SWIOP/WP/28 - Marine Resources Research Institutions in Mauritius













Table of Contents


BY
M.J. SANDERS
Senior Fishery Biologist

MARCH 1986
RAF/79/065/WP/28/86

SWIOP DOCUMENT OISO
RAF/79/065

REGIONAL PROJECT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT & MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES IN THE SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN

PROJET REGIONAL POUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT ET L'AMENAGEMENT DES PECHES DANS L'OCEAN INDIEN SUD-OCCIDENTAL

c/o UNITY HOUSE, P.O. BOX 487, VICTORIA, MAHE, SEYCHELLES

TELEPHONE: 23773
TELEX: 2254 SWIOP SZ

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

Terms of Reference
Concept
Conduct of the Consultancy
Related Consultancies

2. BACKGROUND

Living Resources
Non-Living Resources
Institutional Aspects

3. WORK PROGRAMME

Regional Tuna Study
Baitfish Investigation
Investigation of Local Tunas and Related Species
Stock Assessment of Blue Marlin
Banks Fisheries Investigation
Lagoon Eco-system Investigation
Marine Shrimp Studies and Culture

4. IMPLEMENTATION

Structure
Relationship with the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Natural Resources

5. CONCLUDING COMMENTS

TABLE 1 - LOCAL STAFF REQUIREMENTS TO IMPLEMENT THE WORK PROGRAMME (within the proposed Marine Resources Research Centre)

TABLE 2 - LOCAL STAFF REQUIREMENTS TO IMPLEMENT THE WORK PROGRAMME (within a Fisheries Department type organisation)

APPENDIX 1 - STATEMENTS OF DUTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS (direction, research and development)

APPENDIX 2 - STATEMENTS OF DUTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS (Fisheries Protection Service)


SUMMARY

The contents of this document relate principally to a proposal for an autonomous Marine Resources Research Centre in Mauritius. The Consultant concluded that such a Centre lacked Justification at this time. The priority marine resources research was identified as being concerned with fisheries, mariculture and environmental studies (of the lagoon surrounding Mauritius). Most of these activities are already being undertaken within the Fisheries Research and Development Division (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources). It Is proposed that this arrangement continue- but that the Division be re-organized to form part of a broader fisheries department type structure. The additional staff required for the marine resources research and development activities having immediate priority Is identified as at least 23 persons.

1. INTRODUCTION


Terms of Reference
Concept
Conduct of the Consultancy
Related Consultancies


Terms of Reference

This report relates to a proposal for Marine Resources Centre as referred to In the "White Paper on the Development of Fisheries and Non-Living Marine Resources" of September 1985. The possible functions of the Centre were described as Improving the utilization of the marine resources currently being exploited and to Identify those resources that might be exploited In the near future. The Consultant was asked to describe the types of activities the Centre might undertake, its structure and personnel requirements and its relationship with the existing Albion Fisheries Research Centre.

Concept

The proposed Marine Resources Research Centre was conceived as a single agency having a research and development capability In respect to both the living and non-living resources. The living resources mentioned are principally those of fisheries (commercial and recreational) and mariculture interest. Amongst the non-living resources, reference has been made to manganese nodules and energy from thermal convection currents.

Conduct of the Consultancy

The consultancy was undertaken largely during the week beginning October 13. During this time discussions were held with Mr. M. Mundbodh, Divisional Scientific Officer, and other staff of the Fisheries Research and Development Division. A visit was undertaken to the University of Mauritius where discussions were held with the Dean of the Department of Agriculture, Dr. S. Bhoojedhur. At the end of the week, preliminary views were expressed and discussions held with Mr. S. Seeballuck, Principal Assistant Secretary (Fisheries) In the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources. Mr. L. Christy, FAO Legal Officer, also attended a number of these meetings and generally assisted the Consultant.

Related Consultancies

Mr. L. Christy, Legal Officer, and Mr. D. Greboval Fisheries Planning Officer, undertook a Joint consultancy under the Southwest Indian Ocean Project during late 1984. They advised on the possible creation and role of a National Fishing Corporation. The principal conclusions were that a Corporation was not Justified and that the best Institutional structure would be a fisheries department having management, development, research and enforcement functions. As an Interim arrangement, two possible structures were Identified; a Fisheries Management and Development Division within the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources and a separate Fisheries Development Authority (1).

