SWIOP/WP/3 - Tanzania Baseline Study













Table of Contents


W. N. Brownell

November 1982

RAF/79/065/WP/03/82

SWIOP
DOCUMENT
OISO

RAF/79/065

REGIONAL PROJECT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT & MANAGEMENT
OF FISHERIES IN THE SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN

PROJET REGIONAL POUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT ET L'AMENAGEMENT
DES PECHES DANS L'OCEAN INDIEN SUD-OCCIDENTAL

c/o UNITY HOUSE P.O. BOX 54 VICTORIA, MAHE SEYCHELLES

TELEPHONE 23773

TELEX 2254 SWIOP SZ

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 GEOGRAPHICAL
1.2 FISHING GROUNDS

2. THE SEMI-INDUSTRIAL FISHERY

2.1 TAFICO
2.2 PURSE SEINING (SMALL PELAGICS)

3. THE ARTISANAL FISHERY

3.1 BEACH-BASED
3.2 THE REEF ZONE
3.3 BEYOND THE REEF
3.4 CENSUS AND PRODUCTION ESTIMATES

4. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF FISHERIES DEPARTMENTS

4.1 MAINLAND
4.2 LEGISLATION

5. INSTITUTIONS

5.1. CREDIT
5.2 FISHERIES TRAINING

5.2.1 Mbegani
5.2.2 Kunduchi
5.2.3 Nyegezi
5.2.4 Lumumba

5.3 FISHERIES RESEARCH

5.3.1 TAFIRI
5.3.2 Institute of Marine Sciences

5.4 COOPERATIVES

6. SUPPORT TO FISHERMEN

6.1 BOAT BUILDING
6.2 SHORE FACILITIES (LANDING AND HANDLING)
6.3 SUPPLIES
6.4 SERVICING OF MOTORS

7. HANDLING/PROCESSING/MARKETING

7.1 HANDLING
7.2 PRESERVING
7.3 PROCESSING
7.4 DOMESTIC SALES
7.5 EXPORT

8. FISH CONSUMPTION

8.1 NATIONAL
8.2 DAR-ES-SALAAM

9. CURRENT DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

9.1 FAO ZANZIBAR
9.2 RIDEP (MTWARA/LINDI)
9.3 WORLD BANK/IDA

10. DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS


 

1. INTRODUCTION


1.1 GEOGRAPHICAL
1.2 FISHING GROUNDS


1.1 GEOGRAPHICAL

The East Africa Current brings a negligible supply of nutrients in its journey from the Indian Ocean to wash the shores of Tanzania; nor is there any significant upwelling to bring nutrients up the steep slope of the continental shelf that, in most cases, is only 2-5 miles away from the coast. However, the coastal fisheries of Tanzania (which extend from 4 39' to 10 28' South latitude) are endowed with the nutrient enrichment of numerous rivers, plus some very desirable habitats for fish. The main rivers (Ruvuma, Rufiji, Mbwemkulu, Ruvu, Wami and Pangani) form extensive deltas and large areas of brackish coastal waters with high primary productivity. There are numerous secondary rivers as well, which also contribute greatly to enrichment of the coastal waters, mainly during the rainy seasons. It is primarily in these river delta areas that great nurseries exist for numerous species of marine fishes, crustaceans and molluscs. Tanzania has over 1 000 km of mangrove swamps and coastal lagoons connected with the sea (sometimes only twice a day during high tide, or twice a month during spring tides).

The mean tidal range along the coast is about 4 m, which causes extensive mud flats and back-reef flats to be exposed (or nearly so) at low tide, providing great opportunities for fishing on foot (seines, traps, weirs, gathering, etc.).

The total shelf area to the 200 m depth contour is 18 509 km, most of it lying between the coast and the islands of Zanzibar and Mafia. The island of Pemba is separated from the mainland by a 56 km-wide channel that is quite deep (mostly 800 - 1 000 m).

Currents are at times extremely strong, particularly around the three main islands. The East African Coastal Current flows Northward and is particularly strong in the Zanzibar Channel during the Southeast monsoon (late April to early October). Tidal currents may reach a speed of 4 knots in shallow waters (up to 30 m) around Zanzibar and Pemba during the Southeast monsoon, thus greatly restricting fishing activities.

Winds are also a limiting factor. They frequently blow at speeds over 10 knots, which prevents most small-scale fishing boats from going out. Very little fishing is done East of the islands (windward) during the height of the Northeast and Southeast monsoons, particularly in the case of boats driven by lateen sails (about 95% of the total), which do not sail well up wind. For small-scale coastal fishermen there are often off-shore breezes in the early morning to carry them out to the grounds.

1.2 FISHING GROUNDS

There are extensive shallow waters protected by the reefs in Tanzania and these are where fishing activities are concentrated. The reef flats are quite productive and protected, and a fisherman paddling a small dugout and using a small gillnet, hook and line or basket traps can go out nearly every day and usually catch some fish. This shallow-water fishery is limited by the scarcity of fish due to overfishing, some short periods of excessively high winds or tidal currents during spring tides.

Most small-scale fishermen are also active outside the reefs, particularly around near-shore banks (rocky bottoms, submerged reefs, ridges and troughs). These grounds are primarily in the 15 - 100 m depth range and often are part of the shelf slope. Very often there is heavy fishing pressure on the demersal species of these banks, particularly to the West of the three main islands and just outside the reefs all along the coast.

Some of these banks, due to their distance from fishing centres, are still relatively virgin. There remain strong stocks of snapper and grouper in the 50 - 200 m depth range in the South (from Kilwa to the Mozambique border), on the windward side of Mafia and Zanzibar and on the outer edge of the shelf North of Pemba.

Fishing grounds for pelagic fish are difficult to define, but large concentrations of small pelagics are frequently encountered all along the coast, particularly in Tanga and Zanzibar regions. Large pelagics are fished mainly in the Zanzibar Channel (particularly kingfish) and beyond the shelf dropoff.

Artisanal prawn fishing is done primarily in shallow coastal and estuarine areas influenced by the rivers. Trawling for prawns is done in waters as shallow as possible (the largest trawler, a 30 m double-rigger, operates in as little as 4 m). Most prawn trawling is done in depths of 3 - 10 m (no more than 20 m) in the Rufiji and Bagamoyo/Pangani areas. There is some potential also at the highly productive Ruvuma delta (Mozambique border), but there the trawlable shelf area is very limited. Some of the most productive grounds in the heart of delta areas (particularly the Rufiji) are not suitable for trawling due to reefs, rocks and sunken tree limbs.

Various surveys have identified potentially productive trawling grounds in the 200-350 m range. The most promising species are lobsters, sharks and rays, vertically-migrating carangids and lizardfishes. The grounds are the Zanzibar and Mafia channels and the shelf areas North of Pemba and Mafia. However, these resources are limited, there are currently no markets for most of the species involved and the investments required for large trawlers and sophisticated gear to do deep trawling are enormous.

2. THE SEMI-INDUSTRIAL FISHERY


2.1 TAFICO
2.2 PURSE SEINING (SMALL PELAGICS)


2.1 TAFICO

TAFICO, the Tanzanian Fishing Corporation is a parastatal fishing company, involved mainly in shrimp trawling. In 1982, the ten trawlers remaining from the original TAFICO fleet (Table 2) experienced extensive mechanical and structural difficulties and thus showed very low operational efficiency. For example, in the third quarter, 1982, the four small new trawlers caught more fish (66.5 t) and more prawns (563 kg) than the older fleet of large trawlers (44.5 t and 534 kg, respectively). During that period only three of the large trawlers were more or less operational (total of 75 fishing days) and one of the Japanese boats (Kisiju) was out of commission after being rammed by a tugboat (Table 3).

The 'TAFICO agreement with Japan effectively started in late 1980, with the arrival of six 11 m trawler-seiners including the five which began full-scale trawling for prawns in December. Their catches of fish and prawns for the first 6 months were low (through May 1981) due mainly to the crew's inexperience (Table 1).

The Japanese government has provided a 30 m mothership/double side trawler for TAFICO in an attempt to beef up the prawn fishery, mainly focusing on the Rufiji Delta. The vessel Mama Tafico, will spend an average of 21 days at a time on the fishing grounds, making catches of 300 kg of headless prawns/day (already achieved during the second cruise in October, 1982). The ship will also receive iced prawns for freezing and provide supplies on the fishing grounds to the five 11 m trawlers from Japan which started fishing in December 1980. There are also 12 7.5 m skiffs included in the new program, which are intended to circulate among artisanal prawn fishing landing centres to collect fresh catches in insulated boxes with crushed ice.

Other developments provided by Japanese assistance are concentrated at the new shore base at Ras Macabe, across from the old TAFICO marketing facility (best reached by ferry from Banda Beach). Under construction there are a T-shaped pier, slipway, forge, machine shop, engine shop, cold stores, ice plant (10 t/day capacity), water and fuel depots, supply store and offices. The ice plant was the first of these facilities to be completed (Dec. 1982).

