m) arrived in February 1993, Fish disease specialist (2 months), hatchery/live feed specialist (2 months), pellet feed specialist (1 month), environment/lagoon management specialist (three months), fry resource specialist (two months) are also envisaged in the project.

  6. Production

    In Libya there is no hatchery fry production, but it is intended to build one or two in the acting aquaculture farms. This is a marking point that, the total production of table size (300–400 grams) fish of seabass and seabream from Ain El-Gazala farm increased ten times within a period of one year (from 2 tons in 1991 to 20 tons in 1992). The production of fish and shrimp from Ain Kaam is expected to increase considerably in the near future, as the on-going research activities succeed to obtain frys and fingerlings for this farm.

  7. Food production for aquaculture:

    In 1990 upon the request of the National Aquaculture Project 16 metric tons of fish feed (dry pellets of 4.5 mm φ) were produced for seabass and seabream nutrition.

    The local fish meal production using wastes from sardine, mackerel and tuna canneries is about 600 tons/year and is complemented by the importation of fish meals from Peru, chile and Argentina on the range of 15,000 to 20,000 tons per year. A project to manufacture fish meal from locally available agro-wastes coming from the processing of olives, grapes, dates etc. is under consideration.


    Within the MEDRAP framework, a training course was designed on Mediterranean artemia and site survey and it was planned to be held in Libya in the current year but postponed to may 1994 to be held in both Tunis and Libya. A preliminary agenda and nomination of experts were finalized for this training course with the close cooperation from Artemia Information Centre of Ghent University, Belgium.

  8. Constrains

    8.1. Experience: Lack of experienced personnel is the most important difficulty faced by the Libyan aquaculture sector. In order to overcome this, We are trying to give training to the national staff under different frame works of FAO through MEDRAP and LID/88/009 projects.

    8.2. Equipment: As an underdeveloped third world country, Libya is always depending on foreign technology. As a result foreign manufacturers are the only source for equipment. Recently We signed a contract with UNESCO to facilitate procurement of equipment as well as for training of our national staff aboard.

    8.3. Feeding: The availability of live as well as manufactured food is another important factor affecting the development strategies in aquaculture. At present we are depending mainly on imports to meet the requirement of live and manufactured fish meal. In order to overcome this problem and to improve this critical situation, the installation of a fish meal producing plant is under consideration. Raw material for this factory can be obtained locally from different sources such as agro-wastes from the fruit processing industry and local strain artemia from swamps.




Beirut, 3–5 November 1993


(Turkey, Bulgaria, Albania and Croatia)

The role that the Sub-regional Centre was expected to play within the structure of MEDRAP II was confined by objective difficulties. Though the war in the region of Dubrovnik has stopped and feedback from the countries of the subregion has considerably improved compared with the year before, the main difficulty, still, was insufficient communications with the countries concerned. Communication with the Coordination Centre in Tunis was good.

TURKEY: National Committee for MEDRAP II was established and is proceeding with the concerned activities. NC is participating in governmental meeting concerning planification of aquaculture projects. Participants from Turkey attended all the MEDRAP II seminars and workshops. Turkey is willing to take more active role in future networks of SIPAM, TECAM, SELAM and EAM.

ALBANIA: In the frame of Albanian Directorate for Fisheries it has been established coordination for MEDRAP II. The relevant national plan of aquaculture development is one of priorities within the general development of fisheries in Albania. Special attention will be paid to the ecologically sound integrated management of Lagoons and coastal zone sites suitable for aquaculture. Owing to technical difficulties, participants from Albania have not attended all the MEDRAP II seminars and workshops. Albania is willing to take more active role in future networks of SIPAM, TECAM, SELAM and EAM.

BULGARIA participated almost in all MEDRAP activities in 1993. Mariculture is being developed, primarily mussel culture, both state and private initiatives. The state concern is also directed towards development of turbot and salmonids (marine) cultivation. In freshwater culture privatisation takes place too rapidly. Except trout and carps, interest is given to introduced species, as eel, Ictiobius sp. etc… In 1993, freshwater production from fish culture is expected to be 6000 t 3 times less than in 1990.
The new aquaculture initiatives both in fresh and marine waters, lack a new juridical basis, environmentally sound as well, to promote commercial activities in the country during the period of deep political and economical changes after 1989.
A lot of attention is also paid to the oil exploration and production activities carried out along the black sea coast including the Bulgarian shelf. Mariculture activities should be developed keeping in mind this reality as well.