(1) Christy and Greboval (1985) Fisheries Institutions In Mauritius, RAF/79/065/WP/19/81

The Consultant visited Mauritius during May 1985 to provide assistance In drawing up a work programme for the Fisheries Research and Development Division (of which the Albion Fisheries Research Centre Is part). This was done In respect to the 16 separate projects then being undertaken by the staff. In the process. It was concluded that the work programme was over-ambitious, necessitating either the employment of additional support staff and/or a reduction In the number of projects (2)

2. BACKGROUND


Living Resources
Non-Living Resources
Institutional Aspects


Living Resources

The State of Mauritius comprises several Islands In the South west Indian Ocean, Including the main island of Mauritius, Rodrigues some 620 km to the East and several smaller islands. The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Is estimated to total some 1.7 million square kilometres. The main exploited fishing grounds are the lagoons and off-lagoon areas of Mauritius and Rodrigues and the hanks of St. Brandon, Nazareth, Saya de Malha and the Chagos Archipelago.

The lagoon and off-lagoon fishery at the main island is considered to be fully or over-exploited. The situation at Rodrigues Is less serious. About three thousand artisanal fishermen are engaged at each place and the annual landings when combined presently total 5,000 to 3,500 tonnes. The landings from the banks fishery was 2,800 tonnes In 1984 and has shown considerable variation from 1,700 to 3,900 tonnes, largely as a function of the amount of effort engaged. The exploitation of the Saya de Malha Bank is shared with fishermen from Reunion. Recent research undertaken largely from Reunion suggests that these fish stocks are fully exploited.

In addition, there Is an unknown amount of fishing by foreign tuna long-liners, some of which use Port Louis as a base for trans-shipment, The quantities of tuna trans-shipped have varied from 5,000 to 37,000 tonnes annually. Mauritius Itself operates a tuna purse-seiner, which fishes around Seychelles and the Chagos Archipelago. Catches of 4,125 tonnes were landed to the local cannery during 1984. The purchase of a second similar vessel Is under consideration. Also there are some 100 to 500 marl In landed around the main Island by recreational fishermen.

Recent successes have been achieved In locating and artificially rearing marine shrimps, including the preferred Penaeus monodon . These results have encouraged the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to consider supporting a pilot hatchery (anticipated cost $US 5 million) within the Fisheries Research and Development Division, this is being promoted as a necessary precursor to the possible development of a mariculture industry based on marine shrimps and maybe also the local oyster Crassostrea cuculata . Some 22 barachois (man-made tidal enclosures) with an aggregate area of 302 hectares also exist around the main island for mariculture purposes.

(2) Sanders (1985) Documentation of work Programme for the Fisheries Research and Development Division. RAF/79/065/WP/25/86.

Non-Living Resources

Hie lagoon Is Itself a valuable multiple-use resource. Several areas are under consideration for declaration as marine reserves and nursery areas. The lagoon supports a substantial artisanal fishery and contains non-living resources (sand and coral) which are being exploited at an unknown rate. It has very considerable recreational value of local and touristic importance which Includes swimming, diving, fishing and boating. The extent to which the lagoon Is being changed by pollution, dredging, land reclamation, Illegal use of explosives- fishing, boating and the many other activities Is unknown.

The existence of "reasonably good concentrations" of manganese nodules in depths of 4,000 to 5,000 metres within the EEZ of Mauritius has been claimed. This is presumed to be based on the results of research vessel cruises undertaken by technically more advanced countries. Another big-technology development suggested as having applicability is the harnessing of energy arising from Inducing thermal convection currents. A requirement is the existence of very deep oceanic waters close to shore, as exists in Hawaii (where the technology Is being developed) and possibly many other countries Including Mauritius.

Institutional Aspects

The principal responsibility for the research and development of marine resources lies with the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources. So far, the emphasis has been directed towards fisheries and mariculture, although advice is often provided on a wider range of marine resource matters. These activities mainly involve the Fisheries Research and Development Division (located principally at Albion) which has been allocated substantial facilities, vessels, equipment and staff for these purposes. Apart from this Division there is a separate Fisheries Protection Service. The latter is responsible for enforcement of the fisheries laws and some aspects of licensing and statistics collection.

The Ministry of Housing. Lands and Environment has a 2-person environmental staff which monitors the marine environment as best It can. In particular. It advises on "sand-landing permits" under the Removal of Sand Act. The Ministry does not have facilities or staff for environmental research.

The Ministry of Energy and Internal Communications has an obvious Interest in marine energy sources, but it has no research capability In this field.

The University of Mauritius has played a small but Increasing role In graduate and post-graduate research concerning marine resources. Much of this activity is undertaken within the Faculty of Agriculture. Generally, the University lacks facilities, vessels and equipment for marine research. It plays an Important role In under-graduate training, utilizing staff from the Fisheries Research and Development Division and elsewhere.

