Socioeconomic Research Studies













Table of Contents


By
M. Serajul Islam
National Socioeconomic Consultant

ASSISTANCE TO FISHERIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE, MYMENSINGH
BGD/89/012

A report prepared for the
"Assistance to Fisheries Research Institute"
BGD/89/012

FISHERIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE, MYMENSINGH GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

GLOSSARY

CURRENCY AND EQUIVALENT UNITS

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Objectives
1.2 Terms of Reference

2.0 COLLECTION OF INFORMATION ON SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF FISHERMEN AND FISH FARMERS INVOLVED IN MARINE AND INLAND SECTORS

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Types of Fishery and Involvement of Fishermen and Fish Farmers
2.3 Capture Fisheries

2.3.1 Inland Openwater Fisheries and Fishermen

2.3.1.1 Riverine Fisheries
2.3.1.2 Kaptai Lake Fisheries
2.3.1.3 Floodplain Fisheries

2.3.2 Marine Fisheries and Fishermen

2.3.2.1 Artisanal Marine Fisheries
2.3.2.2 Industrial Marine Fisheries

2.4 Culture Fisheries and Fish Farmers

2.4.1 Freshwater Fish Ponds
2.4.2 Brackishwater Fish Pond
2.4.3 Baor Fisheries
2.4.4 Integrated Fish Farming System

2.5 Research Needs

3.0 BENCHMARK SURVEYS ON SOME SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FISHERIES SECTOR

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Proposed Research Projects for Benchmark Survey

3.2.1 Credit System and Its Impact on Fisheries Sector: Economic Evaluation of Credit Programmes Extended for Freshwater Aquaculture Development
3.2.2 An Economic Study of Production and Marketing of Small-Scale Marine Fisheries in Bangladesh.
3.2.3 Economic, Social and Environmental Consequences of Shrimp Farming in Bangladesh

3.3 Proforma for Benchmark Survey
3.4 Initiating Pilot Scale Benchmark Survey

4.0 ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL TENSION ARISING IN SHRIMP FARMING IN BRACKISHWATER AREAS

4.1 Socioeconomic Problems and Constraints that Cause Social Tension in Shrimp Culture Operation

4.1.1 Leasing Arrangement and Managerial Constraints
4.1.2 Social Problems and Conflict
4.1.3 Administrative Problems and Conflict
4.1.4 Environmental Problems

5.0 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDICES

Appendix 1. Proforma for benchmark survey on credit programmes extended for pond fish production.
Appendix 2. Proforma for bench mark survey en role of credit in marine fish processing and marketing.
Appendix 3. Proforma for short survey for assessing and forecasting the social tension arised in shrimp fanning.

5. REFERENCES


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to express my gratefulness to Dr. V.R.P. Sinha, Senior Specialist of FAO/UNDP Project BGD/89/012, for his guidance and advice during my consultancy.

Dr. M.A. Mazid, Director of Fisheries Research Institute has kindly provided necessary facilities to make field visit and other related works, to whom I am obliged.

I wish to express my thanks to scientific officers of FRI for their cooperation who were assigned to work with me.

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

BAU

Bangladesh Agricultural University

BBS

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

BKB

Bangladesh Krishi Bank

BFRSS

Bangladesh Fisheries Resource Survey System

BDP

Baor Development Project

BOBP

Bay of Bengal Programme

BRAC

Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee

BWDB

Bangladesh Water Development Board

CARE

Cooperation of American Relief Everywhere

DANIDA

Danish International Development Agency

DOF

Directorate of Fisheries

FFYP

Fourth Five Year Plan

FRI

Fisheries Research Institute

FCDI

Flood Control, Drainage and Irrigation

FCD

Flood Control and Drainage

FAO

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GOB

Government of Bangladesh

GB

Grameen Bank

ICLARM

International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management

MPO

Master Plan Organization

MFL

Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock

mt

Metric Tons

NGO

Non-Governmental Organization

ODA

Overseas Development Administration

TFO

Thana Fisheries Officer

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

GNP

Gross National Product

WB

World Bank

GLOSSARY

Aratdar

Commission agent in landing centre.

Artisanal

Small-scale (for example, artisanal marine fishery).

Baor

Oxbow lake; a closed body of water, isolated from the river by a change in its course.