The State Fisheries Inspectorate (Ministry of Agriculture) is responsible for the control over the fisheries exploitation in the inland basin and at sea including aquaculture development and national participation in MEDRAP. In that regard, Bulgaria will take more active role in future networks of SIPAM, TECAM, SELAM and EAM.

CROATIA National Committee for MEDRAP II activities has been formed. Plans for development of aquaculture were submitted to the respective Ministry. Selection of sites suitable for aquaculture and ecologically sound management of mollusc culture were chosen as priority projects. Participants from Croatia attended all the MEDRAP II seminars and workshops. Croatia is willing to take more active role in future networks of SIPAM, TECAM, SELAM and EAM.




Beirut, 3–5 November 1993



The Government made a research to the foreign companies on aquaculture potential and possibilities in coastal line and inland by supporting of the World Bank in 1993, so that these activities were reflected. In addition, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs contracted with a company to set up the Central Computer System covered 38 cities. We will be able to monitor the aquaculture statistics as well as fishing from now on.

By reason of the conflict between aquaculture and tourism sectors that happened in the Aegean Sea Last Year, the related governmental bodies agreed to separate different regions each other in principle.

Further, Turkey has participated to the all MEDRAP II activities except the working group meeting in Biarritz.

On diversification of aquaculture products, some farmers directed to the new species, such as Turbot and Sturgeon, but these activities are on the experimental phase.

Owing to the high sea water temperature for salmon in summer in the Black Sea, farmers are testing about putting period and size into the floating cages.

On production, there is no an increase on the aquaculture production except Seabream and Seabass in 1993.

In order to solve marketing problem for Seabream and Seabass, farmers directed towards the domestic market, especially Ankara (Capital City) and Antalya are going to be new markets.



Albania has a coastline of about 470 km, 10.000 ha coastal lagoons, and about 25,000 ha inland fisheries located on three natural lakes (Shkodra, Prespa, Ohri) shared with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, and Greece of which, the Albanian portion covers 25,000 ha. There are also about 7,000 ha artificial lakes and 6,000 ha small reservoirs. Put of the total area, in about 650 ha are established fishfarms for aquaculture in fresh waters.

Actually, three types of aquaculture take place in Albania:

There might also exist a potential for more extensive forms of aquaculture in one or more of the coastal lagoons, which would involve less of a financial risk than intensive mariculture.

In the current situation, aquaculture should respond to market realities, and so the emphasis has to be on high value output. At the same time, there are some impressive facilities which merit exploitation if this can be done economically.

Main issues for aquaculture development foreseen in the strategy and Aquaculture Policies in Albania are as following:

In this framework our activity consists in these main issues:

Legislation:it is set up a working group compound by specialists and legal experts to prepare the complete legislation and regulations for fishery and aquaculture activity. This team has greatly benefited by the assistance of FAO and the Italian Government. In this frame we will gratefully appreciate your collaboration as well.
Monitoring:Management of the Monitoring, Control and Surveillance in the aquaculture activity.
Privatization:Up to now the rhythms of privatization have been satisfactory. Privatization has finished in about 70% of boats and vessels and is foreseen to privatize them all up to the end of 1993. It is projected to completely finish the privatization of fishing activity in the first months of 1994. The main problem in this frame was the privatization of aquaculture farms. So far, in this sector is finished the privatization only in three of them.
Collaboration:Finding the right way of collaboration is considered as a priority of the day. Among so many proposals to establish new joint ventures we must take in consideration all the elements of this kind of collaboration and make the right choice. Financial funds for this purpose can be provided by the international agencies, and by private firms or individuals, interested in this kind of collaboration.

The present situation of the development of aquaculture activities in Albania are as follows:




Beirut, Nov. 3–5 1993

Croatia participated quite actively and efficiently in all the MEDRAP II activities organized during 1993. Members of Governmental institutions and private companies staff has benefited from the workshops, seminars and training courses.