3. WORK PROGRAMME


Regional Tuna Study
Baitfish Investigation
Investigation of Local Tunas and Related Species
Stock Assessment of Blue Marlin
Banks Fisheries Investigation
Lagoon Eco-system Investigation
Marine Shrimp Studies and Culture


The following provides a brief Introduction to the research projects that the Consultant considers appropriate at the present time. All except the Lagoon Eco-system Investigation and the Baitfish Investigation are either being Implemented by the Fisheries Research and Development Division, or are about to be. Most relate to existing commitments arising from aid agreements with foreign governments and International agencies. The Lagoon Eco-system Investigation is being recommended both because of its Importance and because of the possibility of obtaining substantial International assistance for the study at this time.

Research on manganese nodules and the harnessing of energy from thermal convection currents are not included. In the Consultants view, such work would be prohibitively expensive and demanding of high technology "know-how" which Is not generally available. Using an analogy with hydrocarbons research. It would seem more appropriate to have the necessary exploration undertaken through agreements Involving an International entity, rather than attempt to develop the necessary expertise locally.

Research on living resources, on the other hand, is already well established in terms of staff facilities and on-going programmes. It Is research that can produce - and indeed has produced - benefits for Mauritius In a relatively short time frame, it Is the area where Mauritius should concentrate Its Investment In marine research at the present time.

Regional Tuna Study

A regional tuna programme including Inputs from Madagascar, Reunion, Comores and Mauritius is to commence during 1985. The biological work will be centred at Mauritius and possibly also the statistics and tagging. At the least, there Is a commitment for the collection of catch and effort statistics and biological data from sampling the catches of the purse seiner LADY SUSHIL and the longline vessels that use Mauritius as a base for trans-shipment.

An ORSTOM scientist (Mr. B. Stequert) has been assigned to assist with this work. At the present time, he has no counterparts. If the monitoring of statistics on a regional basis Is also to be done at Mauritius, then It Is likely that another ORSTOM scientist will also be assigned and require counterparts and support. The counterparts would be needed to assist with the collection of the catch and effort data, species identifications, the measurements of lengths and weights and the dissecting of gonads, otoliths and vertebrae. The latter would be subject to more detailed examination In the laboratory.

It Is necessary that a Scientific Officer (1) be appointed to act as counterpart to Mr. Steequert in the conduct of the above-mentioned work and to represent Mauritius (at a technical level) at the meetings concerning the regional tuna programme. This person should also be responsible for the conduct of the "investigation of local tunas and related species" described below. In respect to the latter he would direct and collaborate with the Technical Officer assigned to that project.

In addition to the Scientific Officer there will need to be a Field Assistant (1) plus the part-time use of another Field Assistant (1/2) to assist with the laboratory work. An additional Technical Officer (1) would be required to be counterpart to the second ORSTOM scientist if the responsibility for regional statistics collection shifts to Mauritius.

Baitfish Investigation

A Pilot Project (UNDP/FAO MAR83/006) which commenced In October 1985 Involves test fishing for tunas and similar species around Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) along the west coast of Mauritius. The fishing methods will include pole and line, vertical longlines, deep-water multiple trolling and mid-water gillnetting. Emphasis will be directed towards the use of live bait from the lagoon, hence the magnitude of any future fishery will be directly dependent on the availability of bait.

Presently there is little knowledge concerning the quantities of bait available. It is necessary to determine the presence of suitable species (probably sardinellas, scads, horse mackerels), their distribution and seasonal occurence and the yields that might be expected from sustained exploitation. This would require a biology/stock assessment study Involving a Scientific Officer (1), a Field Assistant (1) and part time use of another Field Assistant (1/2) for laboratory work supported by a vehicle, small boat and fishing nets. Its duration should be three years.

Investigation of Local Tunas and Related Species

The conduct of the above-mentioned Pilot Project provides an opportunity to Investigate the local resources of these species. This will be of particular importance If the results indicate that the availability of tunas is sufficient to Justify a commercial fishery, in this event, a stock assessment to determine the potential yields, seasonality of catches and Inter-relationships with other tuna fisheries will be essential for use In investment planning and resources conservation.

The conduct of such an Investigation would require a Technical Officer (1) and part time use of a Field Assistant (1/2) for laboratory work. The Technical Officer should be responsible to the Scientific Officer In charge of the Regional Tuna Study. He would need to spend time on board the Pilot Project vessel recording the species and length composition of the catches- catch rates, fishing locations and collect stomachs and gonads for subsequent examination In the laboratory. Measurements of the environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, air pressure, sea conditions) would also be required. The duration of the Investigation should extend beyond the Pilot Project in the event of a commercial fishery being established, to a total of three years.

Stock Assessment of Blue Marlin

This project has been Identified as requiring Implementation In the "white Paper on Objectives and Policies for a National Conservation Strategy" of 1 July 1985. This will require the collection of the required biological samples, catch and effort statistics and the laboratory examination of the samples. It is envisaged to be centred around the activities at the anglers Club at Black River, where some 400 to 500 marl ins are landed annually and to be a cooperative exercise with a specialist overseas institution (possibly the Marine Biology Department of the University of South Carolina).

