Assistance to Fisheries Research Institute - A Report Prepared for the "Assistance to Fisheries Research Institute"













Table of Contents


BGD/89/012

By

Dr. Md. Kamal

National Consultant on Marine Fisheries
Resource Management

FISHERIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE, MYMENSINGH
GOVERNMENT OF PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

FAO - FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Terms of Reference

2. WORK DONE

2.1. Collection of Information on Estuarine and Marine Fisheries Resources of Bangladesh and Their Utilization

2.1.1. Artisanal fishery
2.1.2. Industrial fishery
2.1.3. Marine fishery resources
2.1.4. Utilization

2.2. Technical Assistance & Strengthening of FRI

2.2.1. The scientific research programme of MFTS
2.2.2. Research priority for sustainable use of estuary, coast and sea fisheries resources
2.2.3. Formulation, initiation and implementation of research studies
2.2.4. Setting up laboratory
2.2.5. Assistance in finalization of workshop proceeding on "The Sustainable Development of Marine Fishery Resources in Bangladesh"
2.2.6. Assistance in organizing and conducting training programme

3. RECOMMENDATIONS
4. REFERENCE


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The consultant expresses his deep and sincere gratitude to Dr. V.R.P. Sinha, Senior Specialist and Team Leader of the Project for his kind cooperation, valuable suggestions, assisting in formulation and finalization of core research programmes for MFTS and overall guidance throughout the consultancy period.

The consultant wishes to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. M.A. Mazid, Director of FRI and also National Project Director for his sincere cooperation, valuable suggestion and guidance in carrying out the consultancy successfully.

Sincere thanks and gratitude are also extended to the CSO of the MFTS and other scientists for their cooperation.

December, 1994
Md. Kamal

1. INTRODUCTION


1.1. Terms of Reference


With a view to strengthening the research capability and facilities of the Fisheries Research Institute, the Government of Bangladesh with the Assistance of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been engaged in operating a Technical Assistance (TA) project on "Assistance to the Fisheries Research Institute" (BGD/89/012). As a part of the project, FAO assigned Dr. Md. Kamal as a National Consultant on Marine Fisheries Resource Management to Marine Fisheries and Technology Station (MFTS) of the Fisheries Research Institute (FRI) for twelve months from January 2, 1994 to December 31, 1994, with the following terms of reference:

1.1. Terms of Reference

- To collect and collate the information on estuarine and marine resources of the country and their utilization.

- To assist in prioritizing the research problems urgently needed for sustainable use of estuary, coast and sea fisheries resources.

- To assist counterpart scientists in formulating, initiating and implementing research studies on sea farming.

To assist in such other activities as may be required from time to time for successful implementation of the project.

- To prepare a terminal report on the work done.

Extensive field surveys at various places of Cox's Bazar and Chittagong Districts, and visits were made to many organizations/agencies to collect and collate information on the estuarine and marine fisheries resources of the country and their utilization. The places visited were St. Martin Island, Teknaf, Ukhiya, BFDC landing centre at Cox's Bazar and Chittagong, Moheshkhali, and Pathargata of Chittagong.

The information were collected mainly from Fisheries Resource Survey Systems (FRSS) of the Department of Fisheries, recently completed Marine Fisheries Research, Management and Development Project (MFRMDP) of DOF, Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP), FRI documentation centre of Mymensingh and from many published reports. Personal interview and discussions were also held with many.

The work plan was prepared in consultation with Senior Specialist, Dr. V.R.P. Sinha and National Project Director, Dr. M. A. Mazid. A review of the facilities and research programmes of MFTS was carried out through physical verification, past research records and interviews with scientists. Research problems were prioritized and formulated on the basis of the present status of marine fisheries development plan of GOB research, recommendations of the workshop held recently on marine fisheries, the institution's core functions and its research capability.

2. WORK DONE


2.1. Collection of Information on Estuarine and Marine Fisheries Resources of Bangladesh and Their Utilization
2.2. Technical Assistance & Strengthening of FRI


2.1. Collection of Information on Estuarine and Marine Fisheries Resources of Bangladesh and Their Utilization


2.1.1. Artisanal fishery
2.1.2. Industrial fishery
2.1.3. Marine fishery resources
2.1.4. Utilization


Bangladesh has a coastline of 480 km along the North and North-East part of the Bay of Bengal. It has an internal estuarine water area of 7,325 sq. nautical miles upto 10 fathom depth baseline, territorial waters of 2,640 sq. nautical miles from the baseline, EEZ of 41,040 sq. nautical miles and the continental shelf of 2,480 sq. nautical miles. The total of marine water areas is about 48,365 sq. na. miles which is almost as big as the country itself.

The marine catch increased from 95,000 tons in 1975-76 to 250480 tons in 1992-93 an increase of about 265%. This has been possible due to Government's encouragement for the introduction of a deep sea fleet of 70 trawlers (out of which 56 are in operation now) and over 6,000 mechanized boats in the Bay of Bengal. Yet, there remains much unexplored areas for development of off-shore pelagic fishing (Hussain, 1994).

The estuarine and marine capture fisheries activities of the country are consisting of mainly artisanal which is estimated to contribute about 95% of the total marine production. An analysis of the trend of marine production over the last ten years from 1983-84 to 1992-93 reveals that the production from artisanal sector has been growing rapidly than the industrial sector.

2.1.1. Artisanal fishery

Artisanal fisheries includes a number of different types of fishing gears & crafts. Some of the gears are operated by mechanized/motorized boats, but mostly with country boats (row boat/sail boat) while some are operated without any boat. These include: (i) five different types of gill nets (i.e. drift gill net, large mesh size gill net, fixed gill net, bottom set gill net and mullet gill net); (ii) three types of set bagnet (i.e. estuarine set bagnet, marine set bagnet and large mesh set bagnet); (iii) trammel net; (iv) bottom long line; (v) beach seine and (vi) many others gears scattered throughout the coast and estuaries. Out of the total production from artisanal sector, 55% is contributed by the drift net gill netters (mainly composed of hilsa) and 30% by estuarine set bagnet. The catch of the estuarine set bagnet mostly juveniles and post juveniles of fish and other aquatic animals. The fishing activities of marine artisanal sector are described below:

Table 1: Marine artisanal fisheries of Bangladesh (1988-89)

Type of Fishing

Number of unit (gear/net)

Production of

Total

Shrimp (MT)

Fish (MT)

(MT)

1) Gill net fishing


 

a) Drift gill net

6,389

--

136,469

136,469

b) Fixed gill net

c) Large mesh gill net

d) Bottom set gill net

e) Mullet gill net

2) Set bagnet fishing


 

a) Estuarine set bagnet

12,615

10,050

53,854

63,904

b) Marine set bagnet

c) Large mesh set bagnet

3) Long line fishing


 

a) Jew fish long line

2,084

--

7,129

7,129

b) Other long line

4) Trammel net fishing

500

185

2,893

3,078

5) Other fishing gears

2,222

1,976

10,372

12,348

Total artisanal

23,810

12,211

210,717

222,928

Source: Fish Catch Statistics of Bangladesh for 1988-89 (1993)

Three types of traditional fishing crafts namely Dinghi, Chandi and Balam are used in the estuarine and marine waters of Bangladesh. Balam is exclusively used in the marine inshore waters, while Dinghi and Chandi are used in both estuarine and marine inshore waters. Presently, 14,014 non-mechanized boats and 3,317 mechanized boats are reported to be operating in various fishing activities of marine artisanal sector. It is also roughly estimated that about 25-30% of the total mechanized boats engaged in fishing but are not registered with the Marine Mercantile Department of DOF.