Beel

Small lake, low-lying depression, a permanent body of water in a floodplain or a body of water created by rains or floods that may or may not dry up in the dry season.

Dadondar

Money lender

Digis

Big pond

Fish farmers

Farmers who cultivate fish.

Fishermen

Fishermen who earn most of their living on fishing in open waters.

Gher

Large shrimp farm and traditionally managed.

Haor

Shallow lake or a large low-lying depression in a floodplain that may be reduced during the dry season to a series of beels.

Mazhi

Fishermen in the sea and river.

Mohajan

Financier or moneylender.

Polder

Area of low-lying land reclaimed from the sea by construction of a perimeter dike.

Thana

Smallest administrative unit; also called a police station.

CURRENCY AND EQUIVALENT UNITS

Bangladesh Taka (Tk)
Tk. 1 = US$ 0.02481
US$ 1.00 = Tk. 40.30

CONVERSIONS

1 acre

= 0.405 hectares

1 hectare (ha)

= 2.47 acres

1 kilometer (km)

= 0.62 miles

1 square kilometer

= 0.38 square mile

1 lakh

= 0.1 million

1 crore

= 10 million

1. INTRODUCTION


1.1 Project Objectives
1.2 Terms of Reference


1.1 Project Objectives

This report deals with the consultancy assignment of M. Serajul Islam, National Socioeconomic Consultant during 15 December, 1993 - 14 June, 1994 at the Fisheries Research Institute (FRI) under its FAO/UNDP project "Assistance to Fisheries Research Institute" (BGD/89/012^) . The main objective of the project is the strengthening of the Fisheries Research Institute by establishing a strong organizational framework, formulating a national research programme relevant to the development of fisheries sector and creating a high degree of technical and management capability in research management, planning, coordination, preparation and implementation of research.

1.2 Terms of Reference

- Collect and collate the information on the socioeconomic status of the fishermen involved in Marine and Inland sectors;

- Prepare the proforma for Bench Mark Survey and initiate pilot scale survey and focus on the issues pertaining to subsidy, loan, credit to different sectors involved in production processing and marketing of fish;

- Assist in assessing and forecasting the social tension between the traditional fishermen and entrepreneurs particularly in shrimp culture operation;

- Assist the counter-part scientists to undertake the relevant socioeconomic studies of the changing patterns of land and water use and their effects on traditional fisherman; and

- Assist in such other activities which would be required from time to time for the successful implementation of the project on "Assistance to the Fisheries Research Institute".

2.0 COLLECTION OF INFORMATION ON SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF FISHERMEN AND FISH FARMERS INVOLVED IN MARINE AND INLAND SECTORS


2.1 Introduction
2.2 Types of Fishery and Involvement of Fishermen and Fish Farmers
2.3 Capture Fisheries
2.4 Culture Fisheries and Fish Farmers
2.5 Research Needs


2.1 Introduction

The fisheries sector though small, but is very important in the economy of Bangladesh. The Fourth Five Year Plan (FFYP) 1990-95 of Bangladesh (GOB, 1990) states that the fisheries sector currently contributes nearly 6% of the GDP. The sector provides full time employment to an estimated 20 million people comprising of full time fishermen, small fish traders, fish transporters, processors, and packers (WB, 1989).

In the FFYP, GOB has set priority to increase the fish production from 847,000 mt to 1,200,000 mt within the period 1989-90 to 1994-95 (GOB, 1990). In 1991-92 the total production was 955,935 mt.

The main objective of FFYP is to improve the socioeconomic condition of fishermen and others engaged in fisheries and create additional employment opportunities for poverty alleviation. Under the circumstances in-depth analysis of socioeconomic conditions of fishermen and fish farmers is essential to know their status and to help the Government of Bangladesh to formulate plans and programmes for the improvement of their socioeconomic condition.

2.2 Types of Fishery and Involvement of Fishermen and Fish Farmers

Fisheries are broadly classified into capture fisheries and culture fisheries. Fishermen are involved in capture fisheries and fish farmers in culture fisheries. There are many who are also engaged in different works related to fisheries sector such as fish seed collection, fish processing, transportation and marketing.

2.3 Capture Fisheries


2.3.1 Inland Openwater Fisheries and Fishermen
2.3.2 Marine Fisheries and Fishermen


Capture fisheries is classified into inland openwater fisheries and marine fisheries..