Croatia was fully supporting MEDRAP II constitution of networking activities, and is willing to participate actively in all of tham. Specialised institution to represent Croatia in the Network is Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries in Split.

Communication during 1993 with MEDRAP II Headquarters in Tunis and FAO/Rome has improved in the later phase. Assistance provided by the Subregional coordinator has been appreciated.

Ongoing activities in marine aquaculture sector

A new effort is made by the Ministry for sea affairs in formalising national mariculture development programme. Fishery and aquaculture legislation was draffted (although not accepted vet) defining the regulatory and administrative measures for sustainable mariculture development.

Private sector is still very active in making preassure to the governmental authorities asking for assistance in seting up their projects. Support is requested in obtaining licence for the site, feed and fingerlings' supply but also support in financing projects itself. Unfortunately, so far there was no external funding in mariculture project although some promissing actions has been undertaken.

Total fry production in '93 was 5 mil. compared to the 3.5 mil in '92. Main fish produced in the hatchery is sea bass with 82% Other species are gilthead sea bream (13%), puntazzo, and red sea bream (5 %). Table size fish is expected to be about 600 t. Further increase in the production is expected to be paralleld with the implementation of the semi offshore cage culture system. For the time being fish producers are facing market problem since tourism as a main consuming sector of high value fish is not revitalised yet. On the other side export to the EEC country is subject to 15% of the import duties that is going to be further barriers in profitability. Mollusc export to EEC countriesis experiencing problems since ensuring standard quality of the product is requested.



Our Ref. 202(d) a2


Fourth Steering Committee Meeting
SUBREGIONAL REPORT (Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria)

Objective difficulties continued to hinder the role that Cyprus subregional centre could play in the frame work of MEDRAP II.

Although the participation of the three countries to MEDRAP II activities was very high, and especially that of Cyprus and Lebanon, neither Lebanon or Syria proceeded with the implementation of their national projects for marine aquaculture development inspite of the good prospects that exist especially in Lebanon. On the contrary fresh water aquaculture is well established in all three countries of the region. Prospects for further development in fresh water exist mainly in Syria and Syria and Lebanon, While Cyprus Centres its efforts towards the development of marine aquaculture.

The role of the sub-regional Centre was limited to that of the liaison office between the Tunis MEDRAP II Centre and those of the countries of the sub-region.

I do hope that soon Lebanon and Syria will commence marine aquaculture. Trained personnel on various aspects of marine aquaculture exists in both countries. Marine aquaculture for high value species, like seabream and seabass, has overcome its first difficult stages in most of the MEDRAP II countries.

I do expect that Lebanon, acknowledging the good potentials that aquaculture has in providing seafood for the local market and for export (thus securing foreign currency and cutting imports), will give priority to the development of this new sector of the economy.




Fourth Steering Committee Meeting

During 1993 Cyprus participated in all seminars, training courses and meetings organized by MEDRAP II. It also organized a 2 weeks injob training of two Egyptian Scientists on marine fish hatchery, nursery and fattening at the Meneou Experimental Marine Aguaculture Station.

Research work on diversification of aquaculture

The research work at Meneou Station was mainly centred on new species i.e. Japanese red seabream Pagrus major (hatchery, nursery, and rearing of broodstock), seabram Dentex dentex (hatchery, nursery and rearing of broodstock), common seabream Pagrus pagrus (collection of wild fry, fattening and rearing of broodstock), sharpsnout bream Puntazzo puntazzo (hatchery, nursery, fattening and broodstock keeping).

Environment impact of aquaculture

The operation of the landbased hatcheries as well as of newly established off-shore cage culture units was followed through an environmental control monitoring programme.


The procedures for the establishment and operation of fish farms were further defined and straightforwarded. For the establishment of fish farms an Environmental Impact Assessment study is required. The study is being first assessed by the Department of Fisheries and then by the Technical Committee for the Assessment of the Environmental Impact Assessment Studies which is composed of representatives of various government departments, including Town planning and Cyprus Tourism Organization. Very detailed and stringent terms and conditions are imposed on the licence for the establishment and operation of fish farms which are issued by the Department of Fisheries according to the Fisheries Regulations. The conditions safeguard the environment and the good management of the fish farms. The “Law of Aquaculture” and related Regulations are being prepared and are based on the FAO/TCP project “Environmental Management of Aguaculture Development” Which was completed early this year. This Las and Regulations are expected to solve some outstanding problems related to aquaculture development.