2.1.2. Industrial fishery

Commercial exploitation by deep sea fishing trawlers started since 1972 when BFDC introduced 11 Nos of modern fishing trawlers received from the Government of U.S.S.R. as grant. Three more trawlers were procured and commissioned by BFDC in 1974. Commercial shrimping on the continental shelf of Bangladesh was explored after Mitsui Tayo survey in 1976-77 (Rashid, 1983). On a promising abundance of penaeid shrimp resources, shrimp trawling was introduced in 1978 aiming principally at the export market. The trawler fishing started gaining momentum in private sector after signing joint venture projects between Bangladesh and Thailand in 1979-80. There were about 131 trawlers including 80 Thai fleets operated in the -Bangladesh sea water in 1980-81. However, joint venture was terminated in the national interest.

The number of shrimp trawlers operating under Bangladeshi ownership increased from 8 in 1980/81 to 31 in 1985/86. But the fish trawls started getting reduced from 46 in 1983/84 to 14 in 1985/86 (Shahidullah, 1986). However, the number of fish trawls again increased to more than 20 from the following years.

In order to increase exploitation of fisheries resources the Government permitted for import of 250 trawlers in 1984. Of this, 114 arrived in the country in the same year.

There are differences in reported number of trawlers. For 1983/84 Shimura (1984) reported 31 shrimp trawlers and 64 finfish trawlers. However, the number of vessels differs considerably from those reported by White and Khan (1985) and Shaidullah (1986).

At present 30 shrimp trawlers and 19 fish trawlers are operating in the Bangladesh sea water. The fish trawlers include six public sector trawlers owned by BFDC. The overall length of shrimp trawlers varies from 20.5 m to 44.5 m and the fish trawlers range from 28.0 -70.5 m length. The engine power varies from 350 -1200 HP, but most of these are of 550-850 HP. The fish trawlers are mostly high opening bottom trawls from stern side and with cod-end, mesh size varying from 60-65 mm. The shrimp trawlers use out riggers and operates twin nets with cod-end mesh size ranging between 45 and 50 mm. The head rope length in the trawler fleet varies from 18 to 32 m. Almost all the vessels are equipped with modern facilities (Rahman and Khan, 1993).

2.1.3. Marine fishery resources

Resource Survey:

Very few oceanographic research appears to have been carried out in the northern Bay of Bengal. Data on the organic productivity is not available as no surveys were made to determine the productivity of Bangladesh coast. The Central Marine Fisheries Research- -Institute (C.M.F.R.I.) of India studied on primary productivity in the inshore water of Gulf of Myanmar and Palk Bay. The reports of the "Galathea" Expedition and the International Indian Ocean Expedition also dealt with the primary productivity in the Bay of Bengal. The production rate was found to be on the average 0. 19gc/m2/day in the deeper part while the shelf area showed a higher productivity rate of 0.63 gc/m2/day and net organic productivity was estimated at 15 million tones of carbon and the potential fish yields over 0.6 million tones. Therefore it is essential to know the productivity of Bangladesh marine water.

Since 1958 several surveys have been undertaken to evaluate the abundance and promote the exploitation of the marine fishery resources of Bangladesh. Among the surveys that have been conducted the most comprehensive one was the UNSF/PAK-22 Project conducted by BFDC in collaboration with FAO/UNDP (1968-71). The survey covered an area of about 26000 km2. As a result of these surveys four major fishing grounds were established. Most of the other surveys aimed mainly at commercial exploitation but very few of them carried out shrimp survey. However, several reports are available on the standing stock of penaeid shrimp, but there are large variations in the estimates, ranging between 1,000 and 9000 tons. Some authors have even reported a standing stock of 2000-4000 tons, but this figure is also not beyond controversy. Khan et al. (1989) have estimated the MSY of shrimp stock within the range of 7,000 to 8,000 tons up to 10 m depth.

Surveys on demersal resources so far conducted give several different estimates of demersal fishery biomass. West (1973) estimated the standing stock of demersal fish in the Bangladesh continental shelf at 264000-373000 tons and a potential yields of 175000 tons. Penn (1982-83) studied the landing of commercial trawlers and evaluated the standing stock of demersal fish ranging from 39000 to 54900 tons. This estimate of demersal fish stocks refered to the area where the shrimp trawlers were operating between 15 and 60 m depth approximately.

The result of three recent demersal stock assessment surveys carried out at the exploited phase, however, are quite closer. Firstly, the R.V. Dr. Frdtjof Nansen Survey during the 1979-80 reported a stock of 1,60,000 tons (Saetre 1981). But the R.V. Anusandani survey during 1981-83 reported a standing stock of 1,52,000 tons (Khan, 1983). The third survey by the same vessel (R.V. Anusandani) during 1984-86 estimated a standing stock of 1,57/000 tons (Lamboeuf, 1987). He has estimated the MSY of demersal fish as 40,000 - 55,000 tons at an exploited phase which includes resources of shallower water zone of up to 10 m depth.

There is much controversy about the stock of pelagic fishery resources within the EEZ of Bangladesh. To date it has not been possible to assess the pelagic resources (Rahman and Khan, 1993).

Catch monitoring and assessment:

Fisheries Resource Survey Systems (FRSS) of DOF has the function of collecting and compiling fishery statistics. But quantitatively and qualitatively these statistics are far from satisfactory.

In each district, the resource survey component of DOF appointed one survey officer, reporting through District Fishery Officers (DFO) who collects catch and effort data of different fishing gears. They provide all information to the FRSS to compile the official fishery statistics. Catch and effort are sampled by gear type and species are collected mostly from some selected landing sites in each district. The survey officer visits landing sites in the district. The data are recorded in a proforma and statistics are being collected on 11 species or species groups for marine artisanal fisheries: hilsa, Bombay duck, Indian salmon, pomfret, sharks and rays, jewfish, snapper, mackerel, large and small shrimp and miscellaneous fish. Catches are recorded in weight (kg). Other data collected include the number of fishermen on board type of gear, number of days per trip, number of trips in the preceding fortnight, number of days at sea during the period and the number of set bagnets. The survey officer also counts the number of boats landing on the day that he visits the landing site.

In the marine industrial fisheries (trawlers) sector, catch and effort data are collected from commercial trawlers for the four commercially important shrimp species and total catch of the finfish in tons.

The trend of fish landing from artisanal and industrial fisheries from 1983-84 to 1992-93 is presented below in Table-2.

Table 2. The table showing the trend of fish landing from artisanal and industrial fisheries

Year

PRODUCTION (tons)

Industrial fishing (trawling)

Artisanal fishing

1983-84

14,500

1,50,382

1984-85

12,440

1,75,123

1985-86

11,890

1,95,503

1986-87

12,356

2,05,223

1987-88

10,395

2,17,187

1988-89

10,379

2,22,684

1989-90

11,353

2,27,928

1990-91

8,760

2,32,778

1991-92

12,308

2,36,881

1992-93

12,800

2,43,988

Source: Bengali bulletin on Fisheries Forthnight 1993.