2.3.1 Inland Openwater Fisheries and Fishermen


2.3.1.1 Riverine Fisheries
2.3.1.2 Kaptai Lake Fisheries
2.3.1.3 Floodplain Fisheries


The inland openwater fisheries, covering an estimated area of 4,047,316 ha is the most important source of fisheries, annually contributing about 51% of the total catch. The actual production may be even higher because, in rural areas many catch for home consumption without any record and thus their catch do not get included in the fisheries statistics. Therefore, the catch estimated as per the fisheries statistics is under-reporting (Chong et al, 1991). Rivers and estuaries, Kaptai lake and floodplain (beels, haors, digis) are the major fishing grounds.

Over the last 5 years from 1984-85 to 1989-90, landing from these waters has declined by slightly more that 10% or 2% a year (DOF, 1991). Rahman (1989) reported that the average productivity of the floodplain fisheries was about 84 kg/ha/year in 1979-80 which declined to 65 kg/ha/year by 1986-87. He attributed the decline mainly due to the loss of perennial waters in the floodplain as a result of the extensive construction of FCDI/FCD projects. The causes of this declining trend are due to factors, such as construction of FCDI and FCD projects, indiscriminate catching and converting low lying areas under HYV of paddy.

The number of fishermen in inland sector increased by 6% from 1979-80 to 1988-89 but the marine fishermen increased by 50% during the same period.

2.3.1.1 Riverine Fisheries

Traditionally, all kinds of fishing were practiced at subsistence level by the 'jaladas' of the Hindu community. But with the increasing demand and commercialization of fisheries, a large number of Muslim fishermen took up fishing as a full-time job. Most of the small-scale fishing boat owners either motorized or non-motorized, are now Muslim who hire Hindu and Muslim fishermen as crew, mostly on a catch share basis. The profit sharing arrangement varies from area to area, on the basis of type of fishery and period of fishing season.

Few studies were conducted at different locations on the sociodemographic aspects of the fishermen. A study conducted in the river Meghna in Chandpur area (Sazzad, 1993) found that family size of riverine fishermen vary from 5.80 to 7.50 persons for different categories of fishermen. Average family size in all categories of fishermen was 6.74 member which was higher than national average of 5.44 members (BBS, 1992).

Marriage is normally performed at a younger age. Females are married between 15-20 years of age while males marry between 20-25 years. Rate of dependency on earning member is very high and in some households it is more than 70% of total family members. Children below 9 years of age constitute majority of population of the fishing community. Family consists of husband, wife and children. Fishermen are young but the head fishermen are aged having sufficient experience. Generally fishermen enter into the fishing profession in their early age because of economic compulsion. They are not educated.

Many of them do not have any homestead area. But some of them construct their small house on other man's land and some of them live on fishing boat throughout the year. Very few have small land which varies from 0.18 ha to 0.45 ha. Survey results show that farm size is proportional to the higher income category of fishermen. The largest farm size belonged to boat owner cum head fishermen whose income was highest. The labour fishermen farm size is smaller and they do not have fishing or agricultural assets. On the other hand, fishermen owning boat and gear are economically better of compared to other fishermen.

Fishermen of Chandpur areas mainly catch hilsa fish in the river Meghna and they are not engaged in fishing throughout the year. It is a seasonal activity since hilsa fishing lasts from May to October. Average monthly employment of hilsa fishermen depends on the gears they operate. Subsidiary occupation of the fishermen is agriculture. Other activities include household work, labour or petty trading etc. Almost all categories of fishermen spent 68.97% or more time on fishing but during the fishing season, they are fully occupied with fishing.

The average monthly income of boat owner cum head fishermen, boat owner, head fishermen and labour fishermen were Tk. 13,030.05, Tk. 11,570.15, Tk. 2,558.99 and Tk. 1,378.99 respectively (Sazzad, 1993). The income variation was due to different sources of income and salary pattern of different categories of fishermen. The boat owner cum head fishermen get higher income from agriculture also because they hold large farm size compared to other categories of fishermen. The monthly income from others activities was the highest for fishermen who work as labour.

Costs of fishing materials such as boat, gear, engine and fuel have recently increased which directly increased the fishing costs and reduced the profit of fishermen. Almost all fishermen receive credit from "dadondar' to meet up the fishing expenses.