The staff allocation should be a Technical Officer (1) with the overall responsibility being assigned to the Scientific Officer In the Regional Tuna Study referred to earlier.

Banks Fisheries Investigation

The banks fisheries presently involve about 9 to 12 vessels based from Mauritius and landing 2,828 tonnes (wet weight In 1984.) Nearly 47 percent of the catch Is from the Nazareth Bank and 35 percent from the Saya de Malha Bank. The remainder comes from St. Brandon and the Chagos Banks, An additional 800 tonnes is landed In Reunion from the Saya de Malha Bank. The fisheries white paper refers to landings in Mauritius attaining 6,000 tonnes with the next 5 years.

A stock assessment undertaken largely by IFREMER scientists in Reunion has indicated that the fish resources at the Saya de Malha Bank are fully exploited. No similar work is being undertaken for the other banks. Having In mind the Importance of the banks fisheries, particularly to Mauritius, a biology/stock assessment study Is highly Justified. This would require the involvement of a Scientific Officer (1), two Field Assistants (2) plus the part tine use of another Field Assistant (1/2).

Many of the data would derive from at-sea sampling abroad the commercial vessels. Catch, effort and Information concerning the fishing locations would also be required from the skippers at the point of landing. The duration of the Investigation should be three years.

Lagoon Eco-system Investigation

The lagoon is a multi-use resource subject to change from effluent discharge, the removal of sand and coral, land reclamation, recreational use, fishing and many other causes. It is highly valuable and should be managed accordingly. It Is also highly vulnerable. As an initial task there should be an Investigation to describe the present characteristics of the lagoon, as a "base-line" against which future changes can be measured. Such a study would also be useful in Identifying the need for follow-up investigations and actions.

A multi-disciplinary team should be established and Include three expatriates to be sought through an aid organization (UNEP or UNESCO), with three Scientific Officers (3) assigned as counterparts. They would require support from four Field Assistants (4), Including two for the laboratory work (?) One of the expatriates should be responsible for studying the physico/chemical characteristics of the lagoon water, another should be responsible for micro-organism studies (phyto/zoo plankton) and the other for fish and shellfish studies. The duration of the Investigation should be two to three years.

Such a study would be enhanced by the Inclusion of a Scientific Officer perhaps temporarily seconded from another Ministry to undertake an Inventory of the sand and coral resources.

Marine Shrimp Studies and Culture

Studies commenced In 1983 have established the local availability of species suitable for culture, including the preferred Penaeus monodon . Early success with artificial rearing nas led to a request for Japanese aid to establish a hatchery adjacent to the Albion centre, It Is envisaged that the facility should produce 2.5 million Juvenile shrimps annually This work Is seen as a necessary precursor to deciding whether to encourage private sector investment In commercial shrimp culture.

If the culture facility eventuates there will be an associated requirement for a substantial number of additional staff. Presently the Japanese expert supervising the investigations (Dr. Enomoto) Is assisted by two couterparts. A Scientific Officer (1) has been Involved directly with the studies on shrimp, while a Technical Officer (1) has been involved in plankton studies and the creation of a plankton culture unit. The Importance of the latter relates to the use of plankton as food for the larval shrimp.

Construction of the facility Is expected to take one year and cost the equivalent of US$ 5 million At this time, the staff requirements Mil be for two Scientific Officer (2), one senior Technical Officer (1), two Field Assistant (2). Including one for laboratory work (l) a Stores Officer (1) and up to three Tradesmen (3), six watchmen (6), ten Nurserymen (10) and four Drivers (4). These are in addition to the Japanese expert and Include the Scientific Officer and Technical Officer positions mentioned earlier. Someone to engage in disease-related studies may be required at a later time-Emphasis is Initially to be directed to testing the feasibility of shrimp culture and to providing Juveniles to Interested commercial growers. In the event of a commercial culture industry becoming established and producing Its own supplies, the emphasis would change to testing alternative culture methods, studies on disease control and the development of Improved diets Also at the earliest opportunity substantive investigations on the culture of alternative species (oysters, fish) would commence

4. IMPLEMENTATION


Structure
Relationship with the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Natural Resources


Structure

There are two Mays In which the recommended research programme could be organized, at least In theory. One Is to create a Marine Resources Research Centre with initial functions limited to the living resources programme. The alternative Is to reorganize the research programme of the Fisheries Research and Development Division, preferably In conjunction with a more general reorganization of the Fisheries Division.

In both cases, the research effort would be conducted by sections, each headed by a divisional Scientific Officer. This Is considered essential for providing an adequate spread of responsibility for the supervision of staff performance and a greater range of promotional opportunities for the scientific staff.