Major Shrimp Species Exploited:

Bangladesh off shore commercial trawl fishery have developed on the basis of the valuable exportable penaeid shrimp resources. A total of 25 species of shrimps have so far been identified from the marine waters of Bangladesh. Ten commercial shrimp species are exploited in various fishing methods which are presented in Table 3 below:

Table: 3. The commercial estuarine and marine shrimp species of Bangladesh

Species

Common name (English)

Local name (Bengali)

Availability (Month)

Maximum length (mm)

1. Penaeus monodon

Giant tiger

Bagda chingri

Feb. and Aug.

305

2. P. semisulcatus

Green tiger shrimp

Bagda chingri

May

228

3. P. japonicus

Kuruma shrimp

Bagda chingri

--

225

4. P. indicus

Indian or white shrimp

Chaga chingri

July to Oct.

228

5. P. merguiensis

Banana or blue tail shrimp

Bhaga chama

Jan., Mar. And July

240

6. Metapenaeus monoceros

sand or brown shrimp

Loillah chingri

Jan. to Nov.

195

7. M. brevicornis

Brown shrimp

Honne chingri

Round the year

130

8. M. spinulatus

Brown shrimp

Korani chingri

May to Nov.

--

9. Parapenaeopsis sculptilis

Pink shrimp

Ruda chingri

Round the year

170

10. P. stylifera

Pink shrimp

Ruda chingri

Round the year

145

Source = Hussain (1982); Khan et al. (1988) and Rahman and Khan (1993).

The most commercially important species are giant tiger, tiger, white, brown and pink shrimp. Among them giant tiger shrimp (Penaeous monodon) is the most valuable and targeted species. Brown shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros) contributes the total highest production of about 63%. The various species composition as recorded by FRSS since 1981/82 shows that the percentage of white shrimp has declined considerably, while the percentage of brown and small shrimp categories have increased. Similar reports on the changes in shrimp composition in trawl catch are also available (Penn, 1982; Rashid, 1983; Van Zalinge, 1986 and Shahidullah, 1986). Under the present situation the penaeid shrimps as a whole did not show any declining trend. The tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon did however show a decline in the catch rate to some extent, although not alarming, but deserves serious management care.

Six species of lobsters were identified and out of these only Panulirus polyphagus and Scyllarus nearctus are found on commercial scale.

Major fish species:

A total of 475 species of fish belonging to 133 families have so far been identified from the marine waters of Bangladesh (Hussain, 1970). A quantitative estimation of the catch on species wise is not available. The major fish species are catfish, pomfret, grunter, Indian salmon, snapper, jew fish, mackerel, goat fish, threadfin bream, lizard fish, ribbon fish, hairtail species, ponny fishes, sharks, skates and rays, mixed small fishes etc. (BOBP, 1980; Lamboeuf, 1987; Khan et al., 1989).

By-catch:

By-catch (non-target species) include landed by-catch and discards. A significant proportion of these occur in the shrimp fishery. By-catch comprises 80-90% of the catch volume in the shrimp fisheries. Currently more than 30 shrimp trawlers and 20 mixed/fish trawlers are in operation in addition to some trawlers from neighboring country illegally exploiting shrimp and some selected high commercial value fish species in the EEZ of Bangladesh. According to the Bangladesh Development Corporation (BFDC) sources, the post-harvest losses from discard by the Bangladeshi trawlers are roughly estimated to be 30,000 -40,000 MT per year. According to the BOBP (1991) everything but shrimp less than 20 cm are discarded by the shrimp trawlers. The species composition of shrimp by-catch which have limited value in the fresh market are presented in the Table 4.

Table 4: Species composition of shrimp by-catch.

Species

Scientific name (family)

Composition (%)

1. Catfish

Ariidae

25.1

2. Lizardfish

Synodontidae

23.2

3. Silver belly (ponyfish)

Leognathidae

18.3

4. Jewfish (croaker)

Sciaenidae

8.9

5. Hardtail scad

Carangidae

5.1

6. Solefish

Cynoglossidae

3.8

7. Threadfin bream

Nemipteridae

3.0

8. Goatfish

Mullidae

2.3

9. Squid & cuttlefish

Sepiidae/Ommastrephidae

2.2

10. Shad

Clupeidae

2.2

11. Miscellaneous

-

5.9



100.0

Source: INFOFISH MARKETING DIGEST NO 5/86

Unexploited/under Exploited Species:

Other than species mentioned above a number of important species available in the marine water of Bangladesh are either not exploited or exploited only as by-catch of the existing bottom trawl, shrimp trawl or gill net fisheries. There is a strong and continuous competition in the demersal trawling and shrimp trawling industry within 100 m depth of water, as well as in the traditional artisanal fishing operations, the other areas such as the offshore area beyond 100 m depth as well as surface area beyond 40 m depth are not at present being harvested. Various exploratory survey and research information reveals that considerable resources are available for the harvesting in those areas, particularly the pelagic resources, small and large e.g. mackerels, tuna, skipjack, sharks, anchovies, sardines, cephalopods and many others. Proper planning and serious attention of concerned agencies are lacking to evolve most effective means of exploitation on sustainable basis.

Seaweeds:

Seaweeds are sedentary macrophytes growing mostly on rocks and other plants in the inter-tidal and sub-tidal environment. In Bangladesh, the natural abundance of commonly cultured tropical seaweeds of commercially important species is reported to be very low. Only small portion of the south-eastern part of the mainland covering only 30 km of the coast line in Ukiya and Teknaf and another off-shore island, St. martin island have got rocky substratum and are suitable for naturally growing sea weeds.

Some taxononomical studies conducted on the seaweeds in these areas are available (Islam 1976; Islam and Aziz, 1982). The major groups of natural growing seaweeds in St. martin island representing 20-22 species so far were identified. They are red seaweed type, in which the genus Hypnea is dominant in terms of quantity (Sarker, 1992). It is also reported that identification up to species level for most of the seaweeds is yet to be done. Seaweed resources in different months of the year from the St. Martin Islands of Bangladesh is listed below in the Table 5.

Table 5: Status of seaweed resources in Bangladesh.

Species

Abundance in different months

Sl.

Scientific name

Type

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr

1.

Actinotrichia fragilis

RSW

+

+

+



2.

Asperogapsis taxiformes

RSW


+

++

++

+

3.

Calliblepharis sp.

RSW

++

+



+

4.

Caulerpa sp.

RSW

+

+

+

+

+

5.

Ceramium sp.

RSW

+


+

+

+

6.

Chrysymenia sp.

RSW


+

+

+

+

7.

Cthonoplastis sp.

RSW

+

++

++

++

++

8.

Dictyota sp.

BSW

+

+

+


+

9.

Eucheuma sp.

RSW


+




10.

Galauxara sp.

RSW

+

+



+

11.

Halymenia sp.

RSW


+

+

+

+

12.

Hydroclathara sp.

BSW

++

+

+

+

+

13.

Hypnea sp (a)

RSW


+

+

++

++

14.

Hypnea sp (b)

RSW


++

+++

+++

+++

15.

Hypnea sp (c)

RSW


++

+++

+++

+++

16.

Hypnea sp (d)

RSW


+

++

++

++

17.

Liagora sp

RSW

+

+



+

18.

Lobophara sp.


+

+

+

+

+

19.

Padina sp.

BSW

+

+

+

+

+

20.

Sargassum (2 sp).

BSW


++

++

++

++

21.

Scinnaia complanta

RSW

+

+



+

22.