A special computers programme for aquaculture and a relevant data bank were developed in the Department of Fisheries and put into operation in order, mainly, to follow and control the development of aquaculture.

Marketing of aquaculture products

Efforts are being made to control the import of fresh (chilled) marine species whose marketing affects the local sales of seabream and seabass (quantity, season of import, species). Also Cyprus government forwarded a request to EC for a more favourable treatment of aquaculture products exported to EC countries. The export of table seabream and seabass is increasing with the establishment of offshore cage farms.

Cyprus adopted the Directive No.91/493/EC which regulates the export of aquaculture products from third countries to EC. For this purpose the training of fish pathologists (veterinarians) has been intensified and the packing facilities of the fish farms are upgraded to conform with EC standards.

Fish production

As a result of the new government policy which encourages the establishment of offshore cage culture farms 5 more units are expected to start soon after being scrutinized through the elaborated procedure referring mainly to the assessment of their anticipated environmental impact. Thus the total number of offshore cage farms will increase to nine. Also a shrimp farm and a new fish hatchery (in addition to the existing 2 hatcheries) were put into operation during 1993. These are the only marine fish culture operations on land, as Telia Aqua Marine fish farm was converted into a landbased hatchery and an offshore cage culture unit. All farms employ marine biologists specialized in various aspects of aquaculture.


The total fry production (mainly seabream and seabass) during 1992 was 5.9 million. Out of these about 5 million were exported and about 1 million were kept in Cyprus for ongrowing.

The total table size marine fish from aquaculture was about 70 tons. Also 5 kg of fertilized alive fish ova were exported. The total value of the marine aquaculture products was about U.S.S3.5 million out of which 81% represented the value of exports. At the same period Cyprus production of fish from fishing reached 2.666 tons valued at about U.S.$. 15 million (C£1 =U.S.$.2)

The production of table size fish in rising considerably in 1993 as the first offshore cage culture units started selling their production.






L'aquaculture en Tunisie s'est développée depuis le début des années 80 avec l'implantation de 3 unités intégrées pour l'élevage du loup et de la daurade et par la création d'un centre National d'Aquaculture dont les objectifs essentiels sont:

-   la recherche appliquée à l'aquaculture,

-   la vulgarisation des techniques d'élevage,

-   la production d'alevins de loup et daurade pour le grossissement et la vente aux projets privés.

Vers la fin des années 1980, 3 écloseries pour la production des naissains de palourdes ont été promus par des privés.

En pisciculture continentale la Tunisie a développé l'exploitation des retenues de barrage qui représentent un potentiel halieutique très important. plusieurs opérations d'alevinages massifs de mulets ainsi que des transferts de géniteurs de poisson de qualité et de poisson-fourrages ont été réalisés. Ce qui a crée une tradition de pêche et de consommation d'une protéine de qualité dans les régions continentales éloignées de la côte maritime.

La production d poisson d'eau douce enregistrée en 1992 était de l'ordre de 200 tonnes et on estime atteindre la production de 1.000 tonnes vers les années 87/88.


Il existe 3 écloseries pour le loup et la daurade. La production d'alevins du loup a démarré en 1987 avec un total de 850.000 alevins. En 1993 ces écloseries ont produit 5.500.000 dont 500.000 de daurade.

Le grossissement se pratique en intensif et en semi-intensif, à terre (dans les receways en bassin circulaire et dans les bassins en terre) et aussi en cages.

La production estimée pour l'année 1993 est de l'ordre de 600 tonnes.

La Tunisie avec sa position privilégiée, son climat favorable, sa proximité de l'Europe, intéresse un grand nombre de promoteurs potentiels et de bailleurs de fond d'origine nationale et internationale.

Ces dernières années, plusieurs projets étaient en gestation. Certains ont été même financés et prêts pour être réalisés. Malheureusement, des incidents de types diverses se sont intervenus, ce qui a gelé presque totalement la réalisation des projets aquacoles.