The Scientific Officers would be responsible to the Divisional Scientific Officers and directly Involved in the conduct of the individual (or groups of) projects. They would be supported by the Technical Officers, Field Assistants and others (The rights of authorship of publications would normally be with the Scientific Officers, but this should not preclude authorship by a Technical Officer when the latter is the major contributor to the work.)

The numbers and types of staff required to undertake the Work Programme within a Marine Resources Research Centre are given In Table 1 - Nineteen relate directly to the mariculture hatchery under consideration by JICA. Another six positions are associated with the Lagoon Ecosystem Investigation. Many of the remainder relate to providing an aquate structure (e g. Divisional Scientific Officers) and support In respect to existing projects (e.g. the Scientific Officer [Mathematician] Programmer), Librarian, Field Assistants).

What is not adquably catered for In these calculations, however, is the administrative staff. The Albion Centre now receives essentially free administrative services from the Fisheries Division in Port Louis (which also administers the Fisheries Protection Service). A separate Marine Resources Research Centre would have to provide Its own administration. This would not be necessary If the Division were re-organised into a fisheries department.

Besides the cost of administration, there Is bound to be a certain duplication of functions if the new entity is established and this would Increase the new staff requirements for the Marine Resources Research Centre, but not for the fisheries department.

The additional staff requirements, over those believed to be available for transfer from the Fisheries Research and Development Division Is 26 persons. The annual cost (salaries and extra remuneration) for these staff would be approximately Rs. 750,000. This might reach nearly Rs. 1,000,000 when the extra administrative staff for the Marine Resources Research Centre are added.

The additional staff requirements to re-organise into a fisheries department is 23 persons (Table 2L which includes six additional posts oh the management and development side.

In the event that there are no additional staff forthcoming, then presumably the establishment of the mariculture hatchery and the Lagoon Ecosystem Investigation should not proceed. Alternatively If these were to be assigned priority over all other marine activities with the Fisheries Research and Development Division, then almost all other research and development activities would have to cease.

Relationship with the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Natural Resources

If a Marine Resources Research Centre Is created. It will have to be an inter-ministerial undertaking. Although the recommended research programme Is primarily of interest to fisheries, the non-living resources (energy, minerals) which have been mentioned in support of the Centre go far beyond the competence of the Ministry of Agriculture, If the Centre is an Inter-ministerial body, the present Ministry will not be able to direct Its programme nor share Its human and technical resources as it now does. This would have Important consequences for the Ministry of Agriculture's work in fisheries.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources contains an Administration Unit, the Fisheries Protection Service and the Fisheries Research and Development Division. It has the political responsibility for fisheries matters and the more specific tasks of fisheries management development, protection and research.

The Albion Fisheries Research Centre Is a component of the Fisheries Research and Development Division. It consists of a substantial office, laboratory and hatchery complex situated on the seafront at Albion. Much of the work programme described earlier Is already being implemented at Albion. The mariculture hatchery proposal presently under consideration envisages this hatchery also being located at the site.

The Albion Centre Is central to most of the Ministry's fisheries functions. Its facilities are used not only for research, but also for development activities, especially in aquaculture. The staff of Albion Is a major source of expertise for policy formulation, fisheries management and development.

If the Marine Resources Research Centre Is created. It would necessarily take over the Albion Centre since that Is the only marine research facility In Mauritius. The scientific staff who are already conducting the Fisheries research programme would naturally go with the Albion centre.

The consequences of moving fisheries research into a Marine Resources Research Centre will be in the main negative, both for the research effort and for the other areas of fisheries administration. Most of the recomended research Is complementary to development projects, without common direction of both research and development activities, the research is likely to lose it focus and its utility.

In the area of aquaculture, the two simply cannot be separated. There is a steady progression of research from breeding through to fish farm management. Breeding activities which are initially experimental become part of the production process once they are perfected. Since the physical facilities remain the same. It Is not very practical to divide the research and development functions between different organizations.

The Ministry will lose more than Just research results if the Albion Centre is transferred. It will also lose the ready access to scientific advice that It now enjoys. (ills advice is essential to policy formulation and to the management and development functions. The Consultant recommends that these functions should be enhanced, as previous consultants nave also recommended . This would Increase the need for scientific advice.

Since the Ministry cannot really operate without a scientific staff, it would have to recreate a basic scientific capacity If It lost the Albion Centre. This would be costly, requiring both staf and facilities.

If, as suggested, fisheries research remains with the Ministry, the ideal organizational structure Is that of a fisheries department In which research, management (Including fisheries protection) and development are united under a single command. An organization chart and a list of staffing needs for such a department are presented in Figure 1 and Table 2. The duties and qualifications for many of the staff positions mentioned are given in the Appendices 1 and 2.