Vanvorstrea coccinea

RSW

+





Source: Sarker (1992)

RSW = Red Seaweeds
BSW = Brown Seaweeds

+ Normally available
++ Moderately available
+++ Commercially available

The information on growing season and collection of seaweeds from natural source were obtained through interview with a cross section of people in St. Martin island and from some recent available reports. The seaweed mostly Hypnea species are collected for commercial purpose only during three months from February to April particularly when wind action is comparatively high.

In St. Martin Island about 100 people mostly fishermen in addition to their normal fishing, children and women are engaged in collecting seaweeds manually by hand or using nets like push net during low tide hour. The weeds are dried in the sun on the open sandy beach. It takes 3-4 days to dry and make it marketable product. About 40-80 kg seaweeds are collected a day (dry weight basis) per person depending on the abundance. The hired women are paid only. 10 (ten) taka i.e. 0.25 US$ a day with free food.

As there is no industrial set up for processing seaweeds into various value added products, the collected materials are sold to the middle man or brokers at the coast of 80-100 taka per 40 kg dried seaweeds. It has been estimated that about 200 tones of dried seaweeds are disposed from Bangladesh to Myanmar through various marketing intermediary channel and the products are reported to be consumed in Myanmar.

Seaweeds are hot cultured in Bangladesh. It is labour intensive activity and often a full-time occupation suitable for the small scale artisanal fishery of Bangladesh for its cheap labours. The present review of the status of seaweed shows that the degree of success of culture will depend on identification of potential culture area, physiology and genetics of the species concerned and their agar quality and food value for human consumption; production technology and processing.

Molluscs:

Molluscs having varieties of forms, structure, habit and habitat are available in the country. They include clamps, oysters, scallops, the snails, slugs and the chiton, squids, octopuses and some others. A systematic survey on the marine mollusc of the Bangladesh identified a total of 301 species (Ahmed, 1990).

Clam:

There are two types of clam available in the coastal water of Bangladesh-blood clam and thick shelled clam. The blood clam (Anadara spp) is generally used for animal feed, shell handicraft and lime production in domestic market. Blood clam has a solid well ridged shell usually with hairy coating. The term "blood clam" comes from the red colouration of the tissue which is due to haemoglobin in the tissue and fluid. While the thick shelled clam (Meretrix meretrix) is a non-pigmented species and is reported to be seen in local markets of Cox's Bazar.

Anadara spp is reported to be found in inter-tidal, mangrove areas but can also inhabit deeper waters up to 10 m depth (Pagatipunan, 1982). Two species of blood clams, A. granosa and A. rhombea, were reported to be identified by Alam and Sarker (1988) in the channel between Sonadia and Moheshkhali estuary at the mouth of Bakkhali river of Cox's Bazar and shore line areas at the Naf River at Sabrung and Jaliapara. The thick shelled clam Meretrix meretrix were reportedly inhabiting in the estuary and marine waters of Bangladesh. The highest concentration was reported in the estuaries of Bakkhali, Resu and Naf river. These clams were buried 2-5 cm in fine sandy inter-tidal areas.

Harvesting of wild blood clam and thick shelled clams probably has a long history. However, data are available only from the survey made by Pagatipunam (1982). The blood clam was reported to be the only bivalve shellfish species exported from Bangladesh. The cultural practices of these two clams is unknown in the Bay of Bengal region outside of Thailand. The present production is entirely from the wild stock. The production figure in Bangladesh is still scanty, however, the annual production is roughly estimated to be 80-100 tons. The suitable cultural potential area is reported to be Bakkhali river estuary and Sonadia-Moheskhali channel. Jaliapara cove and Badar Mokam at Teknaf which are said to be a natural bed for Anadara spp.

Edible Oyster:

The culture of edible oyster is extensively practiced throughout the world and there has been increasing interest in oyster culture in the topics. The main steps include sea bed culture on suitable substrate, suspended culture from floating rafts and bottom tray culture. The oyster is planktonic feeder and no supplementary feeds are required for the culture.

The most desirable species available for the culture are the larger forms in the genera Crassostrea and smaller species Saccostrea cucullata. These are sedentary animals that grows on gravel, rocks, tree root and hard object in the intertidal zone and exposed to air at low tide. The natural abundance with highest concentration are in Cox's Bazar and Teknaf areas (Pagcatipunan, 1982). The important sites for natural abundance include: (i) Sonadia-Moishkhali channel; (ii) Bakkhali river/estuary at Cox's Bazar; (iii) Katabaniaghat at Teknaf; (iv) Channel between Teknaf and Totadia and (v) Kotakhali khal at Teknaf.

There has been no farm production of this species in Bangladesh. Only wild stocks to use the shell for lime production and a small portion of the total harvest is used as meat for consumption of local tribal people and some are sold in Myanmar. The estimated annual production of shell weight in 1984 was 50-70 mt (Sarker and Alam, 1988).

Green mussel and windowpane oyster:

There is no detailed study on the occurrence and distribution of these organisms. Like other shellfish they are found to occur in hard surface, cement blocks, asbestos, string of coconut shells, split bamboo poles, coil ropes, mangrove roots or branches, automobile tyres, nylon ropes, oyster or pecten shells. The natural abundance of these animals are reported to be in the intertidal areas along the channel between Sonadia and Moishkhali islands, Bakkhali and Naf rivers. Most of the harvest is done in dry season by women and children during low tide. The main area of culture as suggested by Pangcatipunan (1982) are: Katabaniaghat, the cove between Badar Mokam and Jaliapara of Shaparirdip and other areas along the Naf river estuary of Teknaf Thana.

Green mussel and Widopane oysters are rarely consumed by tribal. There is very limited use of the shell in the shell craft industry and small harvest of natural pearls windowpane oyster in Bangladesh. The estimated annual production of green mussel is 2-5 tons, while windowpane oyster is about 50 tons.

Pearl oyster:

The pearl oysters Pinctada fucata, occurs sporadically in the waters around St. Martins island. It is generally found attached with corals and rocks below ELW. This species is farmed in India for commercial production of pearls and is similar to the Japanese pearl oyster "Akoya Gai" P. meritinsil. St. martins Island is reported to be suitable area for pearl culture. Marine pearl production from natural and artificial can play an important role in the economy as export earning commodity. The pearls are collected from the harvested oyster but no real estimate on the quantity is yet been made.

Cuttle fish and squid:

Cuttle fish and squids are also reportedly plenty in the Bay but the study on the stock assessment to promote exploitation have yet to be conducted, although they have export market potential in Japan, Thailand and China (Ahmed 1990). Seven species of squids under 6 families and 2 species of cuttle fish or sepia have been recorded from the Bay of bengal (Quddus and Shafi, 1983). But neither of their stock sizes, spawning seasons nor fecundity has been estimated and recorded properly.

Crab:

Other than shrimps and oysters about 50 species of crabs have been identified in Bangladesh (Kader, 1994). Their standing stocks have not been assessed and none knows about their status of exploitation. There are a total of 11 species of marine crabs so far identified in the Bangladesh sea water of which 3 species Scylla serrata, commonly known as mud crab or mangrove crab, Portunus pelagicus and P. sanguinolentus are commercially commercial interest (Shafi and Quddus, 1982; Sarker, 1993; Kader, 1994). The mud crabs Scylla serrata is the most suitable and reported to be abundantly available species for coastal aquaculture. The seeds of this species are also available in coastal localities covering the 480 km coastal line. The cultural practice of this species is yet to gain momentum although there is great potential of their culture in the brackishwater ponds. According to Khan and Ahmed (1992), about 30% of the total catch of the crabs consists of berried females and the peak season for catching the crabs is June to August. A proper cultural practice is essential for their culture.