The calculated ice requirement for a fully operational TAFICO fleet is 172 tons/month. Mama Tafico is the only boat which has a functioning freezer on board. The other trawlers will continue to pack the prawns on ice carried as 25 kg blocks and broken up as needed. They also bring back fish on ice, or in chilled seawater. Recently, problems of prawn quality control at all levels leading to export marketing difficulties (in addition to long payment delays) have led TAFICO boats to place more emphasis on catching fish rather than prawns. Values of TAFICO fish catches in July-Septemper 1982 greatly surpassed those of shrimp landings (Table 4). The revenue from fish sales covered the local fleet operation costs, not including major repairs. TAFICO made retail marketing trials for fish but due to overhead costs they dropped the idea and the fish is disposed of wholesale to NCCO (National Cold Chain Organization).

Though the initial Mama Tafico prawn catches have been promising, it remains to be seen if these yields can be sustained and increased, once essential repairs are made on some of the other trawlers. It is possible that some more trawlers will be acquired, but it would be wise to check the catch per effort performance of the existing fleet throughout the year before any new acquisitions are made. Areas that are both productive in shrimps and free of obstacles to trawling are quite limited. The TAFICO catch of fish and prawns for 1982 is estimated at 310 t (Table 5).

2.2 PURSE SEINING (SMALL PELAGICS)

Until April 1982, the only other semi-industrial fishing going on in Tanzania (except for a small trawler in Tanga which caught 13.5 t of fish and prawns in 46 fishing days in early 1982) was seining with light attraction for small schools of pelagic fish. There are currently 13 seiners in the country 97 in the mainland and 6 in Zanzibar). Nine of these are in the 8-10 m range; the remaining four have lengths of 13. 17, 18 and 20 m (Table 2). All the seiners and the trawler were grounded for long periods in 1982 due to major breakdowns, lack of fuel, shortage of spare parts and of pressure lamps, as well as unfavourable conditions of weather currents. This purse seine fishery landed about 856 t of fish in 1981 (Table 5). The 3 Zanzibar Fisheries Corporation boats landed 316 t in 1981-1982 (Table 6).

The purse seine (or ring net) fishery was introduced to the Tanzania Coast about 8 years ago by Greek fishermen. It operates with light attraction on moonless nights with a hand-hauled net up to 400 m long and 65 m deep, with a bag of heavy thread 20 mm stretched mesh. One or more lamp skiffs are used for concentrating the schools of fish, around which the net is set. The mainland coast of Tanga Region yields the greatest catches, normally about 25% of the national total. Tanga catches in tons from 1971-1978 were as follows (including landings of the small-scale surrounding net boats operating in the light phases of the moon):

1971 - 180t

1973 - 226t

1975 - 701t

1977 - 819t

1972 - 307t

1974 - 431t

1976 - 1201t

1978 - 610t

Note: The "Greek" method was introduced in 1975 (source: L.B. Nhwani, 1981).

The main limiting factors of this fishery are preservation and market access. The highest landings are registered at the towns of Tanga, Tangoni, Zanzibar and Dar-es-Salaam because they offer the best opportunities for rapid sale of these highly perishable fishes. Nhwani (1981) reports the species composition of catches from the period October - March to be as follows:

Sardinella sirm (spotted)

51.4%

Sardinella gibbosa (gold stripe)

19.3%

Decapterus maruadsi (round scad)

10.7%

Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel)

5.3%

Leiognathidae (slipmouths)

2.6%

Gulland (1979) suggests that the annual yield of small pelagics in coastal Tanzania could be as much as 20 000 t. However, this catch level will not be approached in the forseable future, as means of preserving the fish are limited or non-existant (at sea and on land), distribution systems are inefficient and demand in most places is very low.

The eight small (10 m) trawlers built with World Bank funding (plus two others for research purposes) have been completed after extensive delays at the Pangani and Mikindani boatyards. The four boats for Bagamoyo Fishing Corporation have been in operation since April 1982 and have regularly been making catches in the neighbourhood of their targets of 55 kg of prawns and 125 kg of fish per day (though there has been a lot of down time due to numerous structural and mechanical problems). The Nyamisati Fishing Co., located in the midst of the rich Rufiji Delta, received delivery of its two boats in November 1982, and fishing operation were expected to start in December.

The Bagamoyo (BAFICO) boats have been doing stern trawling, mainly close to shore between Mbegani and Saadani", leakage of the boats having prevented them from ranging further afield. The majority of the fish catch (by weight) from the shallow water trawling is sardinellas, scads and Indian mackerel. Some of the boats will be experimenting with purse seines soon, in an attempt to more effectively catch the small pelagics. It is not uncommon for them to catch 3/4 ton of these fish with a two-hour tow of a trawl net.

3. THE ARTISANAL FISHERY


3.1 BEACH-BASED
3.2 THE REEF ZONE
3.3 BEYOND THE REEF
3.4 CENSUS AND PRODUCTION ESTIMATES


3.1 BEACH-BASED

The simplest and least cost-intensive of the coastal artisanal fishing activities are seining or gill-netting on the extensive littoral mud/sand/grass flats. The depth and the distance from shore worked by the fishermen depends upon the means at his disposal, the condition of the sea. The stage of the tidal cycle and the species sought. The nets are usually light (multifilament 210/4 to 210/9, stretch mesh of 25-50 mm and from 10 to 100 m long), with floats of a balsa-like wood and sinkers of small stones tied to the sisal rope "lead" line. Such nets may be worked by only two men on foot in shallow water, or any number of men pulling from the beach after carrying the net out by boat, or walking it out at low tide, or swimming it out to where a concentration of fish has been spotted. In many estuaries and surrounding littoral zones where prawns are found, the majority of the fishermen may be boatless. Such is the case at Saadani, where the marine environment is strongly influenced by the outflow of the Wami and several smaller seasonal rivers. There is a prawn broker in town, so they are encouraged to work their seines by day and at times anchor or stake out gill nets to work the tides by night...The fish they catch feeds the village and the small amounts of prawns (about 4 t/year, headless) provide some ready cash. Where prawns are uncommon, more often the gear is deployed with the use of a small dugout (mtumbwi) or outrigger canoe with sail (ngalawa).

Many fishermen use even simpler gear, particularly very small 2-man seines made from mosquito nets, stake barriers (uzio) in the intertidal zone (which may have a central corral, but usually form a V with a net or basket trap to catch the fish or prawns), or just simple woven (baited or unbaited) basket traps (madema). Women, children and teenage boys gather shellfish, octopus and small fish on foot at low tide.

3.2 THE REEF ZONE

Of the approximately 32,000 tons of marine fish landed per year by artisanal fishermen in Tanzania, well over half comes from near-shore reef areas. Most of the coastline of the mainland and the islands is buffered by relatively calm, shallow (less than 10 m) waters, confined by partially or totally submerged fringing reefs that sometimes lie as far as 5 km from shore. Zanzibar and Pemba alone have about 1500 km2 of inner reef area. These shallow bottoms provide excellent habitat for a wide variety of food fishes, as well as for baitfishes and the juveniles of numerous species that use the area as a nursery ground. Ample food and shelter for fish are provided by extensive patch reefs composed of numerous species of corals, interspersed with dense grass flats of mainly Syringodium and Thalassia with their associated epiphytes and invertebrate communities.

These inner reef areas are under intensive fishing pressure nearly everywhere and most resident species are probably overexploited. Over 75% of the roughly 34 000 artisanal fishermen in coastal Tanzania fish most of the time in these shallow, protected waters. They use mtumbwi (2.5 m narrow dugout canoes, mainly propelled with paddles, though some have an outrigger and a small sail). A more seaworthy dugout-type canoe, the ngalawa, is also used extensively in the inner reef fishery. The ngalawa is normally 3-6 m long with a dugout hull, planked gunwales (making the sides much higher), double outrigger and a lateen sail. These boats will frequently go out beyond the fringing reefs in good weather. Slightly over one-half of Tanzania's coastal artisanal fishing fleet of approximately 10 500 boats (Table 5) are mtumbi, which cost from TSh. 2,000 to 3,000 (TSh. 9.7 = 1 US$) to build. The ngalawa, which cost between TSh. 7,000 and 12,000, comprise 35% to 40% of the total boats in use. The remaining 5-10% are larger planked boats.

This reef fishery with small boats is similar to the beach-based fishery in that the main types of gear are woven traps and small pieces of net (which, in this case, are set on the bottom, used for surrounding schools of small fish, or occasionally as drift gill nets). Hooks and lines are also used - mainly hand lines, though some trolling is done.

For the overall artisanal fishery, about 40% of the boats use gill nets set on the bottom, and 18% of the boats use drift nets (mainly outside the reefs for larger pelagic fish). Handlining is the main activity on about 32% of the small boats and three or more traps are used by about 10% of the boats.

The' most effective of the inner reef fishing methods is the surrounding net operated by two boats, usually ngalawa. These may be simply a number of 23 m x 1.8 m gill nets of 25-42 mm stretch mesh joined together and used mainly at night to surround an area of reef where some schooling fish have been spotted. They may also be more like a seine (with or without a purse line) of 300 to 1,000 m long x 3-5 m deep with 38-65 mm stretch mesh, and often with a pocket (bag) of 12 or 19 mm mesh. These often are towed to the beach for hauling or for anchoring so that a "killer" net can be used inside to take out the fish. These nets are most commonly used in the Bagamoyo area and in the lee of the three major islands.