5. CONCLUDING COMMENTS

The priority marine resources research and development required during the next several years concerns fisheries, mariculture and environmental studies. Most of these activities are already being undertaken within the Fisheries Research and Development Division. The facilities available to this Division, principally at the Albion Fisheries Research Centre, are reasonably substantial, if an autonomous Marine Resources Research Centre Is to be established, this would Involve caking over Albion. There could be no Justification, for constructing new facilities. Also. (unlike the Sugar Research Institute) the government treasury would still remain the major source of financing. Hence, the establishment of the Marine Resources Research Centre would not add to research capability In Mauritius but It would diminish the Ministry of Agriculture's ability to perform its other functions.

In the circumstances, the proposal to establish a Marine Resources Research Centre Is not Justified. A preferable arrangement is identified (Figure 1), in which the research and development Is done within a fisheries department type of structure, which also Includes the functions of enforcement and licensing.

Apart: from having the functions administered through a single entity (a fisheries department), this arrangement seeks to achieve a more adequate sharing of responsibility for staff performance and control through the creation of positions for a Principal Fisheries Officer and two additional Divisional Scientific Officers.

The arrangement also seeks to recognise the current responsibilities of the Chief Fisheries Protection Officer by elevation to the equivalence of the Divisional Scientific Officers. An associated improvement In the status of the other staff within the Fisheries Protection Service Is also suggested. The question of whether additional staff were Justified within the Service was not examined by the Consultant.

In the event of a fisheries department type structure being established, consideration would also need to be given to Its linkage with the proposed Marine Nature Reserve Board (referred to in the white Paper for a National Conservation Strategy 1 July 1985). The Consultant believes the function of a marine reserves management should be with a fisheries department.

Ultimately, If this work Involves a substantial number of staff, a marine reserves section could be created, headed by a Divisional Scientific Officer responsible to the principal Fisheries Officer. The latter would presumably be a member of the Board, whose function is envisaged as being largely advisory. In the event that neither the Marine Resources Research Centre nor the fisheries department comes Into being, there will still be a substantial and urgent need for action to improve the performance of the present Fisheries Research and Development Division. This would involve the acceptance of a reasonable work programme (more staff and/or less projects), the clear allocation of responsibilities amongst the staff, improvements in the organisational structure and various personnel arrangements.

TABLE 1 - LOCAL STAFF REQUIREMENTS TO IMPLEMENT THE WORK PROGRAMME (within the proposed Marine Resources Research Centre)

Directing Staff

1

Research Director

(-)

Scientific Staff

2

Divisional Scientific Officers


10

Scientific Officers

(2)

1

Senior Technical Officer

(1)

2

Technical Officers

(5)

Scientific Support Staff

1

Senior Field Assistant

(1)

10

Field Assistants

(3)

1

Librarian

(-)

Hatchery Staff

1

Head Nurseryman

(1)

8

Nurserymen

(6)

General Services Staff

1

Executive Officer

(1)

1

Storeman

(-)

1

Office Attendant

(1)

1

Typist

(1)

1

Telephonist

(-)

6

Drivers

(5)

Other Support Staff

8

watchmen

(4)

3

Tradesmen

(2)

8

Labourers

(8)

67

TOTALS

(41)

Note

1. The figures in brackets are the numbers of staff positions existing In the Fisheries Ministry that might be expected to be transferred If the Marine Resources Research Centre were to be established.

2. The 10 Scientific Officer positions include the nine Identified earlier as needed to implement the Work Programme plus the Scientific Officer (Mathematician/Programmer) identified in Figure 1. The latter would serve to provide specialist technical support to the other staff.

TABLE 2 - LOCAL STAFF REQUIREMENTS TO IMPLEMENT THE WORK PROGRAMME (within a Fisheries Department type organisation)

Directing Staff

1

Principal Fisheries Officer

(-)

Scientific Staff

5

Divisional Scientific Officers

(1)

13

Scientific Officers

(6)

1

Senior Technical Officer

(1)

9

Technical Officers

(12)

Scientific Support Staff

1

Senior Field Assistant

(1)

11

Field Assistants

(4)

1

Librarian

(-)

Hatchery Staff

2

Head Nurserymen

(2)

17

Nurserymen

(15)

Research Vessel Staff

2

Skippers (coxswains)

(2)

3

Marine Engineers

(3)

-

Boatswain

(1)

2

Artificers

(2)

6

Deckhands/fishermen

(6)

Fishermen Training Staff

4

Assistant Instructors

(-)

Fisheries Protection Service Staff

1

Chief Fisheries Protection Officer

(1)

2

Senior Fisheries Protection Officers

(2)

12

Fisheries Protection Officers

(12)

36

Senior Fisheries Assistants

(36)