2.3.1.2 Kaptai Lake Fisheries

Kaptai lake, the largest man made lake in Bangladesh, was created as a result of damming the Karnafuly River at Kaptai for hydro-electric power generation. The dam was completed and closed in May 1961. It is approximately 70 miles in length and 20 miles in breadth (Alamgir, 1987). It covers an area of 68,800 ha of water surface and is not connected with the remainder of the openwater system of the country.

There are 400-500 fishing units (crafts and gear) where more than 1800 fishermen are engaged in lake fishing (Rahman and Hasan 1992, and FAO, 1985). Fishermen use different types of gear such as chapila jal (gillnet), kechki jal (seine net), dharma jal (lift net), barshi (hook line), thela jal (push net) etc. FAO study (1985) reported that more than 75% of the fishermen are not local residents. Of which 80% of them are migrant fishermen who come from different areas of Chittagong, Jamalpur, Noakhali, Barisal and Comilla district. They are Muslim (73%) and rest 26% and 1% are Hindus and Tribals respectively. The fishermen migrate seasonally from inland openwater to lake area. Very few fishermen are permanent settlers of Chittagong Hill Tracts.

Recently a survey of 100 fishermen using major gears at Kaptai lake was conducted to investigate the socioeconomic condition (Ahmed, 1993). It was observed that family size of fishermen at Kaptai lake are higher than riverine fishermen as well as national average. Land holdings are larger than riverine fishermen which indicates that Kaptai lake fishermen are depending more on land cultivation.

Small boys (7-12 years) mainly relatives of the head fishermen are employed as paid labour. It was observed that about 47% are labour fishermen and of these 21% are child labour (Rahman and Hasan, 1992). Wives of the fishermen play important role in fish drying processes and sometimes in local marketing of fishes.

The study presented the source wise distribution of income of fishermen using different gears. Although fishing is the main occupation but the monthly income from this is very low. Ninety to hundred percent fishermen owning boat and gear receive credit from money lender with unfavourable terms and conditions.

2.3.1.3 Floodplain Fisheries

All the rivers of Bangladesh have extensive floodplain and the estimated total area of 6,300,723 ha in the past has reduced to 5,486,609 ha in 1985 because of flood protection measures (MPO, 1987). Based on the available floodplain area and harvest data of BFRSS, it was estimated that direct fish harvest from the floodplains was @ 37 kg/ha. Recently, ODA conducted detailed survey on floodplain fishery but the survey report has yet not been published.

2.3.2 Marine Fisheries and Fishermen


2.3.2.1 Artisanal Marine Fisheries
2.3.2.2 Industrial Marine Fisheries


The marine capture fisheries comprises of artisanal fisheries and industrial fisheries. Small-scale artisanal fishing is carried out mostly by traditional mechanized boats and industrial fishing by trawler.

The coastal line of Bangladesh is about 480 km long and the continental shelf extends over an area of about 66,000 km2 of which about 37,000 km2 is within 50 meter depth zone which is considered as a good fish resources (BOBP, 1984). There are 52 trawler and 3317 mechanized boats being used in marine fishing (BBS, 1991). Other sources (Chong et al, 1992, Islam and Elahi, 1993) indicate that the actual number of boat is more than 5,000 and most of them are unregistered.

2.3.2.1 Artisanal Marine Fisheries

It contributes about 96% of the total marine catch and provides employment to 497,000 full-time and 2,525,000 part-time fishermen (Chong et al, 1992). Small-scale marine fishermen with their boats operate close to the shore. The gears used are mainly locally made. The artisanal fishing is not very efficient yet the rate of economic return is higher because of its low capital requirements.

Generally, there are two categories of fishermen, they are boat owners and crews. Crews on boat consist of head crew, assistant head crew, driver and labour fishermen. The income sharing arrangement among boat owner and crews depends on the type of gear used and period in fishing season. For instance, in Chittagong and Cox's Bazar, 60% of the net value of catch, goes to boat owner and the remaining 40% is distributed among the hired crew. Share of each crew member depends on the type of functions performed by him (Haq et al, 1986).