For the inner reef fishery of Pemba Island, about 2/3 of the fish are caught by various sorts of gill nets (including beach seines), and 1/3 by basket traps. For the rest of Tanzania, it appears that gill netting and seining yield 55-65% of the fish caught and traps account for 20-30%. The remaining 5-25% of the inner reef catch comes from handlining, trolling, cast-netting and free-diving.

The most important group of fishes caught in the inner reef are the parrot fishes and wrasses. Almost as common in the catches are the Lethrinids, Lutjanids and Siganids. Some sea basses, groupers, small sharks and rays are also caught. The smaller mesh nets will often catch schools of small pelagics like Caesio (mbono), various Carangids, Indian mackerel and small bait fishes.

The catch per unit of effort in the reef areas is generally considered to be much lower overall than it was five years ago. The lack of adequate boats and/or motors for venturing out beyond the protected coastal waters, plus the continued use of dynamite, has put excessive pressure on the reef fishery in all but the most inaccessible areas of the Tanzania coast.

3.3 BEYOND THE REEF

The ngalawa are the principal boats used for fishing outside the fringing reefs, though they normally do not venture out more than 10 km from shore unless the weather is very good and the winds are favourable. The planked dau (dhow) and mashua use the same lateen type sailing rig, but are longer, beamier, have deeper draaft, and have greater carrying capacity. However, these boats cost two or three times as much to build as a ngalawa and they wear out just as fast (average life - about 4 years). Some of the mashua have small outboard motors, which help to increase fishing efficiency, but greatly add to costs of operation and headaches over trying to get them repaired.

The most heavily fished areas beyond the reef are those that lie in the lee of islands or where the current is minimal and as close to shore as possible. Demersal fishing with set nets and hand lines is mostly carried out just beyond the fringing reefs, around shoals, and on the shelf slopes in the 10-100 m depth range. Handlining is less common than in the past because the required mono-filament lines and hooks are scarce, the gear is often snatched by sharks and there are not enough seines and cast nets available for catching bait.

Some trolling is carried out by ngalawa boats, and occasionally by mashuas with small outboard motors, particularly along the edge of the continental shelf. The materials used for trolling are variable, depending on what kinds of rope, twine, wire, nylon, hooks and home-made lures are available. The most commonly caught fish by this method are yellowfin and bonito tunas and sailfish. Secondarily, the trollers catch some dolphin (Coryphaena), Pampano and rainbow runner (Carangidae), skipjack (Katsuwonus) and Kingfish (Scomberomorus).

Some fishermen use pressure lamps at night to attract baitfish to their lift nets and dip nets. They prefer Indian mackerel fillets for handlining and herrings/anchovies for trolling.

Most of the fishing away from the near-shore outer reefs an shoals is accomplished with large-mesh gill nets. For large pelagics (the same species as in trolling, though there may also be some sharks, and probably few or no Carangids), the preferred method is drift netting at night; These nets are up to 800 m long and 8 m deep, with meshes of 140 to 200 mm (stretched), and anywhere from 18 to 60 ply.

Bottom gillnets are mainly for snappers, groupers, jacks, etc. (similar to those used inside the reef). Nets of larger mesh (as much as 330 mm) and deeper (up to 6 m) are used for sharks, skates, rays, turtles and large groupers. Bottom gill nets deployed outside the reef must be picked no more than 8 hours after setting, otherwise much of the fish will spoil in the water. Often the fishermen cannot get out there soon enough, due to unfavourable conditions of sea, wind, tide or other factors.

Dau and mashua boats are used for fishing the voluminous gill nets outside the reefs. These longer (up to 9 m) and beamier (up to 1.5 m) boats are more capable of accommodating the nets, crew and catch than are the canoe-type boats.

3.4 CENSUS AND PRODUCTION ESTIMATES

In principle, each year, fishery assistants all over the country carry out a census of the fishermen, fishing boats and gear of all major categories. The idea is to count each operational fisherman and item involved in fishing, so that reasonably accurate estimates can be made of the amount of fishing activity and the supply requirements for the fisheries. Likewise, there are fisheries attendants at most major landing stations who are expected to estimate the weights of landings they witness, list the main species, and report how many boats of each type go out fishing on each day. From these "random" samples, extrapolations could be made using the census figures to estimate the overall production. Problems of field agents include: virtually no transportation, limited training, scales, minimal supervision, a maximum of 40 hours work per week, and lack of personnel.

It is very difficult to estimate the artisanal fishery production in Tanzania because there is no system for random sampling of catch data, and the census of boats, gear and fishermen, needed to raise the catch assessment survey, is very sporadic. There was no census at all in Dar-es-Salaam region for the past three years. In Tanga and Mtwara regions plus Mafia Island there was no census in 1980, and 1981 only shows data from principal landing areas. In Coast and Lindi regions, many fishing villages are very inaccessible and even in cases where census figures were collected, often no calculations could be made of actual production.

The figures for the mainland and Mafia are so incomplete that the data cannot be presented, except the numbers of fishermen and boats shown in the artisanal section of Table 5. Zanzibar (including Pemba) has a fairly reliable census. The figures for 1981 and 1982 are presented in Table 7. The weights and values of landings for Zanzibar and Pemba are shown in the official figures for October 1981 - September 1982 (Table 8). In the summary figures shown in Table 5, catches for Zanzibar and Pemba are recalculated based on the number of mtumbwi boats at an average production of 1-1/2 t/year and the number of larger ngalawa and planked boats (producing an average of 8 t/year). In order to make these calculations for the other regions, estimates had to be made of the percentage of dugouts (mtumbwi and small ngalawa) within the total of boats. For Dar-es-Salaam region, the totals were derived from old figures, modified by some changing trends as reported by regional fishery agents. The adjusted estimates are given in the last column of Table 5, giving a total artisanal catch of 38 661 t for 1981. There could be as much as a 15% error in either direction, but certainly production is not nearly as high as 69 099 t (56 355 reported, plus the 12 744 estimated for Dar-es-Salaam).

It is obvious that coastal artisanal catches have dropped off in recent years, even though demand and prices for fresh fish are increasing. Fishermen have great difficulty acquiring fishing gear and proper boats, due to very limited supply and high costs. The near-shore fishing grounds accessible to them are in most cases overfished, so catch per unit effort is generally low.

4. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF FISHERIES DEPARTMENTS


4.1 MAINLAND
4.2 LEGISLATION


4.1 MAINLAND

The Director of Fisheries is the overall coordinator of all fisheries activities in the country. However, since 1972, there has been a high degree of decentralization of decision-making. TAFICO is an autonomous company though it must report to the fisheries director and to the ministries concerned. There is a fisheries planning unit under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. This same Ministry is ultimately responsible for all fisheries activities carried out in the Regions, through the Regional Development Directors and the Regional Natural Resources Officers (Figure 1), however, most decisions are made at the regional level. The Regional and District Fisheries Officers are also responsible to the Fisheries Director, though usually indirectly. The two fisheries training institutes and the Mbegani Centre (Section 5) are autonomous, but are ultimately responsible to the Fisheries Director and the Ministry.

Fisheries attendants and auxiliaries are field agents assigned to important fishing villages. They are mainly responsible for collecting data on fishing activities and for reporting on equipment needs and particular problems or illegal actions by fishermen.

Table 9 gives approximate salaries for some personnel in fisheries in Tanzania, mainly to serve as comparison to fish prices, licence fees, etc.

Artisanal fisheries development has been given a high priority over the years. However, the results have been discouraging due to the obstacles still remaining in the areas of fish distribution from landing places, supply shortages (for practically everything that has to do with fishing gear, boats and motors), community organization and fish preservation.

4.2 LEGISLATION

The Fisheres Act of 1970, with Regulations formulated in 1973 (and amended in 1982) provides the framework for operation and control of all activities in the fishing industry. Enforcement is firmly in the hands of Government Fisheries Officers, supported by the Marine Police (which has three patrol boats, one each at Tanga, Dar-es-Salaam and Mtwara). Tanzania has not claimed an EEZ of 200 miles, retaining a 50-mile limit of territorial waters. No foreign registered vessels may enter these waters without authorization from the Government. All boats in the country, including canoes, are required to be registered, with the registration number painted visibly on the hull. In addition, all vessels fishing in Tanzanian waters must pay a licence fee. Licences are also required for individuals for the right to fish. All fees must be paid annually. Table 10 lists the fee schedules that currently apply.

All exporters of fish and fishery products must also be licensed and they must pay duties on all products shipped out of the country.

Mainly as a result of a booming growth in the use of explosives by fishermen in recent years, Tanzania enacted Regulations on 17 September 1982 covering Fisheries Explosives, Poisons and Water Pollution. Very stiff fines and imprisonments are imposed on fishermen caught in possession of explosives or poisons, or of fish which have been obtained with the application of such agents. Evidence given by fisheries officers and their qualified assistants is sufficient to convict an offender in court. Similar penalties are to be imposed upon individuals or companies found to be discharging toxic materials into bodies of water in sufficient quantities to injure any aquatic fauna or flora.

Zanzibar still retains autonomy over the regulation of its fisheries. A detailed programme of legislation and means of enforcement has been proposed for Zanzibar and Pemba. The Government is expected to enact this legislation in the near future.