C'est ce qui a incité le gouvernement tunisien de décider la réalisation d'un plan Directeur pour le développement de l'Aquaculture. Ce plan Directeur, qui a été réalisé avec le concours financier du PNUD et l'appui technique de la FAO a démarré depuis un an. Il consiste en un ensemble d'études multidisciplinaires. Son exécution s'effectue en deux phases: la première qui vient de s'achever porte, pour l'essentiel, sur l'évaluation du potentiel de l'aquaculture sous ses aspects scientifiques, techniques et économiques. La seconde phase permettre d'établir une stratégie nationale pour le développement de l'aquaculture, basée sur le potentiel évalué lors de la première phase.

Les résultats de la première phase ont été exposés lors d'un séminaire qui s'est tenu les 17 et 18 Novembre 1993.

Les différentes études de cette partie ont été réalisées par 20 consultants nationaux. 10 consultants internationaux et 4 bureaux d'études spécialisés.

Nous avons identifié tous sites favorables à l'implantation de projets aquacoles. Pour cela, nous avons fait intervenir la technique de télédétection, ainsi que les études de terrain par les consultants spécialisés dans différents domaines.

Une synthèse de toutes ces études nous a permis de préparer un livret pour chaque site où on présente sa situation foncière, les infrastructures avoisinantes, les atouts et contraintes techniques ainsi que les possibilités de son exploitation.

Pour chaque espèce d'intérêt pour l'élevage, nous avons défini les techniques qu'il faut adapter, tout en analysant sa rentabilité économique.

Une étude de marketing á l'échelle nationale et internationale a été réalisée. Elle nous a permis de résumer les principales opportunités de marché pour chaque espèce aquacole étudiée.




L'Institut Scientifique des pêches Maritimes a déployé de grands efforts afin de tracer les grandes lignes de recherche et d'étudier les sites potentiels d'aquaculture Ceci dans le but d'établir un plan directeur du développement de l'aquaculture au Maroc.



L'évaluation des potentialités aquacoles des côtes marocaines est en cours de réalisation, Les sites faisant l'objet d'étude sont:

-   La, lagune de Sidi Moussa

-   La lagune de Nador

-   L'estuaire de Loukkos

-   La baie de Dakhla

1/ Lagune de Sidi Moussa

Une étude du milieu (physico-chimie, écologie et sédimentologie) a été réalisé dans cette lagune parallèlement avec des essais d'élevage de palourde.

2/ Lagune de Nador

Des chercheurs de I'ISPM en collaboration avec l'Université de Montpellier ont entrepris une étude écologique de la lagune par ailleurs, l'ISPM s'est engagé à l'élaboration de la carte bathymétrique et à la détermination des paramètres physico-chimiques du milieu.

3/ Estuaire de Loukkos

Une étude complète été réalisée dans cet estuaire comprenant notamment,

-   L'étude physico-chimique

-   L'étude sédimentologique

-   L'étude courantologique

-   L'étude ichtyologique

et faisant l'objet d'un rapport en cours de finalisation.

4/ La baie de Dakhla

Une étude complète pluridisciplinaire de la baie de Dakhla a été achevée à l'exception de l'étude courantologique, et fait l'objet d'un rapport in cours de finalisation. Cette étude a permis la sélection de certains sites de la baie, en vue la réalisation d'essais d'aquaculture.

B) Essais d'élevage

Aussi, et dans le but de mettre en valeur les potentialités aquacoles des lagunes et des baies, des essais vont être lancés:

-   Dans la baie de Dakhla pour l'élevage de moules, d'huîtres et éventuellement de coquilles Saint-Jacques.

-   Dans la lagune de Sidi Moussa pour l'élevage de la palourde

C) Mise en place d'un réseau de surveillance du milieu et de la salubrité de coquillage en 1993. Ce réseau compte trois stations:

D) Rapports

Deux rapports seront prochainement publiés, intitulés:

-   Etude de la baie de Dakhla

-   Etude de l'écosystème de l'estuaire de Loukkos


II-1/ Projets existants:


Dans la lagune de Oualidia, 5 parcs ostréicoles produisent environ 150 tonnes d'huîtres japonaises (Crassostrea gigas). Cette production est destinée essentiellement au marché national. Cette activité fait vivre environ une centaine de famille. La construction d'un bassin d'épuration, utilisant le système ultra-violet, a récemment été entreprise par une des sociétés.