Islam and Elahi (1993), recently studied the socioeconomic condition of small-scale marine fishermen in Bangladesh. It was reported that marine fishermen earn considerable income during the dry season (September to March) working as mazhi and other forms of fishermen. Regarding occupational structure and time spent by fishermen in different activities, the study reported that head mazhi, assistant head mazhi and labour fishermen were almost exclusively employed in the fishing activities. They spent 90% or more time on fishing. The boat owners were relatively less involved with fishing and do certain other business.

The income varies considerably among different categories of fishermen. The boat owners earned annual income Tk 429,892 whereas other fishermen annual income was only Tk 11,267. Both boat owner and driver derived 87% income from fishing which is proportionately much lower in case of labour fishermen. However, agriculture remained the second important source of income for all except boat owner who drive maximum income out of fishing.

2.3.2.2 Industrial Marine Fisheries

In large-scale marine fishing 20-25 crews are employed and they work as captain, engineers, assistant engineer, sailor and cook. The remuneration for crew is according to their status and participation in fishing. Per month salary of captain and engineer is about Tk 20,000 but for the other crews, per month salary varies from Tk 2,000 to Tk 8,000 (Doulla, 1993). There is no study on socioeconomic condition of large-scale marine fishermen has yet been undertaken.

2.4 Culture Fisheries and Fish Farmers


2.4.1 Freshwater Fish Ponds
2.4.2 Brackishwater Fish Pond
2.4.3 Baor Fisheries
2.4.4 Integrated Fish Farming System


2.4.1 Freshwater Fish Ponds

In Bangladesh, almost in every district there are numerous ponds and most of the ponds are found in Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Jessore, Barisal, Mymensingh, Comilla and Chittagong. They range from 0.02 to 0.2 ha in size. Ninety percent (90%) of these ponds are privately owned and the rest are in public domain.

Inland capture fisheries is exhibiting a declining production and productivity trend. But culture fisheries is increasing which results in higher production. In the last 5 years (1986-87 to 1990-91), pond fish production has increased by 33%. But the ponds are underutilized as the present per unit output, varying from 200-900 kg/ha/year (Ahmed et al, 1993). This can be increased many folds with proper extension of technologies. It is reported that with the provision of supervised credit and technical support, ponds under DANIDA Project in Mymensingh increased production up to 3.69 mt/ha/year.

There are some studies conducted to investigate the different aspects of pond fishery. Rahman et al (1992) and Islam and Dewan (1986) conducted survey on pond fish production and management in some areas of Bangladesh. These studies reported that under the different production practices and management per hectare yield varied from 1000 kg to 2500 kg. Gill and Motahar (1982) reported multiple ownership of pond is the main constraint to bring the pond under scientific culture and to increase the production. Ahmed, Rab and Bimbao (1993) made a survey in two thanas namely Kapasia and Sreepur in Dhaka district to examine the socioeconomic condition of pond fish farmers. The study reported that more than 80% of the household heads had farming as principal occupation and very few of the farmers were principally occupied with business and salaried jobs. In both thanas, around 40% of the male household heads had secondary occupation mainly as farming, business, salaried jobs and petty trading.

Land is the most important asset in the portfolio of pond fish farmers. Next to land, livestock is regarded as second most important asset. It generates income, protein and nutrition and provides draft power to cultivable land. Ownership of livestock determines the economic position of the households as pond fish farmers. A positive relationship was observed between ownership of livestock holding and ownership of land.

2.4.2 Brackishwater Fish Pond

Shrimp farming is carried out in the coastal districts of Khulna, Satkhira and Cox's Bazar. In these areas farmers make provision to allow sea waters carrying shrimp fry or juveniles to enter into their field where shrimps are trapped to grow without any supplementary feed or stocking. As a result, shrimp yield is very low and varies from 150 to 200 kg/ha (Das, 1992 and Mia, 1993). Scientific culture of shrimps is rather new development. The government has taken up many schemes to support technology based shrimp culture in the country from mid 1980's and as a result, there have been some improvements during the last ten years. Through semi-intensive method, some of the farms in Cox's Bazar and in Khulna achieved a commendable success and produced more than 3000 kg/ha two crops in a year.

The land under coastal shrimp culture increased from 51,812 ha in 1983-84 to 108,280 ha in 1988-89 which remained almost static till 1992-93. Total production of shrimp increased from 4,386 mt in 1983-84 to 260,000 mt in 1992-93 but still the average production is only 240 kg/ha (Hussain, 1994). It was reported that the average size of pond is very large and in most cases this size of pond is unmanageable and less productive.