Still, each region, with the exception of Dar-es-Salaam (which receives such a high volume of fish at numerous landing places and is very difficult to monitor) attempts to calculate the artisanal fishery catch. Unfortunately, the estimates and analyses are made in most cases by inexperienced people working with extremely scanty data. Once the data reaches the two trained statisticians in Dar-es-Salaam and one in Zanzibar, there is very little value left in the figures.

In Zanzibar there are 21 fisheries attendants working at the same number of major landing stations and in Pemba there are 22. For the mainland, the number of attendants gathering production and census data was not possible to ascertain. The Zanzibar system is better organized and the landing places receive better coverage, but still the estimates of catches are very high (mainly from the production attributed to boats that actually were not fishing or else caught little or nothing). Table 8 shows the catches for each month on Zanzibar and Pemba. The first three months of data for Pemba is too low because only a few stations were included. The other nine months plus the 12 months for Zanzibar are overestimated in relation to catches of previous years and to the number of boats of each type reported (and potential production per year of each boat).

Even the census (Table 7), which is conducted quite seriously, shows unexplainable discrepancies between 1981 and 1982, especially in the numbers of fishermen, mtumbwi boats and gill nets.

The figures for the mainland are even less reliable because many major landing centres are not covered at all, and census and/or production data are lacking for whole regions or large parts of a region. In many cases, field enumerators admitted that they often make totally wild guesses in order to put some numbers in their reports.

5. INSTITUTIONS


5.1 CREDIT
5.2 FISHERIES TRAINING
5.3 FISHERIES RESEARCH
5.4 COOPERATIVES


5.1 CREDIT

The main source of credits for the fishery sector is the Tanzania Rural Development Bank (TRDB). The Tanzania Investment Bank and Tanganyika Development Finance Ltd, have also granted a few fishery loans in the past, purely for large-scale commercial developments. The TRDB gives loans in three categories:

1. individual fishermen (usually an entrepreneur who has already some capital and managerial ability and who employs labour to do the fishing) - credit for a boat in the 7 m range, with an inboard motor, fish boxes and fishing gear;

2. fishing companies (in the coastal zone, all of the loans have so far been to public companies) - mainly for 9-10 m stern trawlers;

3. Ujamaa villages (Collective bodies like cooperatives, normally composed of a whole village that has been oriented toward communal ownership) - there may be several units of boats and "fishing gear involved if the community is considered adept at management.

Presently, there are 13, 4 and 4 loans respectively on the books (either in force or approved for financing) in the coastal zone. The TRDB lends up to 75% of the total project cost. The granting and supervision of loans is regionalized, through the District Development Corporations and the TRDB branch offices. All loans must be adequately secured with collatral, though exceptions are made in the case of Ujamaa villages if the loan committee agrees that the village leaders demonstrate adequate organizational and managerial ability (the criteria here are quite loose).

Throughout the country, many approved loan applications are in limbo due to the unavailability of motors and fishing gear, which cannot be readily imported because of foreign exchange limitations.

Traditional fishermen do not apply for loans from public sources (and seldom from traditional ones), as they are accustomed to working either on their own with-the most fundamental equipment, or as labourers on someone else's boat.

5.2 FISHERIES TRAINING


5.2.1 Mbegani
5.2.2 Kunduchi
5.2.3 Nyegezi
5.2.4 Lumumba


5.2.1 Mbegani

The Mbegani Fisheries Development Centre is an example of a multi-faceted, integrated approach to fisheries training at a relatively high level in which all foreseeable physical needs for smooth operation of the facility are provided. Mbegani represents a total commitment on the part of the Norwegian Government (NORAD) to provide a physical plant and a programme of technical assistance that will last indefinitely with full financial support (Tanzania contributes 25% of the operating costs).

One of the main objectives is to upgrade the local fishing industry through the advanced training of local technicians, in the hope that they will carry much of the load in the operation of future fishing fleets.

Another important Mbegani objective is to provide more basic training (particularly in boat building and fishing gear improvements) through short courses at the village level, mainly through roving technicians with mobile units. This approach is far more likely to yield some concrete results, especially in the short run.

Mbegani was established in 1969 on about 300 hectares of land at Luale Bay, 60 km NM of Dar-es-Salaam and 8 km SE of Bagamoyo. The training program really got underway in 1975, but by 1980 there were numerous operational problems, and NORAD increased its commitment. After an accelerated program of building new facilities and re-modelling old ones, plus the acquisition of the 21 m training vessel MAFUNZO, the new program started on 15 September 1982, with a revised and more complete curriculum leading to 2- or 3-year diplomas in four major areas. The capacity is 120 full-time resident students (currently there are 32).

The final phase of construction is expected to terminate in March 1983 and soon after that a full complement of students should be in residence. By late 1984, it is expected that Mbegani should be able to provide training for qualified students from other South West Indian Ocean countries. The Tanzania Government is very favourable to the concept of regional cooperation, particularly in the training of nationals from neighbouring countries in fisheries technology at Mbegani.

The Curriculum:

All students are required to study the following general subjects: political education, mathematics, physics/chemistry, English, first aid, fire fighting, swimming, fisheries and business management. The technical courses are as follows:

a) Boat building (technical drawing, naval architecture, construction, workshop practice, principles of electrical and mechanical engineering).

b) Masterfisherman (ship handling and nautical science, fishing techniques and fish finding, gear technology, fisheries biology, marine engineering).

c) Marine engineering - (mechanical, electrical, refrigeration, technical drawing, hydraulics, workshop technology and practice, servicing and repair).

d) Fish processing - (mainly to further develop existing artisanal fish processing technology and to improve quality control in the fishing industry).

Practical facilities:

a) Pier with a T for landing, loading and servicing (depth at mean low water: 2 m)

b) Fish processing building (including cold stores) next to the pier

c) Boatyard with slipway and machine shop

d) Mechanical workshop, including facilities for welding, lathe work refrigeration

e) Scientific laboratories

f) Laboratory for practice in the use and maintenance of electronic navigational and fish-finding equipment.

5.2.2 Kunduchi

The Kunduchi Fisheries Training Institute near Dar-es-Salaam has turned out over 300 graduates in 12 years of operation. About 90%of the fishery officers and administrators in Tanzania have their General Diploma from Kunduchi. Currently there are 49 students (3 of them women). A student must have completed secondary school or a certificate course with not less than 2 years Service in order to qualify. The course is general, with an emphasis on fisheries administration and covers two years. Of the 40 weeks of studies per year, it is intended that 75% be of a practical nature, including 10 weeks of pure field work. However, the facilities and equipment at the school have deteriorated and funds for transportation are very limited, so in fact most of the current studies are theoretical and in the classroom. In spite of these physical limitations, the school plans to offer a 9 months course in applied fishery biology for university graduates, starting in 1983. The school has trained a number of students from neighbouring countries, but there are none at present. There are five main areas of study (departments): Fishery Biology, Fishery Management & Administration, Food Technology, Marine Engineering and Nautical Science.

5.2.3 Nyegezi

The Nyegezi Fresh Water Fisheries Institute is located at Mwanza on Lake Victoria. Entrance requirements are either direct after completing From IV, or serving officers who have worked for not less than 5 years in the Fisheries Department. Though the emphasis is on fresh-water fisheries, there is an exchange arrangement for Nyegezi students to get some practical experience in the marine field at Kunduchi, and vice versa.

5.2.4 Lumumba

The Lumumba College of Marine Science is a secondary school for students with a 8- year primary education. It was founded in 1978 and is located near Zanzibar Town. It is intended that students will undergo a 4-year applied training course in fisheries, but so far there has been very little practical instruction accomplished, due to limitations of facilities and budget.

5.3 FISHERIES RESEARCH


5.3.1 TAFIRI
5.3.2 Institute of Marine Sciences


5.3.1 TAFIRI

The Tanzanian Fisheries Research Institute was recently established in Dar-es-Salaam. TAFIRI is intending to take over and expand upon the program of the research station at Kunduchi. Research programmes of TAFIRI include aquaculture and statistical data collection and analysis.

A major objective for TAFIRI, and most pertinent to the fisheries of the whole SWIO region, is how to achieve greater coordination to applied fisheries research being undertaken by diverse groups. There have been numerous cruises carried out in recent years by overseas institutes in oceanography, exploratory fishing and accoustic surveys for fish, with very little effort made by the parties to synchronize their work with each other. There have also been many small research projects in fisheries carried out by numerous institutions, joint venture fishing companies and individuals. However, there is no clearing-house to advise researchers on what has been done and what are the current research priorities, as well as to compile the results of all the work accomplished to date so that fisheries planners would have more accurate information, from which more objective development programs can be formulated.

5.3.2 Institute of Marine Sciences

This research station is located in Zanzibar Town and has been part of the University of Dar-es-Salaam since 1978. The facilities are quite run-down and there is virtually no budget for improvements (only a bare minimum for operation). There is some hope that eventually a new station will be built on a large plot of land at Mkokotoni, just North of town. Currently - there is a staff of three researchers and three trainees. The research program has been greatly reduced due to financial problems.