Turtle:

Three species of turtles viz. Caretta caretta, Chelonia sp. and Dermochelys sp. of commercial importance (FAO, 1970; Kader 1994) have been identified from the Bangladesh sea water but their stock size, spawning seasons and fecundity have not yet been studied. The assessment of their abundance and their distribution are not yet known to promote exploitation and their proper management.

Shrimp Seeds:

The practice of obtaining stocking materials by the pond owners from the seed collectors and suppliers is increasing importance in the coastal aquaculture area of Bangladesh. Shrimp post-larvae (8-12 mm) are taken in the shallow nursery areas by different types of gears fixed bagnet (behundi type jal), push net (thela jal) and dragnet (baksho jal). According to the BOBP report (1993) the annual production of P. monodon fry of Bangladesh in 1989/90 was approximately 2,034 million of which 64% was estimated to be contributed by the push net operations. Of the P. monodon fry collection by pushnet, 81 percent was from the Cox's Bazar area alone, followed by Teknaf (13%) and Satkhira area (5%). On the other hand, both Satkira and Cox's Bazar areas contributed to a total of 80% of fry collected through fixed bagnet operation. Approximately 66% of the total P. monodon fry was collected from Cox's Bazar while Satkhira area contributed 18% and other three areas together account for 16%. In a recent unpublished report more than 100,000 collectors were engaged in this activity.

There is an indiscriminate killing of other aquatic organisms during collection of P. monodon. It appears that for collection of 1% P. monodon seed 99% of the other aquatic organisms are indiscriminately killed by the shrimp seed collectors (FRI unpublished and BOBP, 1993). It is important to mention here that a large number of commercially important other penaeid shrimp, caridean shrimp (prawn), fin-fish larvae and mostly zooplankton migrate to the coastal nursery ground along with P. monodon postlarvae. A total of about 180000 million of other aquatic organisms are killed along with collection of P. monodon (BOBP, 1992). Mortality of shrimp seed P. monodon mainly occur during transportation and immediately after stocking. Therefore, improvement of sorting, transportation and stocking techniques will reduce this loss.

2.1.4. Utilization

The information on the utilization of fish and fishery products for domestic markets and export marketing was based on report of the Export Development Bureau of Bangladesh, status papers on development of fishery and seafood processing industry of Bangladesh (Hussain, M.M., 1990; 1993), some related papers and author's personal observation during the consultancy.

Domestic Consumption

Bangladesh being a highly populous country with around 110 million people needs about 2.5 million tons of fish annually at the standard consumption rate of 20 kg fish per head per year as a major source of animal protein against the existing consumption of 7-8 kg. With the total production of about 1 million MT, the demand and supply situation being so, it is quite natural that the entire production of marine, estuarine and fresh water fish is easily marketed domestically except a very small quantity of selected species of fin-fish. Bangladeshi people are mostly fish eating. They consume more fish protein than other animal protein. Therefore, the country has large internal market for fish consumption.

Traditionally, the bulk of marine and freshwater fishes has been marketed and consumed as fresh. Value addition has been of low level and involved simple processing activities as salting, drying and smoking. During last decades because of improved fishing technologies in artisanal and industrial sector have greatly increased the finfish and shellfish landing and thus processing and freezing are required for considerable quantities. In recent years marketing outlet for frozen shrimp and other commercial fin-fish has increased for - export markets. Marketing of frozen fish for domestic market is quite negligible. Although there are some market outlet for chilled products now a days, the shortage of ice remains a challenging problem for short term preservation by artisanal fishermen. As a result a considerable portion of the total catch particularly hilsa fish lose much of its taste, flavour and nutritional qualities by the time it reaches the consumer. Quality loss also occurs when the fish are supplied in chilled condition by means of trucks, carrier launches and rail wagons for short and long distance transport. Lack of proper amenities like proper packing, handling during loading and unloading, method of icing, delay in icing and insulation of materials are contributing factors that result in loss of quality. Besides, lack of knowledge about scientific and hygienic method of handling from time of the catch till it reaches the consumer contributes significantly to the loss of quality.

Utilization and marketing distribution of fish is reportedly around 70% fresh and chilled, 25% dried and other forms of locally processed fish including fermentation and the rest are frozen products. Out of the total production of about 100,000 tons of the live crustaceans mainly shrimps and prawns about 19000 tons (headless) equivalent to 36000 tons live weight are exported and the rest are of smaller sizes and non-exportable quantity of approximately 64000 tons are marketed domestically (Hussain, 1994).

Export Marketing

Export of shrimp, fish and other fishery products are non-conventional item before the independence of the country. It has increased manifolds during the last decade, earning more foreign exchange. Beginning with merely foreign exchange earning of 3.06 million US$ in 1972-73, increased to 174.70 million US$ in 1992-93 (Hussain, 1994). Export of total fishery products (174.70 m US$) in 1992-93 as against the total national export earning of 1994 m US$ constituted about 8.76% of the total export of the country, and ranked 4th next to Garments, Jute goods and Leather.

Export of frozen foods:

The share of frozen seafood is reportedly around 94.34% of the total export of fishery products. In 1992-93, frozen foods earned 165.34 m US$ (94.34%) and other fishery products 9.80 m US$ (5.66%). Out of the frozen foods sub-sector shrimps accounted for 155.48 m US$ (90.10%), frozen fish 9.80 m US$ (9.90%). Export of frozen froglegs has been banned by the Government of Bangladesh (Hussain, 1994).

Export of other fishery products:

This sub-sector constituted only 5.66% of the total exports of the sector during 1992-93. Item wise share of export value is dry fish 1.80%, salted and dehydrated fish 45%, shark-fins and fish maws 2.10%, crabs 0.84%, tortoise & turtles 0.14% (Hussain, 1994).

Major Export markets:

The major export market for Bangladesh frozen shrimp are USA (38.33%), EEC countries (36.49%), Japan (9.88%) and Germany (10.66%) in 1991-92. The major export market for frozen fish are EEC (56.78%), Middle East (24.49%), ASEAN (12.6%), USA (4.11%) and Japan (2.00%). But the major markets for dry fish during 1991-92 were ASEAN countries (Hussain, 1994).

2.2. Technical Assistance & Strengthening of FRI


2.2.1. The scientific research programme of MFTS
2.2.2. Research priority for sustainable use of estuary, coast and sea fisheries resources
2.2.3. Formulation, initiation and implementation of research studies
2.2.4. Setting up laboratory
2.2.5. Assistance in finalization of workshop proceeding on "The Sustainable Development of Marine Fishery Resources in Bangladesh"
2.2.6. Assistance in organizing and conducting training programme


Marine Fisheries & Technology Station (MFTS) is one of the four research station of the Fisheries Research Institute (FRI) located in the campus of the recently completed development project named Marine Fisheries Research, Development and Management Project during 1981-82 to 1985-86 at Cox's Bazar of DOF. The station was supposed to be transferred with all the assets and liabilities of the development project upon completion to FRI for MFTS. However, DOF delayed and partially hand over the station to FRI in April 1991 only the building, some staff quarters. The 1st floor of the main building is still occupied by DOF. Also all the equipment and other research facilities were moved to Chittagong. Most of the scientific and supporting staff of the former Development Project who had long experience in marine fisheries did not join with new set up of FRI. The building was badly damaged by the 1991 cyclone. Considerable renovation is still required.