La Société MAROST à capitaux privés marocains, vise principalement la mise en valeur de la lagune de Nador (11500 ha). La stratégie de la société est d'accroître ses élevages de poissons en réduisant l'élevage de crevettes et de coquillages. Elle vise une production de 1000 tonnes en 1994 contre une production de 500 tonnes en 1992 Ceci est dûe à l'extension des moyens de production en accroissant la capacité d'élevage et en introduisant de nouvelles installations plus performantes.

c-Projet d'élevage du Thon Rouge à M'Diq

Ce projet, entamé à M'Diq en octobre 1992, vise la production d'alevins de Thon Rouge en milieu contrôlé, ainsi que leur élevage jusqu'à une taille permettant de les lâcher dans le milieu naturel. L'intérêt du projet est la reconstitution et la préservation des stocks naturels du Thon Rouge de la Méditerranée.


La Société Aquacole de la Moulouya, installée à Saïdia (Côte Méditerranéenne), vise la production de crevettes (Penaeus japonicus) et de poissons (loups et dorades) avec une production de 50 tonnes de poissons et 40 tonnes de crevette. A cause du faible rendement commercial de la crevette, la société s'est orientée vers l'intensification des élevages de poisson tout en réduisant ceux de la crevette.

II.2- Projets futurs.

Plusieurs projets aquacoles sont prévus par des investisseurs marocains et étrangers à capitaux privés:

-   Projet de Jebha en Méditerranée (extension de la société aquacole de la Moulouya)

-   Plusieurs projets à Larache en Atlantique pour l'élevage des crevettes, du loup, de la dorade, de la palourde et d'autres espèces.

-   Projets dans la baie de Dakhla (extension de la société MAROST, etc…)


Dans le cadre de la coopération bilatérale en matière d'aquaculture, plusieurs actions sont entreprises actuellement, dont les plus importantes sont:

-   Avec le Japon axées sur l'élevage du Thon Rouge

-   Avec la République populaire de Chine:



L'objectif de ce projet est de définir une stratégie intégrée pour la gestion des systèmes lagunaires en liaision avec leur utilisation pour l'aquaculture.

Cette stratégie doit se concrétiser par une méthodologie opérationnelle, pour traiter un montant important d'informations, employer des moyens mathématiques et informatiques et fournir des résultats utilisables aussi bien par des scientifiques que par des décideurs et des professionnels.


L'approche visée est une approche pluridisciplinaire où physiciens, biologistes, écologistes, sédimentologues et économistes travailleront ensemble pour aboutir à un modèle qui intégre:

-   les échanges mer-lagune-terre

-   Les circulations des masses d'eau

-   Les facteurs biologiques et écologiques de la lagune

-   Les facteurs socio-économiques


En collaboration avec le Laboratoire d'Hydrobiologie Marine de l'Université de Montpellier, l'Ispm a entamé depuis 1992 une étude générale de la lagune de Nador visant à:

-   Actualiser les données écologiques de la lagune

-   Réaliser une carte bathymétrique détaillée de la lagune, nécessaire à la modélisation hydrodynamique

-   Estimer sa capacité d'accueil


Suite aux recommandations du workshop sur la gestion lagunaire tenu à Nador du 30 septembre au 5 octobre 1991, l'ISPM a proposé un programme relatif à la gestion lagunaire lors de la réunion qui s'est tenue au Grand Hôtel à Sète (France). Cette réunion a permis d'identifier les pays du bassin méditerranéen intéressés par cette activité.

Ces pays sont: la Croatie, I'Egypte, la Bulgarie, I'Algérie, la Turquie, 1'Aibanie, le Portugal, la Tunisie, Malte, la France, la Libye et le Maroc.

Lors d la réunion d'Athènes, qui s'est déroulée du 13 au 15 septembre 1993, ce programme q été retenu comme activité du réseau EAM.

Ce programme a été réexaminé une deuxième fois de la réunion de Biarritz qui s'est déroulée du 8 au 10 septembre 1993. Une évaluation financière de cette activité a été également effectuée lors de cette réunion.