There is a large research vessel (stern trawler/oceanographic) the KASKASI which has been lying idle for five of the six years of its Zanzibar tenure. The ship is much too large and costly for the needs of the station. The director intends to have it appraised and sold as soon as possible. If this can be accomplished, the institute would be relieved of a great burden and would be free to acquire a small research boat more appropriate for satisfying the station's requirements. Currently, there is some limited inshore research work being carried out with a 10 m Mbegani-built planked boat.

There is a great deal of practical fisheries research work that should be carried out in the waters around Zanzibar and the nearby mainland coast, particularly work that the Institute has started in oyster and rabbitfish culture, assessment of local demersal and pelagic fish stocks, crab and lobster fishing potential, seaweed (Eucheuma) farming and catch per effort analyses of the small pelagics fishery. Several of those who were previously engaged in fisheries research are now teaching full-time, particularly at the main campus of the University of Dar-es-Salaam.

For the present, the Institute of Marine Science aims to work jointly with Mbegani in ocean engineering and fisheries technology and with the FAO project on tuna livebait fishing Zanzibar. If the Institute is going to be revitalized through some form of international assistance, it should re-assert the position held by East African Marine Fisheries Research Organization (its predecessor) as a regional guiding force and clearing house for applied marine research especially in fisheries.

5.4 COOPERATIVES

The Ujamaa village production cooperatives on the mainland coast have had limited success. There often is no leadership and no commitment on the part of the members and very limited follow-up concerning use and maintenance of equipment, keeping of accounts, etc. Thus, fishery cooperatives generally have a bad name, and fishermen consider them to be vehicles for distribution of government gifts.

In Zanzibar the system works slightly better, as there has been more careful selection of members and better follow-up on the part of fishery agents. Officially, there are about 400 members of fishing cooperatives in Zanzibar and 160 in Pemba. Of the 8 active cooperatives in Zanzibar (with 20-40 members each), two are doing semi-industrial purse seining for small pelagics with light attraction and the rest are doing gill netting with mashua and dau boats. These were established through a loan by Zanzibar Revolutionary Government.

The official system of accounting provides that 15% of the net receipts from the sale of the catch goes to the Government for repayments, 15% goes into the cooperative savings account for replacement of gear and the remaining 70% is for the fishermen. It is difficult to say how well this works in practice.

In order for the fishery cooperatives to work in Tanzania, several major reforms would have to be made in the areas of selection (only the best and most responsible fishermen), administration, accounting and extension work.

6. SUPPORT TO FISHERMEN


6.1 BOAT BUILDING
6.2 SHORE FACILITIES (LANDING AND HANDLING)
6.3 SUPPLIES
6.4 SERVICING OF MOTORS


6.1 BOAT BUILDING

There are three principal coastal boat building shops currently involved in the construction of planked fishing boats, primarily in the 6-11 m range (Pangani, Mbegani and Mikindani). These boats are mainly designed for inboard engines (8.5 hp for the relatively light 6-7 m boats, 16 hp for a" deeper, heavier-constructed 8 m design, and 56 hp for the 10-11 m trawler/purse seiner type just built for the Nyamisati and Bagamoyo fishing companies. The Mbegani yard is principally a teaching facility for the NORAD assisted training school, and will attempt to develop a prototype multi-purpose coastal fishing boat in the 13 m range which can cruise with sail power. Here, a number of boat types will be constructed as part of practical training programme for future boatbuilders, from 3 m dories up to 18 m trawlers.

The Mikindani yard was established in 1972 as part of the ill-fated Mtwara Fishing Company, and taken over by TAFICO in 1975. It has had a history of bad management, gross under-productivity and non-availability of essential materials. Recently, the management has improved and productivity has increased in spite of severe problems caused by a very erratic electricity supply.

The Pangani boatyard (operated by the District Development Corporation) has experienced problems similar to those of Mikindani. The four Pangani-built 11 m trawlers for Bagamoyo Fishing Company have been fishing since early 1982. Currently, all four are down for repairs after 6-7 months of operation. They have severe leakage problems, rapidly advancing corrosion of fittings and weak transoms (which have to be overhauled and reinforced). The engines are often sitting partially in water because the bilge pumps cannot bail fast enough.

There are numerous skilled boatbuilders along the coast, most of them ambulatory and working only with hand tools. They build very functional mtumbwi (3-5 m narrow dugouts), ngalawa (4-6 m dugouts with planked sides and outriggers), mashua (6-9 m planked boats with a square transom) and dhows (double-ender plank boats of 6-9 m). The planks are always butted squarely against each other and usually fastened with locally made black iron nails and spikes which rust out rapidly. Seams are filled with whatever fibre is available and oiled mainly with animal fat or shark oil.

All of the above can be (and usually are) fitted with traditional sails. Many of these traditional boatbuilders are also skilled at constructing larger 9-16 m coastal cargo carriers. It is generally considered that the best boatbuilders are the Mafia islanders. Lateen sails are used almost cases. The sails are of heavy cotton cloth and have a surface area of 25 to 'IS m2. The gaff poles are usually of bamboo and longer than the boat length. The mast is much shorter.

6.2 SHORE FACILITIES (LANDING AND HANDLING)

There are about 32 major coastal landing centres in Tanzania with connections to regional markets. In addition, there are about 70 smaller landing places which supply fish to local populations within a radius of 15 km (normal bicycle range) There are also numerous small villages with a few fishermen who supply fish purely for local consumption.

At several of the major centres there are handling facilities. These range from a simple shed for cleaning, washing and auctioning of fish, to enclosed buildings with running water, storerooms and offices (sometimes even including cold storage, freezers and/or small ice plants). Most of these facilities are run-down and partially or totally out of use. Fishermen and fishmongers often refuse to use them for fear of being subjected to government surveillance and price controls. Usually there is no money available to hire a responsible person to take charge, or to cover basic costs of operation.

In the case of refrigeration equipment, there are constant problems of electrical blackouts and voltage fluctuations and often auxiliary generators are out of order or short of fuel. It is hard to find capable technicians to operate them and harder still to keep them because; salaries are very low.

It is senseless to build costly handling facilities when there is neither an adequate budget nor capable technicians to operate them (see following section on marketing for recommendations).

6.3 SUPPLIES

The greatest obstacle to the further development of small-scale fisheries in Tanzania is the shortage of fishing gear, mending materials, motors, spare parts, boat fittings, etc. Most of these must be imported at high cost, thus severely straining the country's scarce foreign currency reserves. In fact, TAFICO is now virtually the only entity that is allowed to use some of the country's foreign exchange to purchase some gear and spare parts, mainly to maintain its trawler fleet. Even the two national net-making factories can only occasionally obtain small amounts of the required imported yarn, and production of nets for domestic use has been drastically curtailed.

The only fishing supply item manufactured in the country with purely local materials is the sisal rope produced at a factory in Tanga, as well as in numerous artisanal operations located in areas where the fibre is grown. Fishermen often make their own nets if they can obtain the thread (particularly shark gill nets and cast nets), sinkers from stones, crude rope from palm fibres or vines, and woven traps (of bamboo, cane, or palm fronds). The assembly and repair of gear by fishermen and other local labourers is very desirable (even if the quality of materials and workmanship is low), since the capital costs are minimized and a large number of people are kept employed.

Some gear has been made available to fishermen in recent years through special arrangements. In 1982, the British Aid Project in Lindi provided $100,000 worth of fishing gear which was rapidly purchased by local fishermen who paid in shillings (TSh). The money is now sitting in an account, but it cannot be converted into foreign exchange for importation of more supplies. In the case of TAFICO-supplied Zanzibar cooperatives, the little of the total value of the gear refunded was in shillings. Unfortunately, there are no solutions other than for foreign assistance projects to continue providing supplies and for further development of local means of production using local raw materials. The former is always a one-shot deal and the latter is a long, difficult process.

There remain a few small, private traders in the principal coastal towns who manage to get some fishing supplies to sell at high prices. They carry locally-made nets when available (mainly 2 and 3 ply fine thread, stretch mesh sizes in 1/2 inch increments from one to four inches, 45 yds. long and 26 meshes deep). They also sometimes have imported monofilament drop lines and handlines (though the 0.40 size prefered by fishermen is always scarce), polyamide rope and hooks (mostly in the ¾8-¾10 range, preferred by fishermen).

6.4 SERVICING OF MOTORS

Since motors are now used considerably less for fishing than they were 5-8 years ago, there are very few mechanics and even fewer repair shops. Most of the shops are mainly for inboard engine servicing. Only three are fully operational at Mbegani, TAFICO (Dar-es-Salaam) and ZAFICO (assisted by the FAO Marine Engineer). Most outboard motor repair is done by self-trained, ambulatory mechanics based in the main towns where fish are landed. The situation is not likely to improve until it becomes easier to import motors and spare parts, credit becomes available for setting up workshops and better training can be provided through short courses at the local level. In the meantime, sail power is quite sufficient for the locomotion needs of most fishing operations.

7. HANDLING/PROCESSING/MARKETING


7.1 HANDLING
7.2 PRESERVING
7.3 PROCESSING
7.4 DOMESTIC SALES
7.5 EXPORT


7.1 HANDLING

Most of the fish landed by artisanal fishermen is already in an advanced state of deterioration due to several hours spent in the hot sun on deck, in contaminated bilges and left in gill nets there for up to two hours while bargaining goes on. Often the fish is gutted on contaminated planks and washed in dirty water. The trip to market, still with no preservation measures taken, leads to further spoilage.