However, the station has started functioning with a limited number of professional scientific staff. Even with many constraints the station is taking appreciable stride to continue some meaningful research.

2.2.1. The scientific research programme of MFTS

Since 1991 there have been a number of "projects" undertaken by MFTS. Almost all the projects were aimed at mariculture related to seed production, mass culture of live food organism, mixed culture of finfish and shrimp/prawn, shrimp rearing under different conditions, broad stock management of finfish and shrimp. These studies were undertaken either in the laboratory or in the field conditions.

Before MFTS constructed cistern complex in the campus, the field trials were made in commercial farms. In the cistern complex, the source of water supply is under ground, hyposaline and freshwater. There is a plan to bring direct sea water through pipelines into the cistern complex.

The following studies were conducted since 1991:

1. Shrimp Seed Raising and Management:

During the last few years, MFTS conducted a number of studies on development of techniques of shrimp seed rearing and broodstock management with varying success. Among the important findings:

- Development of low cost feed for P. monodon and M. rosenbergii.

- Growth, survival and feed efficiency of natural and hatchery produced P. monodon PLs showed comparable results. However considerable size variation occured in natural PLs.

The results are encouraging, but they need proper replications.

2. Mass Culture of Live Food Organism:

Several studies were conducted to isolate and mass culture of live feed for larvae and post larval shrimp and finfishes. Among these are:

- Simple isolation, propagation, and raising of yeast in molasses solution and harvesting of cells from the media have been developed to use these as feed to raise marine rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis.

- Isolation of rotifers by simple screening method has been developed. Rotifers were successfully utilized as feed for shrimp larvae and post larvae.

- The copepoda, Tigriopoes sp. was isolated and successive generations were raised up to 20 million cells ml under laboratory controlled conditions.

The findings on mass culture of livefood organism are still preliminary. The work need to be continued to evolve a package of technology for mass scale production of such food organisms. These studies are essential for larval rearing of marine finfish and shrimp.

3. Mixed Culture of Giant Sea bass with Tilapia and other species:

- Mixed culture of giant sea bass (Lates calcarifer) with tilapia in the ratio of 1:10 was found a suitable combination in raising sea bass.

Recent results have been encouraging. However it needs proper replication and also verification in the farmers pond to assess the viability of the culture system.

4. Studies on transportation of live shrimp under the forced hibernation:

- Live shrimp were transported and kept alive for 27 hours with 60% survival without water and oxygen under the forced hibernation at chilling temperature.

This is a Japanese technology of transporting gravid females to the hatchery or marketing of live shrimp. The study does not seem to have much application in the country except to evolve method of transporting gravid females for seed production work.

5. Development of Artemia Culture in Bangladesh:

- Artemia cysts, nauplii and adults have been produced under different salinities in the modified salt street (deeper areas of artemia ponds).

Much more work is required to evolve suitable package of technology of Artemia culture in the coastal saltpans of the country. The evolve packages of practice need to be initiated on pilot scale for adoption.

2.2.2. Research priority for sustainable use of estuary, coast and sea fisheries resources

The National Workshop on Research Needs for Fisheries Development in Bangladesh held in Dhaka, January 25-26, 1993 (FRI & FAO/UNDP) and the recent seminar on "Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries Resources in Bangladesh" organized by FRI and FAO/UNDP held at Cox's Bazar on August 29, 1994 reiterated the need and the areas of intensification of marine fisheries research. The followings are the area of research identified:

Capture fishery:

- Studies on oceanography in understanding the marine ecology of the area, and assessment of primary and secondary productivity of EEZ of Bangladesh.

- Studies on marine fish stock assessment to relate with marine productivity and marine fish landing.

- Development of improved methods for harvesting underutilized marine resources, especially pelagic fishes within the EEZ of Bangladesh.

- Research on various methodology of monitoring the catches and fishing efforts of industrial and artisanal marine fisheries to evolve a Catch Monitoring System so as to assess the status and trends of resources in catch.

- Identification of over exploited species and their management for conservation, particularly of hilsa and shrimp.

- To evolve suitable model for multigear/multispecies fisheries and to forecast the fish resources in time/space.

- Diversification of fishing method to tap under utilized species and particularly pelagic ones.

- To evolve gear on the basis of fish behavioural studies.

Mariculture:

- Development of methods for controlled reproduction of sea bass and mullets and mass rearing of their larvae.

- Development of methods of fry collection, identification, sorting and transport, pending the development of controlled reproduction and hatchery production of their seed.

- Methods of monitoring health and disease problems of sea bass and mullets and disease control.

- Documentation and evaluation of genetic resources of commercially important mollusc and seaweeds; and to evolve package of practices for their culture including site selection, seed collection, disease control and depuration etc. to increase production and consumer acceptance; and

- To diversify mollusc and seaweed utilization through food product development for the benefit of coastal community and the consumers elsewhere.

Post harvest technology:

- Development of technique of processing by-catch and small pelagic fish for the preparation of improved quality surimi and other value-added products.

- Screening of protein concentrate both qualitatively and quantitatively from by-catch and small pelagic fish.

- Experiments on deterioration of organoleptic quality of hilsa and shrimps under varying condition.

- Biochemical changes occurring in fish during different stages of handling, transportation, processing and preservation which affect the quality of hilsa and shrimp.

- Studies on the bacteriology of hilsa and shrimp preservation.

Fisheries Management and Planning:

- To evolve different models of community levels participation in conservation management.

- To study socio-economic conditions of small scale marine artisanal fishermen of the country

2.2.3. Formulation, initiation and implementation of research studies

Formulation of Five Year Core Research Programme:

Assistance was provided in formulation of four core research projects prioritized for MFTS. The proposals were finalized by Senior Specialist after thorough discussion with the national consultant on Marine Fisheries Resources Management Specialist which were incorporated in the Five Year Master Plan (FAO/UNDP/BGD/89/012 Document No. 6.). The major areas of the research proposals are briefly described below:

1. Breeding, Seed Production and Culture of Sea Bass and Mullet

The major studies include are (i) studies on mass culture of live food organisms at MFTS; (ii) development of methods of culture of sea bass and mullet and maintenance of brood stock in captive conditions; (iii) experimental seed production of sea bass and mullet.

2. Technology Development for Effective Utilization of By - catches of Shrimp Trawling.

The major studies included are (i) development of technique of processing by-catch and small pelagic fish for the preparation of improved quality surimi and other value-added products (ii) screening of protein concentrate both qualitatively and quantitatively from by-catch and small pelagic fish.

3. Development of Improved Methods for Handling, transportation and preservation of Hilsa Fish and Shrimps.

The major studies included are (i) experiments on deterioration of organoleptic quality of hilsa and shrimps under varying condition; (ii) biochemical changes occurring in fish during different stages of handling, transportation, processing and preservation which affect the quality of hilsa and shrimp; (iii) studies on the bacteriology of hilsa and shrimp during processing and preservation.