During 1993 Portugal participated quite actively in almost all MEDRAP II activities, including the hosting and organization of the “Workshop on Food Production and Feeding Techniques”. In fact, our representative, however selected he could not attend the “Training Course on Advanced Techniques in Mediterranean Marine Hatcheries” hold in Tunisia, due to financial difficulties.

As for the previous years we consider that MEDRAP II project gave a positive contribution to our country, allowing some interrelation between aquaculture concerned parties, specially research institutions. Unfortunately it was yet not possible to settle the National Committee for Aquaculture Development, the suitable ground to the establishment and consolidation of the national cooperation in this sector, a significant basis for the sustained development of aquaculture.


Aquaculture in Portugal maintains the same pattern already reported to MEDRAP II, that means above 70% is short-neck clam, 12% rainbow trout, and remanent is gilthead seabream, sea bass, eel, other sparids and other finfish species and shellfish. Unless the high abundance of mullets in our estuaries and lagunar systems, this resource is not (yet) exploited as their economic value is very poor (less than 8% of sea bream market price).

Concerning the marine fin fish rearing technology an improvement was performed, carrying on from the extensive to the semi-intensive. In fact, now no more extensive farms are operating, production reachs average 3 m.t./ha/year in monoculture of sea bream or sea bass or in polyculture. Only 2% follows high semi-intensive and intensive way, for sea bream, sea bass and turbot. The above referred panorama, emphasizing semi-intensive rearing, reflects the fittness of aquaculture to the natural capacity and environment preservation, specially of the wetlands (lagunar systems and estuaries). A contribution to this is the production efluent treatment, which throughness is in direct relation with the intensification grade.

On freshwater fishculture, a high increase (above 40%) on rainbow trout production and the stability on eelculture.

Anyhow, aquaculture development, specially marine fin fish, faces some difficulties, which are strongly conditioned by the lack of active and competent producers Organizations. Being the great majority small fish farmers, they are not able to provide the marketing and commercialization, the search for diversification, the acquisition of the production factors, or to get the adequate technical support. Other bottlenecks are related to the yet unfinished coastal management, the need of easy and privileged funds for improvement and also the lack of investment agressiveness by the investors.


  1. Seminar on aquaculture and wetlands, hold in Lisbon, July 5–7, 1993, organized by EC south european countries (France, Itlay, Portugal and Spain), except Greece that could not participate. The objective was the joint application of research projects for the EC Programme A.I.R., which induced the realization of the Seminar to evaluate the state of the wetlands (lagunar systems, estuaries, rias) in the region, in order to select the thems for research.
    A main conclusion was the election of the semi-intensive fish rearing system, advisable for wetlands, allowing profitable productions but safeguarding their carrying and loading capacities and preserving the environment.

  2. Workshop and Course on Fish Immune Defence Mechanisms and the New Immunological Diagnosis Technics, hold in Olsztyn and Pulawy (Poland), August 23 to 3 September, 1993, organized by the Polish Veterinary and Inland Waters Institutes, and sponsored by F.A.O. The invited participants came from Argentina, Chili, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Japan, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Russia, Thailand, Ukrain and U.S.A.

    The finals Reports of these meetings should be provided to the MEDRAP II Coordinator to acknowledge all the member countries.


Considering that MEDRAP II would achieve a more or less prominent assessment to all member countries its obvious the importance to proceed it preserving the pattern followed up to now, perhaps improved, with the same UNDP/FAO support.
We are affraid that changing this pattern may abort the outcomes and gains already reached. It is acknowledgable that not all member countries have attained the self capability, specially in terms of oganization, to go on by themselves.

Beirouth, Lebannon, November the 5th, 1993.

The MEDRAP II National Coordinator

Jaime Menezes





La production en pêche continentale réalisée cette année est de 191 tonnes toutes espèces confondues par l'exploitation de quatre (04) sites (Lac Mellah, Lac Oubeira, barrages de Merdijat-El-Amel et Ben Aouda, exercée par l'ONDPA et deux (02) opérateurs privés.