7.2 PRESERVING

Chilling is not practised in the artisanal fisheries in Tanzania, except for the occasional use of ice by fishmongers for transport or for retail marketing (with fish that is already partially spoiled). A few fish sellers use cold storage facilities in Zanzibar Town and Dar-es-Salaam to keep fish overnight or for a few days, but this is rare. Some traders occasionally sell to the National-Cold Chain Operations (NCCO) for re-sale in their retail stores (iced or frozen) in Dar-es-Salaam.

Over 95% of the coastal artisanal catch is marketed fresh. Of this, at least 99% receives no chilling at all. The remainder, less than 1%, is chilled only just before marketing. The only fish that is chilled from the time of capture until marketing to traders is that which is caught by TAFICO, BAFICO and ZAFICO. In the first two cases, chilling (with ice) is mainly practiced for the preservation of prawns.

7.3 PROCESSING

Though sun-drying, salting and smoking are widely practised on fish caught by inland fisheries of Tanzania, less than 5% of the marine landings are so processed. Most of the processing is salting and/or sun-drying, practised mainly in the Lindi Region, Pemba and Mafia. The only significant smoking activity is that which is carried out in semi-industrial ovens by ZAFICO, mainly using sardines and Indian mackerel. The resulting product is mainly used as fish meal in animal feeds on Zanzibar farms.

7.4 DOMESTIC SALES

In Zanzibar, the ex-vessel price for small pelagics ranges from TSh. 5,000 to 11,000 per ton (Table 6). For large pelagics and reef fishes (artisanal fishery) the range is TSh. 7,000 to 15,000 per ton. For individual species, a fisherman may receive as much as TSh. 40/kg for snappers and groupers, or TSh. 35/kg for yellowfish tuna, kingfish or mackerel depending on the season. The average mark-up to the consumer is 100% and this figure goes even higher in cases where fish is transported by truck to Zanzibar town and kept in cold storage until the next morning. Retail prices are considerably lower in Pemba.

Dar-es-Salaam is by far the country's largest fish market, mostly for fresh ocean fish. In 1978, the official landings figures for the three main artisanal ports were as follows: Banda Beach - 7 165 t, Msasani - 516 t, Kunduchi - 4 962 t, with an additional 239 t landed by TAFICO boats. There are four other landing beaches near Dar-es-Salaam which send most of their catch to the city. Much of the Mafia catch is sent by boat to Dar-es-Salaam and there are many traders who buy fish at beaches in the areas of Bagamoyo and Kisiju (Coast Region) and Kilwa (Lindi Region) for transport by bus, taxi or truck to Dar-es-Salaam. The retail prices of the city are much higher than anywhere else in the country (for instance, about twice as high as Zanzibar Town, which is among the highest outside the capital). Due to the scarcity of roads, of reliable vehicles, and carrier boats and the high price of petrol, transport prices are very high. For example;, to transport a 40-50 kg basket of fish in a collective pick-up truck from Banda Beach to one of the city markets (1-3 km distance) costs TSh. 40-50.

Most fish trading in coastal Tanzania is done by men, the only notable exception being women who buy small fishes to fry and sell on the streets in the evenings. At major landing beaches most fish is auctioned by male auctioneers who normally take a few fish from each catch that they handle. Traders buy fish at auction or else directly from fishermen, and sell it either to retailers at market centres or to individual consumers (roadside or door-to-door).

In Dar-es-Salaam, about 50% of the traders buy 100-400 kg of fish per week and 24% buy under 50 kg. Sixty-one per cent of the traders get their fish directly from one of the four main landing beaches of the Dar-es-Salaam area and 26% go to the main wholesale markets like Kariakoo to buy fish that comes in from outlying areas, either fresh or dried.

Mtwara is a good example of a small, but important regional market that is supplied by a number of small landing beaches. Typical fish prices are given in Table 11.

Most fish landed in the Mtwara Region is transported by young men on bicycles with baskets. These fishmongers wait under trees at prescribed locations for the small boats to land their catch, and pay cash on receipt of the fish. They then pedal off to market with as much as 30 kg of fish on the back of the bicycle (though usually less than 10 kg.

Sea breams make up about 25% Of the fish sold in Dar-es-Salaam markets, followed by sardines (11%), tunas (11%), rabbitfish (9%), kingfish (7%), jacks and scads (7%).

The majority of the fish for direct consumption in Dar-es-Salaam is sold in the public markets (61%). The rest is sold by street hawkers (18%), directly at the beach (12%) and in retail shops (8%). In 1982, many retail shops dosed down, so very little fish is now marketed that way (mainly because the TAFICO agreement to supply the NCCO distribution network with fish was terminated).

TAFICO has calculated that a minimum of 30 tons of fish per day is required to satisfy the demand in the city of Dar-es-Salaam. TAFICO boats in 1982 were catching a greater percentage of fish in relation to prawns than in previous years. This fish is sold to traders at the TAFICO marketing facility for an average price of Tsh. 20/kg as soon as each vessel is unloaded. There is great competition among buyers to obtain a share of these small

The City Council operates the Msasani Fish Receiving Station at Msasani Beach. Included in the facilities is an auction hall, 5 t capacity cold store, outboard motor repair shop, offices, showers, toilets and weighing areas. Soon an ice plant will be built on the site. A similar facility is proposed for Banda Beach in an attempt to better organize the landing and marketing activities there.

7.5 EXPORT

The potential annual yield of prawn stocks, primarily in the Bagamoyo and Rufiji areas, is estimated at approximately 2 000 t, but it is impossible to estimate what percentage of this could be caught by trawlers. Judging by performances in the last half of 1982, particularly by the four Bagamoyo boats and Mama Tafico, the 1983 national catch could reach a total of 200 t of headless prawns. If tiger prawns represent an average of 22% of the landings (by weight) at an export value of US$ 11.50 per kg and the remaining species (78%) bring US$ 8/kg the total value for the year would be US$ 6 300,000.

It is not possible at this time to count on the artisanal catch as a source of export earnings. Unless the skiff (seaborne) collection system succeeds, the quality of artisanally-caught prawns will be too low to be exportable. Some of these shrimp were exported to Kenya in the past, but all official trade between the two countries is now paralysed. Only a small amount now goes by sea unofficially from Saadani, Pangani and Tangani to Mombasa.

TAFICO tried a joint venture with Marco Trade Co. for the land-based collection of prawns in the Rufiji delta area, but most of the landing sites proved to be inaccessible most of the time due to bad roads, and the operation quickly proved to be uneconomical.

The first three TAFICO skiffs are experimenting with the collection of prawns in the Rufiji delta for transhipment by land to Dar-es-Salaam. The skiffs and the collection points are equipped with insulated plastic boxes weighing 10 kg with a capacity of 18 kg of prawns packed in 8 kg of ice. The ice is supplied from Dar-es-Salaam. Each skiff will carry an average of 100 kg of prawns (in six boxes) from each visit to one or more fishing villages. This system could also work as for high-quality fish to be frozen and exported, but would be too costly as a means of getting lower-value fish to interior markets (including Dar-es-Salaam).

The skiff collection system win, however, have limited access to landing places (most of them are only accessible for a 7.5 m inboard boat at high tide). For shipment to Dar-es-Salaam the best solution would be transhipment (and freezing) by Mama Tafico. But, the small trawlers have already experienced difficulty with passing cargo to and from the big boat due to constantly rough seas. It' would also be difficult for Mama Tafico to coordinate numerous rendezvous with trawlers and skiffs while still ranging out to fish on the best grounds.

In recent years, small quantities of prawns and lobsters have been exported to neighbouring countries, primarily Kenya. The main exporter is Dar Ocean Products Co. Since the lobsters are mainly speared and the prawns are kept in very unsanitary conditions before collection, these products are Of very low quality. The main producer of lobsters is Zanzibar, but very little is collected currently as the market is weak. The lobster tails are frozen in a 1 200 kg capacity plate freezer at the old fishery centre (FAO project office) and sporadically shipped to Dar-es-Salaam. It is hoped that the new Japanese connection for export marketing of TAFICO prawns will also lead to the development of a better lobster collection and marketing system.

Small quantities of sea cucumbers (beche-de-mer) are harvested for export to Hong Kong, along with dried shark fins and big grouper skins. These operations are normally carried out by people of Chinese origin. One small company on Zanzibar has SCUBA equipment and a team of divers to collect the sea cucumbers. The animals are eviscerated, boiled, and sun-dried before exporting. Beche-de-mer, as well as shark fins and grouper skins, are purchased from fishermen.

Tanzania also exports sea shells, principally to the USA and to Japan, India (only small cowries) and England. The main source of supply is Zanzibar which ships an average value of 2.5 million TSh. per year. All of Zanzibar's exports must be transhipped through Dar-es-Salaam which greatly adds to costs and delays.