Usually, very small part of the shrimp farm is owned by the farmers himself and more than 90% of farm areas is brought under farming on lease basis from other farmers. On the other hand, 76 to 95% shrimp farms in Khulna region and 35 to 53% farms in Cox's Bazar region have multiple ownership. Such type of ponds offer poor management and yield low production. However, even with traditional practices and harvesting one crop per year a shrimp farmer can earn income which may vary from Tk 23,000 to Tk 40,000 per ha/year (FRI, 1994).

2.4.3 Baor Fisheries

In Bangladesh, there are 70 baors (ox-bow lakes) in Jessore, Kushtia, Faridpur and Khulna districts which cover 5,488 ha of water surface in the winter season and produce 1,900 mt of fish annually (DOF, 1991). The baors are owned by the government and leased out to private fisherman. Considering the potential of baor fish production, the government of Bangladesh undertook policies for baor development. Accordingly, DOF brought 6 baors namely, Baluhar, Joydia, Katgora, Fatehpur, Morjad and Bergobindapur under the Baor Development Project (BDP) (an IDA funded project) in 1979-80. Among others, the main objectives of this project are: (1) to increase the production of the inland fisheries by developing the 6 ox-bow lakes and supporting hatchery facilities to fishermen and (2) to improve their condition.

All baors under the project set target of production in each production year depending on productivities condition of respective baor.

Very few studies are available on socioeconomic condition of baor fishermen. Islam (1991) investigated the economic status and income earnings of fishermen of baors under the project and compared with those not under the project. Fishermen get 40% and 60% to DOF of total catch. But fishermen have to harvest the fish on their own costs. It was found that the average production of project baor increased from 300 to 492 kg/ha from 1988-89 to 1991-93. Annual income of fishermen increased from Tk 4,754 to Tk 5,908 for the period 1985-86 to 1988-89 compared to other fishermen earning to Tk 3,552 to Tk 4,603.

2.4.4 Integrated Fish Farming System

Recently some research organizations, NGOs and institutes such as FRI, BAU, ICLARM and CARE have taken initiation to introduce integrated rice-fish farming system and poultry rearing over fish pond. In addition to ponds, Bangladesh has 10.4 million ha of rice field which can be utilized for fish culture either in concurrent or alternate with paddy production. Studies have indicated that such system of paddy and fish improves productivity and profitability of the farmers (Gupta and Mazid, 1993). The FRI in collaboration with ICLARM undertook studies in 50 farms in four thanas of Mymensingh district. The study reported that average net benefit earned from fish production varied from Tk 1,965 to Tk 3,998 under different treatment. In this respect more socioeconomic studies should be conducted to examine the feasibility of such types of farming in other areas of Bangladesh.

2.5 Research Needs

Until recently agricultural economics research in Bangladesh has tended to be overwhelmingly crop-oriented. Studies on fisheries have lagged behind. The institute for research on fisheries is relatively new, and does not have adequate staff. Thus very few socioeconomic studies on fish production and management and other related issues have been conducted in the country. However, some studies have estimated the costs and returns of fish production (Islam and Dewan, 1987 and Rahman et al, 1992) and some have examined the socioeconomic condition of fishermen involved in inland and marine sector (Huq and Huq, 1985 and Islam and Elahi, 1993). Most of the studies which are discussed in this report are microlevel and carried out in some particular areas for specific type of fisheries. Therefore, there is need for an increasing number of studies having representative data which can assess the true picture of the people engaged in fishing. Studies is expected on socioeconomic status of fish farmers and fishermen, needing credit and subsidy for fish production and its processing and distribution.

There is also a need to place more emphasis on small-scale marine fishing and the fishermen engaged in it. It is important to assess and forecast the social tension between the traditional fishermen and the entrepreneurs particularly in shrimp farming.

Research attention is necessary to assess the vital role played by women engaged in fish processing, net making and other fisheries activities.