4. Studies on Catch monitoring, Assessment of Stock and Productivity of Marine Fishery Resources of Bangladesh.

The major studies included are (i) standardization of methodology of catch-monitoring to know the status of landing through various fisheries in marine sector; (ii) studies on stock assessment of important marine fisheries resources; (iii) Oceanography and productivity of EEZ of Bangladesh and understanding of prevalent ecology and its relationship with marine fisheries.

Implementation of Research Programmes:

1) Continued assistance was provided to the scientific and supporting research staff of the MFTS in implementing the current research on culture of shrimp and fish in cistern pond complex. These studies include:

- Brood stock management of M. rosenbergii in ponds with underground hyposaline water (7-9 ppt). M. rosenbergii were raised from juveniles to adult stage and bred in natural pond condition. The PLs are raised to juvenile stage.

- Adaptation of P. monodon PLs from 26 to zero ppt salinity and raising them to market size in fresh water condition with artificial pellet diet.

- Studies on the mixed culture of shrimp/prawn with mullets in various combinations.

2) Assistance was provided on standardization of methodology of catch monitoring system to know the status of landing through various fishing in marine sector. Some proforma upgraded by the consultant and some previously developed by other organizations/agencies have been used in collecting data of landings of marine artisanal fisheries at cox's Bazar areas and industrial trawling from BFDC, Chittagong. The proforma include: data collection form in marine artisanal; deep sea fishing trawlers (BOBP/WP/50); biological information form and length -weight frequency sheet (FAO/UNDP/BGD/80/025).

3) After establishing the laboratories, assistance was provided to the scientists to conduct shelflife studies of hilsa for assessing its quality by organoleptic, biochemical and microbiological tests under various storage conditions. The study is in progress.

Assistance was also provided in the preparation of "Surimi"/paste product from by-catch. The species with good gelling property and neutral in odour are suitable for preparation of surimi. A practical demonstration on assessing the gel-forming ability of surimi prepared by marine catfish Aridae was shown to the scientists of MFTS so as to conduct further research in the line.

2.2.4. Setting up laboratory

There are five laboratory rooms at MFTS in the ground floor of the main building. While reviewing the facilities of the station, most of the rooms were empty and equipment purchased in 1993 not installed. Almost all equipment/apparatus were set up and installed according to the requirement of the following laboratories:

Feed Formulation and Nutrition Laboratory:

Grinding machine, mixer and pelletizer with different mesh size were installed for preparation of artificial pellet diet to feed on larvae and grow out fish and shell fishes. Kjeldhal apparatus, soxhlet apparatus, oven and muffle furnace were installed in the laboratory to analyze the feed staffs for crude protein, fat content, moisture and minerals.

Water quality laboratory:

Water quality laboratory was made operational for monitoring the water and soil quality. Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolve oxygen, carbondioxide, salinity, ammonia, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, zooplankton and some other important parameters can be monitored with the facilities available in the laboratories. Instrument facilities include pH meter, oxygen meter, refractometer, Hachkit, magnetic stirrer, heated shaking bath, rotary shaker, vacuum pump, spectrophotometer, plankton collectors, hand centrifuge, microscope etc. are made operational for water quality studies.

Processing and Quality Control Laboratory:

There are two rooms for the processing and quality control laboratory. The bigger one in the ground floor to serve for processing and preservation, while small room in the second floor (without ventilation to minimize contamination) for microbial work. The facilities created include few insulated boxes to carry fish sample in fresh condition, adequate water supply, a table for cutting and dressing fish and shellfish, different sizes of knives, refrigerator, deep freeze, autoclave, homogenizer, magnetic stirrer, shaker, incubator, microscope, hot air oven and other necessary small equipment, glass ware and chemicals. The small microbial room in the second floor for time being has set up with limited facilities to conduct some research work on bacteriology.

Biological Laboratory:

Biological laboratory has been made operational to study planktonic mass culture in aquaria, identification of larval fish and shell fish, particularly the aquatic organisms caught during shrimp seed collection from nature and other biological studies. The equipment and other apparatus installed include combined oxygen/temperature/conductivity/pH/turbidity meter with common probe on cable about 3 meter long, pH meter, DO meter, hand refractometer, some assorted aquarium, modern compound microscope, dissecting box, heater and similar equipment, air pump for aeration, air blower etc.

Harvesting Laboratory:

Facilities so far developed for harvesting laboratories are very poor. The laboratory was set with few equipment/tools such as spring balance, more than one dozen meter ring nets (2.5 mm mesh size), ring, flow meter, bucket, fine mesh plankton net about 0.5 diameter, fine mesh gilt net, trammel net (bottom three layer gill net), ship life rings, set of sieves.

A orientation programme on the use of equipment and methodology was also conducted so that scientist can properly handle the sensitive instrument.

Brackishwater Station at Paikgacha

Research laboratories in Brackishwater station was also set up and major scientific instrument/apparatus were installed. The station also acquired similar type of equipment like MFTS in September 1993. Due to lack of proper electric supply some equipment particularly that required heavy voltage for operation were not installed. Most of the equipment such as spectrophotometer, pH meter, distillation plant, electric shaking sieving apparatus, soxhlet apparatus, electric balance, current meter, air pump, vacuum pump, magnetic stirrer, rotary shaker etc. were installed and made operational. Proper electric wiring of the laboratories should be done immediately.

2.2.5. Assistance in finalization of workshop proceeding on "The Sustainable Development of Marine Fishery Resources in Bangladesh"

A National Workshop on the "Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries Resources in Bangladesh" was held at Cox's Bazar on August 29, 1994 organized by the FRI under FAO/UNDP/BGD/89/012. Assistance was provided in organizing and completing the workshop successfully. Eleven scientific papers on the various aspects of marine fisheries were presented in the seminar. Assistance was also provided in finalization of the proceeding of the workshop (FAO/UNDP/BGD/89/012 Field Document No.7).

2.2.6. Assistance in organizing and conducting training programme

MFTS organized a number of training programme to the shrimp and fish farmers of Cox's Bazar area. Assistance was provided in initiating, organizing and successfully completing the training programmes and also delivered lectures on water quality management in shrimp/prawn culture. The training programme organized were: (i) mixed culture of "sea bass with tilapia; (ii) Shrimp culture in underground hyposaline water at 8-12 ppt salinity and (iii) mixed culture of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) with Giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In addition, a lecture was delivered on different levels education and training requirement for brackishwater fisheries development of Bangladesh in the workshop/training programme on manpower requirement for fisheries R & D held at FRI in May, 19994 organized by FRI and FAO/UNDP (BGD/89/012). The participants were Thana Fisheries Officers, Thana Assistant Fisheries Officer, Block Supervisors of NGOs, FRI scientific staff.

3. RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Studies should be undertaken on broodstock management of shrimp, mullets and sea bass to evolve suitable technology for dependable supply of quality seed.

2. Studies should be undertaken to identify suitable site for mariculture of finfish, weeds and oyster.

3. Efforts should be made to monitor the catches and fishing efforts of artisanal and industrial fisheries to enable one assess trend of fish abundances.

4. Collaborative effort between FRI and DOF needs to be strengthened in the area of monitoring of catch and fishing efforts to facilitate the assessment of the impact of fishing on the resources.

5. Regular monitoring of marine resource abundances should be done by research vessel surveys and other means, to provide data for a stock assessment. Continued research -is needed to ascertain MSY's, locate new fishing grounds and identify the home range and routes of migratory species.

6. A good statistical systems need to be developed for strengthening the existing Fisheries Resource Survey System (FRSS) of DOF for compilation of fishery statistics.