In recent years, there has been a small export industry of seaweeds going to Denmark. Three main species have been collected (Euchema spinosum, E. cottonii and "Pemba grass") on beaches or by diving. However, collection was halted in early 1981 because the quality was too low to satisfy market requirements (maximum 30% moisture and 5% impurities). So far, there are no proper drying or sorting facilities. Euchema culture possibilities have been studied extensively in the past, and now Zanzibar plans to send two students to the Philippines to study culture techniques.

8. FISH CONSUMPTION


8.1 NATIONAL
8.2 DAR-ES-SALAAM


8.1 NATIONAL

Fish consumption in Tanzania over the years has been largely a function of production, thus the following estimates of national consumption: 1975 - 193.353 t; 1977 - 260,396 t; 19'. - 211,377 t; 1979 - 179,485 t. People eat more fish as the production increases and the prices drop, as in 1977. In 1979, the country-wide consumption in kilogrammes of fish per capita w. 10.2. In 1982, the estimated intake of the 18 million citizens of Tanzania is 11 kg/cap/y virtually unchanged in 3 years. However, for Zanzibar/Pemba the annual consumption of fish on the order of 20 kg/person. The highest levels of consumption on the mainland are expected, in the communities lying within 20 km of the coast of the Indian Ocean and Lakes Malawi, Tanganyika and Victoria.

8.2 DAR-ES-SALAAM

There are 33 public markets in Dar-es-Salaam at which fish are sold. There are between 800 and 850 fish traders operating in these markets, but surprisingly, two-thirds of them deal primarily or exclusively in dried (including salted and smoked) fish, which is shipped mainly from the far-away lakes districts. A number of intermediaries operate primarily between the main Dar-es-Salaam landing beaches and the public markets. There are 50-60 traders normally at Kunduchi, 100-120' at Banda Beach and 20-30 at Msasani, buying mainly at the informal beach auctions. In 1980, the average beach price for fish weighing over 1/2 kg was TSh. 49/kg and the same fish was costing about TSh. 67/kg in town. Also in 1980, the wholesale price of smoked/salted/dried fish was 65 TSh/kg and the retail price ranged from 80-90 Tsh.

9. CURRENT DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS


9.1 FAO ZANZIBAR
9.2 RIDEP (MTWARA/LINDI)
9.3 WORLD BANK/IDA


9.1 FAO ZANZIBAR

The FAO tuna project resumed operations in October 1982, with the arrival of a new team leader/masterfisherman and the return of the M.V. Tauro from Mombasa, where she was refitted for live bait pole and line exploratory fishing. The objective of the new project is to locate the best fishing grounds for tunas and bait fish and to define the most appropriate fishing techniques for local fishermen. In support of the main objective, the project aims to carry out a survey of artisanal landings of large pelagics, set up some fish aggregating devices (FADs) explore the possibilities of baitfish culture and train fishermen in pole and line techniques. The first exploratory fishing cruise was carried out in Pemba waters in late November 1982.

Previous experiments with purse seining and gill netting for large tunas in the Zanzibar area were inconclusive. Local fishermen at times make good catches of little tunas (Euthynnus and Auxis) with drift nets. For the month of September 1982, the project landing survey (at four main Zanzibar fishing centres: Nungwi, Kizimkazi, Mkokotoni and Malindi) showed the following landings:

Type of fish

Number

Total weight (Kg)

yellowfin

125

1,692

skipjack

108

773

little tuna

234

2,003

kingfish

248

3,287

billfishes

5

315

This was still the off-season (the best tuna fishing normally starts in December). Previous experiments with purse seining and gill netting for large tunas in the Zanzibar area were inconclusive.

9.2 RIDEP (MTWARA/LINDI)

The Rural Integrated Development Programme operates through the offices of the Regional Development Directors of Mtwara and Lindi. Financial support has been provided by the British ODA since 1979. The main accomplishment of this project so far is the provision of fishing gear that was sold to Lindi fishermen.

Another objective is to carry out exploratory fishing between Ruvuma and Kilwa for prawns (with sonar and a small trawl), snappers (with mechanical reels and drop lines), small pelagics (with purse seines and lift nets) and tunas (trolling and pole and line). Another of the ODA boats was intended for use by the RIDEP/ODA project for production fishing and training. The project also proposes to refurbish the old Mikindani cold store and ice plant which has been out of operation for four years. There are also proposals for motorization of boats and training of extension workers.

The only hope for improving the fisheries of the South coast is an integrated approach to development. The Mikindani Fishing Company (MFICO), set up in 1973, failed after two years of operation due to the isolation of Mtwara and lack of sufficient market outlets and supporting services. For the same reasons, the World Bank/ODA recently cancelled a plan to set up a new fishing company in the area. The RIDEP project has the right ideas, but after over three years, they have not yet been put into practice.

9.3 WORLD BANK/IDA

This project was conceived a few years ago to set up four fishery centres based on semi-industrial fishing. After a long series of problems, the project has gone through many modifications. In 1982 the loan was almost withdrawn due to excessive delays and cost overuns and poor quality in the local construction of the boats for Bagamoyo and Nyamisati. All 10 of the boats had been completed, and the operation phase is fully under way. Unfortunately, the effort has lost most of its momentum after several years of delays and differences of opinion, plus the fact that supporting services are not sufficient to assure effective preservation and marketing of fish and prawns, supply of gear and materials, and maintenance of boats and engines.

10. DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

Massive investment in all aspects of the fisheries sector would be of little value unless the country could improve its balance of payments, increase local production of goods, improve the quality of administration and services and increase the income of the people. Fisheries contribute a very small amount of foreign exchange, but most of the equipment and gear required for catching fish must be imported.

Infrastructure required for the production, processing and overseas shipment of seafood products is enormous. The development costs are too great for the relatively low level of production that can be expected from Tanzanian waters. To get the fish to market, there would have to be an alt-weather coastal road leading to all major fishing centres, but the resulting increase in available fish could not begin to pay the costs of the roads. Dependable ice production, cold storage and transport would also have to be provided, with capable management and maintenance programs to keep them going.

It is best to consolidate existing infrastructure and equipment and to upgrade the capabilities of the system, given the real resources at hand. The emphasis should be on continued employment of those already engaged in fisheries, and a continuing supply of fish for the local population, at least at current levels.

The two existing net factories should be revitalized and possibly could be adapted to utilize locally produced and processed fibres. Small manual net weaving machines could be introduced. Galvanized boat fastenings could be produced in small local shops. More and better quality (treated) sisal rope could be produced in small factories. Moulds could be provided for making sinkers with scrap metal. More and better floats could be manufactured locally with natural materials. Such small enterprises could be established with small credits through revolving funds to responsible individuals and groups.

The four fishing companies could provide towing services for small sailing boats going into ^to windward (either heading out or returning) and could even buy the catches for icing down and later marketing through the company's system.

Better processing could be carried out on the local level so that fish could be sent to distant markets in good condition. Smoking in particular should be considered, as there is an abundance of firewood, clay for ovens and timber for trays in most coastal areas.

Though many surveys conducted by large vessels have indicated the presence of exploitable deep-water fish stocks, the investment and maintenance costs involved would far surpass the possible benefits for Tanzania. The best prospects for better harvesting of underexploited resources are through the greater use of dau and mashua sailing boats to fish for offshore tunas and demersals (whenever possible, in the company of a suporting vessel). Also, lift-netting with large nqalawa boats and a small light boat could prove to be a cost-effective way to harvest more of the extensive stocks of small pelagics often found quite close to shore. The latter would be even more effective if the fish could be properly smoked/salted/dried immediately upon landing. Tanzanians every-where appreciate locally-processed small fishes that come from the lakes.

All the aforementioned measures could be implemented most effectively through an extension service composed of 30-40 well-trained and motivated extension agents placed in fishing centres where improvements are particularly indicated and where local conditions are favourable.

Figure 1: ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGRAM, FISHERIES ADMINISTRATION, MAINLAND TANZANIA.

Figure 2: FISHERIES ADMINISTRATION IN ZANZIBAR.

TABLE 1. QUANTITY OF PRAWNS REGISTERED IN THE FIRST SIX MONTHS OF FISHING BY THE FIVE 35-FT JAPANESE TRAWLERS (MCHUNGU. PANGANI, SANGARA, NANGARU. AND KISIJU) STARTING DECEMBER '80

HOUR TRAWLING

TOTAL CATCH BOAT

TOTAL CATCH PER BOAT PER DAY

AVERAGE CATCH PER FISHING

AVERAGE CATCH PER BOAT PER




FISH

PRAWN

FISH

PRAWN

DECEMBER

12 075

26.8

2 048

367

227

40.7

JANUARY

5 995

13.8

1 114

85

129

9.3

FEBRUARY

14 365

31.9

2 886

7

318

0.7

MARCH

15 230

33.8

2 968

78

329

8.7

APRIL

19 270

42.8

3 850

4

420

0.4

MAY

14 365

31.9

2 654

219

297

24.3

DATA OBTAINED FROM REPORT OF JAPANESE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, JUNE 1981

TABLE 2. COMMERCIAL FISHING BOATS OPERATING OR UNDER REPAIR. MAINLAND TANZANIA, NOV. 1982 (EXCLUSIVE OF THE 10 NEW IDA BOAT

TYPE OF VESSEL

WHERE BUILT

OVERALL LENGHT (m.)