155

Fisheries Assistants

(155)

5

Clerical Assistants

(5)

Administration Services Staff

1

Executive Officer

(1)

2

Clerical Assistants

(1)

2

Typists

(2)

2

Telephonist

(1)

12

Drivers

(11)

Other Support Staff

2

Storemen

(1)

1

Assistant Storeman

(1)

1

Laboratory Attendant

(1)

14

Watchmen

(14)

10

Tradesmen

(10)

54

Labourers

(54)

1

Works Overseer

(1)

1

Gangman

(1)

389

TOTAL STAFF

(366)

Notes

1. The figures in brackets are the numbers of staff positions now existing (with others) in the Fisheries Ministry.

2. Amongst the 11 Field Assistants, four are envisaged as undertaking laboratory type of work.

3. The three Marine Engineers are presently shared with the Albion Centre and the La Ferine Fish Farm.

4. The Boatswain position is now redundant following the sale of the R/V INVESTIGATOR.

5. The four Assistant Instructors Include two persons from the Rodrigues administration, as well as a Field Assistant and Fisheries Assistant (from the Fisheries Protection Service). The latter two are accounted for elsewhere In the Table.

6. Should fishermen training be envisaged as a continuing function, the possibility of a career in this work will need to be provided. One approach might be to create the staff classifications of Assistant Instructor and Instructor, neither of which presently exist in the Public Service.

7. The demonstration boat to be used by the Mobile Fishermen Training School has now been built. It will need to be decided whether the boat Is to be operated by present staff, or if an additional Skipper and Artificer is to be provided. No provision for additional staff has been made In the Table.

8. Those employed as Nurserymen generally have a background of fishing experience, to enable their use as fishermen when required. It might be useful to reflect this through establishing a new classification Nurseryman/Fisherman.

9. Included In the 155 Fisheries Assistants are eight who function as statistics enumerators. These outposted staff are supervised by Senior Fisheries Assistants.

10. The status of the staff In the Fisheries Protection Service Is depressed. They receive substantially lower salaries than those doing similar work within the Public Service. The Chief Fisheries Protection Officer receives less salary than a Scientific Officer. These matters need urgent examination.

APPENDIX 1 - STATEMENTS OF DUTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS (direction, research and development)

Post: Principal Fisheries Officer

Qualifications: By promotion on the basis of experience and merit of an officer from the grade of Divisional Scientific Officer (Fisheries) having at least 4 years experience In the grade, or an alternative qualification acceptable to the Public Service Commission.

Duties:

1. To be the Chief profession advisor to the Ministry on all matters connected with fisheries, mariculture, marine conservation and environment.

2. To be responsible to the Principal Secretary for the execution of approved policies and the administration, planning and execution of the work and the performance of the staff of the Fisheries division.

3. To perform other cognate duties.

Post: Divisional Scientific Officer (Fisheries)

Qualifications: By promotion, on the basis of experience and merit, of an officer of the grade of Scientific Officer (Fisheries) reckoning at least four years service in the grade.

Duties:

1. To be responsible to the Principal Fisheries Officer for the administration, planning and execution of the work and the performance of staff. In an allocated fisheries research, aquaculture, development conservation or management branch of the Fisheries Division.

2. To perform other cognate duties.

Post: Scientific Officer (Fisheries)

Qualification: A degree in Marine Biology, Zoology, Biology, Micro-Biology, Fisheries science or Fisheries Technology or an alternative qualification acceptable to the Public Service Commission.

Duties:

1. To be responsible to the appropriate Divisional Scientific Officer (Fisheries) for the execution of any fisheries research and development projects placed under his/her Immediate control, experiments or extension work and for the improvement of fisheries production.

2. To perform other cognate duties.

Post: Senior Technical Officer (Fisheries)

Qualifications: By promotion, on the basis of experience and merit, of officers from the grade of Technical Officer having at least 4 years service In the grade.

Duties:

1. To be responsible to the appropriate divisional Scientific Officer (Fisheries) for the efficient discharge of duties connected with research, extension, regulatory, direction and other services.

2. To be responsible for day to day management of a research centre/station.

3. To perform other cognate duties as may be assigned.

Post: Technical Officer (Fisheries)

Qualifications: A diploma in Fishery Science including Fisheries Biology, Fisheries Management, Fisheries Economics, Fish Processing, Fishing Gear Technology from a recognised Institution or an alternative qualification acceptable to the Public Service Commission.

Preference will be given to candidates who. In addition, have passes In Mathematics and one science subject at the General Certificate of Education (Advanced level) examination or possess an alternative qualification acceptable to the Public Service Commission.

Duties:

1. To perform under the direction of Scientific Officers, work connected with research and extension.
2. To supervise the work of subordinate staff Including Field Assistants (Fisheries).
3. To go to sea on research vessels, as and when required.
4. To perform other cognate duties as may be assigned.