ActivitiesNumbres de projets octroyés
Pêche continentale2919
ferme piscicole010
exploitation d'anguilles210
mariculture et mytillculture200


Sur ce plan, plusieurs actions de I'ANDP ont été engagées: elles ont abouti à: i) I'élaboration d'un cahier de charges relatif aux cultures marines : ii) la mise en place d'un comité désigné chargé de l'étude des projets aquacoles soumis à l'octroi d'accords de principe pour l'exploitation des sites ensemencés et les projets de développement : iii) élaboration, signature et publication d'un arrêté portant approbation du cahier des clauses techniques relatives à l'exploitation piscicole du Lac Oubeira iv) finalisation du barrages ; v) confection d'un guide du promoteur pour les projets aquacoles fixant le parcours administratif de la constitution du dossier jusqu'à l'acte de concession; vi) élaboration et signature des cahiers de charges relatifs à l'exploitation du lac Mellah et à l'exploitation de l'anguilles ; vii) élaboration du document national sur l'aquaculture en Algerie au profit de la coopération / MEDRAP en vue de définir une politique de coopération de type transversal incluant les pays du Maghreb et de la CEE ; viii) ouverture de zones de Pêche en mollusques bivalves vivants ; ceci a été réalisé grâce la mise en place de deux textes juridiques concernant la salubrité de la zone de pêche et le contrôle des mollusques à la commercialisation.


Plusieurs actions d'assistance aux promoteurs aquacoles ont été assurées par les services techniques de I'ANDP ; il s'agit de : i) l'identification de l'assiette d'implantation d'une station d'alevinage au barrage de KEDDARA au profit d'un promoteur ; ii) la reconnaissance technique de deux sites présélectionnés par deux (02) promoteurs pour la mytiliculture on mer ouverte pour l'un et l'autre pour un élevage de loups en cages flottantes ; iii) enquête technico-administrative sur un site présélectionné par un promoteur pour l'implantation d'un élevage de loup dans la commune de Gouraya ; iv) encadrement technique d'un promoteur privé, dans une opération d'alevinage en Sandre de la retenue de NACIRIA provenant de la station de Harreza (quatre millions de laves) et assistance à un promoteur dans une opération de repeuplement en Carpe herbivore et Carpe argentée du barrage de LAKHAL ; cette opération consistait en une mission de lute contre la pollution organique du barrage LAKHAL) ; v) démarches auprès du Ministère de l'Economie pour lever l'interdiction relative aux importations de naissains, et proposition de dispositions incitatives dans le cadre de la préparation de la loi des finances 1994 ; il s'agit notamment de : 'la reconduction des dispositions fiscales fixées en 1993; *de la création d'un fond national d'aide à la pêche artisanale et à l'aquaculture ; *de l'exonération des droits et taxes de tous les produis nécessaires au développement de l'aquaculture ; * et enfin de l'institution d'une redevance annuelle relative à la pêche continentale de 10.000 DA.


L'ANDP a dynamisé et opéré plusierus séances de travail avec les promoteurs afin qu'ils s'érigent en une association nationale. Cette association dénommée “Association Algérienne d'Aquaculture (A.A.A.)” a été agréée par le ministère de l'intérieur et des Collectivités locales, elle a son bureau au siège de la Direction Générale de l'ANDP et regroupe les professionnels en matière d'aquaculture.
Des contacts ont été pris avec le représentant de la Caisse Française de Développement (C.F.D) en vue de solliciter une aide en moyens selon les formes à étudier pour permettre un démarrage de projets en mytiliculture et en pisciculture d'eau douce et marine ; à cet effet, une fiche technique regroupant les besoins en matériel d'aquaculture des promoteurs privés a été élaborée en collaboration avec l'Association Algérienne d'Aquaculture et transmise à la Caisse Française de Développement pour financement.


Première prises de contacts officielles afin de faire aboutir un dossier à trois volets avec la partie Belge. Cette coopération vise : i) l'évaluation des ressources piscicoles d'eau douce : ii) l'identification des potentialités des gisements de mollusques bivalves marins; iii) la création d'une unité piscicole d'eau douce comme unité pilote.
En matière de coopération avec la Tunisie, l'ANDP a insisté sur la mise en place d'une coopération dans les échanges des techniques en mytiliculture pratiquées au niveau du Lac Mellah Pour l'Algérie et la Lagune de Bizerte pour la Tunisie.

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