7. The Fisheries Management Unit needs to be strengthened. To strengthen marine fisheries management and rational development the existing fisheries policy and Fish Act (1983) should be updated by the extension of management policy to the artisanal sector.

8. International support is needed to identify opportunities for investment in commercial production and implementation of commercial enterprises in marine fisheries management. International funding agencies may provide support for research in the area of exploration and exploitation of under-exploited marine resources.

9. The MFTS is located at Cox's Bazar where major marine fisheries activities are going on and a number of fish processing industries has grown rapidly over the last few years. A service center should be established at MFTS to give technical support to the processing industries to reduce quality loss of fish and fishery products.

10. Research on post harvest technology of fish, particularly improvement in handling and transportation and product development should be carried out by MFTS for proper utilization of the catch.

11. Lack of manpower in the area of marine fishery biology, resources assessment speciality and coupled with inadequate statistitical systems in place have certainly hindered the effort in resources assessment. It is therefore, recommended that necessary measures should be taken to strengthenen the organization serving the sector by recruiting adequate and appropriate manpower.

12. The five laboratories in the ground floor of the main building of MFTS have risk of flooding. It is difficult to move the sensitive equipment/apparatus to the upper floors during cyclone warning. It is therefore, recommended that the laboratories should be set up in the first floor. The first floor is presently occupied by few DOF personnel where sufficient space still remained to set these laboratories.

13. The scientific staff of the MFTS need proper training on catch monitoring and stock assessment and also on post-harvest technology.

14. Emphasis should also be given to improve the library facilities such as subscription to various scientific journals, bulletins and news letters of various organizations dealing with fisheries development and management.

15. MFTS should be provided with adequate fund and other logistic support to establish herself a strong organizational unit of FRI to conduct national research programme relevant to the development and rational management of marine sector.

4. REFERENCE

Ahmed, A.T.A. 1990. Studies on the identity and abundance of molluscan fauna of the Bay of Bengal. Final report, BARC contract research project. Dept. of Zoology, University of Dhaka.

Alam, F. and Sarker, M.N. 1986. Study on the culture of blood clam (Anadara spp) in relation to some ecological parameters. In compilation of reports on the marine fishery survey and research. Department of Fisheries, Bangladesh, Bangladesh. P.357.

BOBP, 1980. Report on the Consultation on Stock Assessment for Small-Scale Fisheries in the Bay of Bengal. Chittagong, Bangladesh June 16-21, Vol. 1 and 2 proceeding BOBP/Rep/10.1.

BOBP, 1991. The by-catch from Indian shrimp trawlers in the Bay of Bengal. The potential for its improved utilization. BOBP/WP/68.

BOBP, 1992. Shrimp Seed Collection in Bangladesh. A seminar on estuarine set bagnet Fisheries of Bangladesh, held at Cox's Bazar from January 12-15, 1992, organized by BOBP/FAO/DOF.

BOBP, 1993. Studies of interactive marine fisheries of Bangladesh:

Shrimp fry collection. BOBP/WP/89. 5-17p.

Hussain, M.A. 1994. Prospects and Strategies for Development of Sea Farming in Bangladesh. A paper presented at the workshop on Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries Resources in Bangladesh, held at Cox's Bazar, August 29, 1994, organized by FRI/FAO/UNDP/BGD/89/012.

Islam, A.K.M. 1976. Contribution to the study of the marine algae of Bangladesh. Bibliotheca phycologia. 19: 1-253.

Islam, A.K.M.N. and Aziz, A. 1982. Addition to the list of marine algae of St. Martins Island, Bangladesh II. Brown, red and blue green algae. Nova Hedwigia (34).

Khan, M.G., Sada, M.N.U. and Chowdhury, Z.A. 1989. Bangladesh Offshore Marine Fisheries Resources Studies with special reference to the penaeid shrimp stocks, 1988-89. Marine Fisheries Survey, Management and Dev. Project, Department of Fisheries, Government of Bangladesh, Chittagong, October 1989. 213p.

Khan, G. and Ahmed, K. 1992. Mud crab (Scylla spp) culture and trade around the Bay of Bengal. Bay of Bengal Programme, March. Issue No.-45.

Lamboeut, M. 1987. Bangladesh. Demersal Resources of the continental shelf. FAO/BGD Marine Fisheries Research, Management and Development Project. FI: DP/BGD/80/025:26p

Pagcatipunan, R. N. 1982. A report of the development of shell fish resources in Bangladesh. FAO/UNDP Fishery Advisory Service Project (BGD/81/034) and Fishery Resources Survey System (BGD/79/615). 82p

Penn, J.W. 1983. An assessment of potential yields from the offshore demersal shrimp and fish stocks in Bangladesh water (including comments on the trawl fishery 1981-92). FAO field document FI;DP/BGD/81/034, Rome. 22pp.

Quader, M.A. 1994. Strategies for Proper Management Utilization of Marine Resource of the Country. A paper presented at the workshop on Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries Resources in Bangladesh. FRI, Cox's Bazar, August 29, 1994.

Quddus, M.M.A. and M. Shafi (1983). Bangupshagerer Matsya Shampad. Bangla Academy.

Rahman, A.K. and Khan, M.G. 1993. Sustainable Fisheries Development and the Environment in Bangladesh. Country Status Paper presented at the Eight Session of the Committee for the Development and Management of Fisheries in the Bay of Bengal (IQFC), April 3-5, 1993, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Rashid, M.H. 1983. Mitsui-Tayo Shrimp Survey 1976-77 by survey research vessel. Fish Bull. No. 2. Marine Fish Dept., Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Saetre, R. 1981. Survey on Marine Fishery Resources of Bangladesh. Institute of Marine Research, Bergen. 67pp.

Sarker, M.N. and Alam, F. 1988. Prospects of culture of commercially important marine bivalves in Bangladesh. In: Compilation of reports on the marine fishery survey and research. Department of Fisheries, Bangladesh. P.357.

Sarker, M.N. 1993. Marine Fishery Resources of Bangladesh (in Bangla). In: Bangla Academy Science Newsletter. Baisaak - Assnin (1400 B.Y.). P.113-157.

Sarker, M.N. 1992. Studies on the red sea weeds in Bangladesh. A paper presented at the Regional Workshop on the taxonomy, ecology and processing of commercially important red sea weeds. 21-28th April, 1992, held at Kasetsart University in Bangkok, Thailand, Organized by FAO/NACA and France Govt.

Shahidullah, M. 1986. Marine Fisheries Resource Management in Bangladesh and current status of exploitation. Marine Fisheries Bulletin. No. 2, 23pp

Shimura, T. 1984. Catch statistics of Bangladesh. September 1983 -August 1984. Fisheries Resource Survey System, Department of Fisheries, Bangladesh.

Vanzalinge, N.P. 1986. The Bangladesh Shrimp resources, management issues and data requirement. FAO/UNDP Marine Fisheries Research Management and Development Project, BGD/80/025, Chittagong. 19pp.

West, W.Q.B. Fishery Resources of the Upper Bay of Bengal; IQFC/DEV/73/28-44pp.

White, T.F. and Khan, M.G. 1985. The marine fisheries resources of Bangladesh and their potential for commercial development. National Seminar on Fisheries Management and Development in Bangladesh, Dhaka, Souvenir, 14.


Table of Contents Top of Page