Note: Technical Officers (Fisheries) may be required to work on Sundays and public holidays.

Post: Senior Field Assistants (Fisheries)

Qualifications: By promotion, on the basis of experience and merit, of officers from the grade of Field Assistant (Fisheries) reckoning at least 4 years service in the grade.

Duties:

1. To be responsible for the supervision and coordination of the work of Field Assistants (Fisheries).

2. To assist Scientific and Technical Officers In the management of experimental stations and extension work In aquaculture.

3. To assist Scientific and Technical Officers In experimental work on fishing and research vessels.

4. To perform other cognate duties as may be assigned.

Note: Senior Field Assistants (Fisheries) may be required to work on Sundays and public holidays.

Post: Field Assistant (Fisheries)

Qualifications: At least the Cambridge School Certificate with credit in five subjects including English language. Mathematics, Biology and Chemistry or an alternative qualification acceptable to the Public Service Commision.

Note: Experience In field work, laboratory work and in the processing of statistical data will be an advantage.

Duties:

1. To assist the Scientific Officers and Technical Officers in research and extension work, including laboratory work and/or experimental work on fishing and research vessels.

2. To supervise subordinate staff.

3. To perform other cognate duties as may be assigned.

Note: Field Assistants (Fisheries) may be required to work on Sundays and public holidays.

APPENDIX 2 - STATEMENTS OF DUTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS (Fisheries Protection Service)

Post: Chief Fisheries Protection Officer

Qualifications: Promotion on the basis of experience and merit from the grade of Senior Fisheries Protection Officer.

Duties:

1. To be responsible to the Principal Fisheries Officer for the planning administration and control of the Fisheries Protection Section In order to enforce with maximum efficiency the Fisheries Laws and Regulations.

2. To carry out such other cognate duties In connection with fisheries protect ton as may be assigned.

Post: Senior Fisheries Protection Officer

Qualifications: Promotion on the basis of experience and merit from the grade of Fisheries Protection Officer.

Duties:

1. To be responsible to the Chief Fisheries Protection Officer to take charge of a specific area. Including Rodrigues, for the enforcement of Fisheries Laws and Regulations.

2. To supervise the work of the subordinate officers In the area.

3. To Issue permits In accordance with Fisheries Laws and Regulations.

4. To carry out such other cognate duties as may be assigned.

Post: Fisheries Protection Officer

Qualifications: Promotion on the basis of experience and merit from the grade of Senior Fisheries Assistant reckoning at least 4 years service In the grade.

Duties:

1. To be responsible to the appropriate Senior Fisheries Protection Officer for a certain number of Fisheries posts.

2. To carry out enquiries, prepare case files and prosecute offenders against the Fisheries Laws and Regulations before Court.

3. To carry out such other cognate duties as may be assigned.

Post: Senior Fisheries Assistant

Qualifications: by promotion on the basis of experience and merit, of officers from the grade of Fisheries Assistant reckoning at least 4 years service In the grade.

Duties:

1. To be responsible to a Fisheries Protection Officer for being in charge of a Fisheries Post and to control fish landing stations.

2. To be responsible for the registration of fishing boats and fishermen.

3. To patrol on land and at sea and to enforce Fisheries Laws and Regulations.

4. To drive official vehicles and patrol boats, as and when necessary. 5. To perform such other cognate duties as may be assigned.

Note: Senior Fisheries Assistants will be required to cover a 24-hour service Including Sundays and public holidays, on a shift system.

Post: Fisheries Assistant

Qualifications:

1. As a minimum Cambridge School Certificate or an alternative qualification acceptable to the Public Service Commission.

2. A good physique. Minimum physical requirements:

Height: 5 feed 7 Inches
Chest : 35 Inches (normal inspiration)

Note:

(a) Selected candidates will be required to undergo a training course in self defence and In the use of weapons, with the Police Force.

(b) For new entrants, confirmation in the grade will be subject to pasing a swimming test and to satisfying the requirements for the Issue of a service car and van special driving licence issued y the Commissioner of Police In accordance with General Notice No. 43 of 1946.

Duties:

1. Responsible to the Senior Fisheries Assistant to patrol on land and sea and to enforce the Fisheries Laws and Regulations.

2. To control the landing of fish and to collect statistical data on maters relating to fisheries.

3. To drive official vehicles and patrol boats when required.

4. To perform such other cognate duties as may be assigned.

Note: Fisheries Assistants will be required to cover a 24-hour service, including Sundays and public holidays, on a shift system.

Figure 1 - STRUCTURE AND STAFF REQUIREMENTS TO IMPLEMENT THE WORK PROGRAMME (within a fisheries department organization)