GROSS TONS

NET TONS

NOV. 1982 OPERATION






YES

NO

TAFICO BOATS







Mother ship (double rigger)

Japan

30

150

67

1

-

Stern trawler

Finland

20

91

30

1

3

Stern trawler

Australia

18

50

21

1

1

Stern trawler

England

10.5

10

6

1

2

Stern trawler

Japan

10.5

8.5

5.9

4

1

Stern trawler

Japan

10.5

8.5

5.9

1

-

Skiff

Japan

7

3.5

2.5

3

9

NORFISH CO.

---

---

---

---

-

1

Purse seiner







MOA FISHING CO.







Purse seiner

Tanzania

42-69

26-70

---

2

2

SHUMTA (TANGA)







Purse seiner

Tanzania

58

62

---

1

-

Trawler

Tanzania

---

---

---

-

1

TABLE 3. QUANTITY OF AND PRAWNS LANDED BY THE TAFICO TRAWLERS IN THE MONTHS OF JULY. AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, 1982


JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

BOAT

FISHING

WEIGHT (Kg)

FISHING

WEIGHT (Kg)

FISHING

WEIGHT (Kg)


DAYS

FISH

PRAWN

DAYS

FISH

PRAWN

DAYS

FISH

PRAWN

MCHUNGU

15

6 835

77

19

7 220

36

5

3 639

15

TASI

13

6 182

103

13

4 167

--

8

3 125

--

SANGARA

13

6 680

76

6

4 521

28

5

1 226

--

NANGARU

7

4 175

63

7

4 393

--

9

5 867

66

KAMBA

5

1 448

--

10

2 386

10

7

2 902

43

PANGANI

16

8 739

110

17

5 646

46

9

2 174

46

TUMAINI

--

--

--

9

12 976

101

10

11 281

277

MAMATAFICO

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

5 220

--

TOTALS

69

34 059

429

81

41 309

221

54

35 434

447

(Data obtained from Tafico monthly Production Reports)

Table 4 VALUE IN TANZANIAN SHILLINGS OF FISH AND PRAWNS LANDED BY TAFICO IN 3 MONTHS OF 1982 (AS COMPARED TO OPERATING COSTS) (@ US$1 = 9.7 Tanzanian Shillings)


JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER


TOTAL

BOAT







TOTAL

OPERATING


FISH

PRAWN

FISH

PRAWN

FISH

PRAWN

VALUE

COST*

MCHUNGU

109 360

1 925

115 568

888

58 224

375

286,340

89 592

TASI

98 912

2 575

66 664

--

50 000

--

218 151

65 863

SANGARA

106 872

1 900

72 336

700

19 616

--

201 424

71 755

NANGARU

66 800

1 653

70 280

--

93 872

1 650

234 254

82 043

KAMBA

23 168

--

38 176

275

46 432

1 075

109 126

41 682

PANGANI

139 816

1 850

87 510

1 150

34 784

1 150

266 260

98 655

TUMAINI

--

-

207 616

3 875

180 496

6 825

398 812

133 353

MAMATAFICO

--

-

--

--

104 400

--

104 400

14 500

TOTALS

544 928

9 903

658 150

6 888

587 824

11 075

1 818 767

593 443

* Operating costs includes fuel, food, ice, salaries and incentive payments.

TABLE 5. ESTIMATED MARINE FISH PRODUCTION FOR TANZANIA. 1982 (In metric tons)

INDUSTRIAL

NO. OF BOATSa

ANNUAL CATCH (t)

TANZANIA FISHERIES CO.b

9

310

MOA FISH TANZANIA LTD

4

350

SHUMTA FISHERIES (TANGA)

2

116

NORFISH (DAR ES SALAAM)b

1

40

MTWARA DEVELOPMENT CO.b

1

48

ZANZIBAR FISHERIES CO.c

3

316

TOTAL

20

1180

ARTISANAL

NO. OF BOATS

FISHERMEN

ANNUAL

CATCH (t)




REPORTED '81

ADJUSTEDe

TANGA REGION

629

2 302

6 371

1 907

COAST (EXCL. MAFIA)

819

2 711

13 090

3 219

MAFIA ISLAND

322

1 081

7 470

1 432

DAR ES SALAAMf

5 093

16 827

(12 744)

12 744

LINDI

618

1 711

11 769

2 260

MTWARA

780

2 642

47

2 700

ZANZIBAR

1 358

4 527

12 547d

10 650

PEMBA

873

2 199

5 061

3 749

TOTAL

10 492

34 000

69 099

38 661

a - not including 8 new IDA 32 ft. trawlers and 3 seiners of Zanzibar cooperatives

b - estimates made based on past records and current monthly performances

c - for July 1981 to June 1982

d - for October 1981 to September 1982

e - assuming the number of boat is correct and an average catch 8t/boat/yr. for plank boats and 1.5t/boat/yr. for dugouts canoes

f - no calculations attempted since 1979.

TABLE 6. ZANZIBAR FISHERIES CORPORATION - CATCH FOR ONE YEAR (Mainly Small Pelagic Fishes) OF 3 ALUMINIUM PURSE SEINERS (1981-82)

MONTH

WEIGHT (t)

VALUE (Tsh.)

JULY

1981

19.89

137 632

AUGUST

1981

22.46

149 133

SEPTEMBER

1981

24.11

182 582

OCTOBER

1981

26.71

112 612

NOVEMBER

1981

43.49

155 173

DECEMBER

1981

23.69

111 404

JANUARY

1982

20.44

152 780

FEBRUARY

1982

35.83

171 505

MARCH

1982

32.37

156 571

APRIL

1982

15.23

90 955

MAY

1982

36.82

189 461

JUNE

1982

14.86

125 580

TOTAL

1982

315.90

1 735 388

TABLE 7. DATA ON BOATS AND GEAR FROM 1981 AND 1982 - ZANZIBAR ARTISANAL FISHERY CENSUS

* INCLUDING 4 555 FISHERMEN WITHOUT BOATS; NOT INCLUDING 1 015 VISITING FISHERMEN.

TABLE 8. MONTHLY CATCH STATISTIC FROM LANDING STATIONS, ZANZIBAR - PEMBA OCTOBER 1981 - SEPTEMBER 1982


ZANZIBAR

PEMBA

MONTH

METRIC TONS

VALUES (TSh.)

METRIC TONS

VALUES (TSh)

OCTOBER

639.5

7 040 000

18*

232 977

NOVEMBER

443.5

3 020 700

45*

320 720

DECEMBER

987.1

5 160 800

40*

250 300

JANUARY

929.0

10 219 000

500

5 120 897

FEBRUARY

1 068.0

11 638 000

504

6 238 443

MARCH

1 191.0

23 205 000

513

3 047 545

APRIL

1 342.0

14 363 000

601

6 430 424

MAY

1 393.0

13 555 000

509

4 933 912

JUNE

1 506.0

15 594 000

539

6 546 326

JULY

1 499.4

13 202 000

500

3 450 300

AUGUST

1 065.6

4 113 354

536

4 788 285

SEPTEMBER

1 734.0

5 262 000

756

3 808 000

TOTALS

12 547.1

120 860 598

5 061

45 068 129

* Only limited data available from few landing stations.

Table 9: A SAMPLE OF WAGES IN SHILLINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN FISHERIES (9.7 TSh. = 1 US$)

Fisheries Attendant (lowest level of field agent, starting salary, no training or experience)

600

Fisheries Auxiliary (8-10 years schooling but no fisheries training, starting salary)

700

Fisheries Officer (starting, after 2 years training in Fisheries Institute, Kunduchi or Mwanza)

900

District Fisheries Officer (several years of training and experience)

2600

District Natural Resources Officer (Fisheries, Wild-life, Forestry) or Regional Fisheries Officer

3500

Secretary/Administrative Assistant

600 to 2000

Crew on State Fishing Company Boats:


Skipper

1800 to 2500

Mate or Chief Engineer

1600 to 2000

Fisherman

600 to 800

In addition, the crews get incentive pay amounting to 20% of the gross receipts of a surplus catch (anything over 1 ton for a 35 ft. trawler with a crew of 4, or over 4-1/2 tons for a 60 ft. trawler, crew of 6).

TABLE 10.THE 1973 REGULATIONS ATTACHED TO THE 1970 FISHERIES ACT (AS AMENDED JUNE 18, 1982). LICENSING FEES (T.Sh) FOR BOATS & FISHERMEN MAINLAND TANZANIA

CATEGORY

REGISTRATION FEE

FISHING VESSEL LICENSE

PRAWN FISHING LICENSE

COMMERCIAL FIN-FISH LICENSE


RESIDENT

RES.

NON RES.

RES.

NON RES.

RES.

NON RES.

FISHERMEN (no vessel)

--

--

--

100

400

20

150

MOTORLESS BOAT (up to 10m)

5

5

200

100

400

30

250

MOTORIZED BOAT (up to 10m)

5

30

1 000

150

600

100

500

MOTORIZED BOAT (10-15m)

5

50

2 000

300

700

200

800

MOTORIZED BOAT (15-20m)

5

100

6 000

450

800

300

1 000

MOTORIZED BOAT

5

500

10 000

800

1 500

600

1 200

 

 


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