3.0 BENCHMARK SURVEYS ON SOME SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FISHERIES SECTOR


3.1 Introduction
3.2 Proposed Research Projects for Benchmark Survey
3.3 Proforma for Benchmark Survey
3.4 Initiating Pilot Scale Benchmark Survey


3.1 Introduction

Considering the socioeconomic aspects and issues discussed in section 2, it is clear that there are important research areas on which studies are urgently needed. The International Socioeconomic Consultant appointed for the FAO/UNDP, BGD/89/012 Project, discussed in his report about the need of socioeconomic research. With the consultation with Dr. V.R.P. Sinha, Senior Specialist, Fisheries Research Management and Dr. Agazadeh, and the Director of FRI, three research project proposals are outlined here which need to be carried out on priority basis by the scientists of FRI in different research stations. The importance and significance, and methodologies of these proposed projects are discussed in research proposals.

3.2 Proposed Research Projects for Benchmark Survey


3.2.1 Credit System and Its Impact on Fisheries Sector: Economic Evaluation of Credit Programmes Extended for Freshwater Aquaculture Development
3.2.2 An Economic Study of Production and Marketing of Small-Scale Marine Fisheries in Bangladesh.
3.2.3 Economic, Social and Environmental Consequences of Shrimp Farming in Bangladesh


3.2.1 Credit System and Its Impact on Fisheries Sector: Economic Evaluation of Credit Programmes Extended for Freshwater Aquaculture Development

a) Objectives of the Study:

i. To identify the sociodemographic characteristics and occupational structure of recipient group of pond fish farmers.

ii. To examine the nature and extent of financial help received by pond fish farmers from different credit programmes designed by commercial banks and NGOs.

iii. To investigate farmers credit needs and their current access to formal and informal credit facilities.

iv. To analyses the credit utilization pattern and subsequent increase in pond fish production and income.

b) Output:

Sociodemographic characteristics of loanee farmers and their need for taking loan will be identified which will help initiate a relevant credit programme for them. Sources of credit with terms and condition and utilization of credit and subsequent benefit derived from it will be analysed.

c) Practical utility:

The present study will evaluate the impact of credit programmes extended for pond fisheries development and provide policy guidelines for planners and executive to plan properly the credit requirement of the farmers and evolve matching government support.

d) Methodology of the study:

Considering the concentration and availability of credited culture pond, 5 districts from different areas of Bangladesh will be selected. In selecting these districts and their respective thanas, BBS survey report on pond fishery(1984) would be helpful. Then with the consultation of TFO, Bank Managers and local NGOs, fisheries loanees will be identified from each thana and list of loanee farmers will be prepared.

Following will be the sampling design.

Sources of credit

No of loanee farmers

Commercial Banks

300

Grameen Bank

50

DANIDA

50

BRAC

40

3 other NGOs working in the sampling districts

60

The sample selection will depend on availability of population of each categories of loanee.

Pond fish farmers take credit mainly from three sources, commercial banks, GB, and NGOs. The present study will analyse credit from commercial banks to evaluate the achievements of government fisheries policy. Accordingly, 300 loanee pond fish farmers, taking 40-60 farmers from each district, will be selected randomly from the farmers' list. In case of GB and NGOs, 200 loanee farmers will be selected randomly from the farmers' list and the sample farmers will be selected for each of NGO as mentioned in the table.

Following the objectives of the study, structured questionnaire will be prepared to collect data from the loanee farmers and tabular and statistical methods will be used to analyse data and to interpret the results.

3.2.2 An Economic Study of Production and Marketing of Small-Scale Marine Fisheries in Bangladesh.

a) Objectives of the study:

Objectives are detailed out as two separate studies, one is in relation to small-scale marine fish production and other one is marine fish marketing.

1) Economics of Small-scale Marine Fisheries in Bangladesh

Objectives:

i. To determine the costs, returns and profitability of small-scale marine fisheries.

ii. To determine the factors particularly different methods and technologies responsible for variation of catch and income in small-scale marine fisheries.

iii. To identify the sources of fund and credit and financial intermediaries involved in financing small-scale marine fisheries.

2) Marine Fish Marketing in Bangladesh

Objectives:

i. Study the present status of marine fish marketing in the country and explore the ways and means to improve marketing system and infrastructure etc.

ii. To determine marketing costs and margins, and profits of marketing intermediaries both in domestic and export market.

b) Output:

Information will be generated on the costs, returns and profitability of small-scale marine fishers adopting different technologies in different locations. Craft specific and location specific income and profitability level will be compared and factors responsible for its variations will be identified. Accordingly, this information will help planners take policy decisions about the acceptability of the different technologies and also to plan the Government support.

Second part of this study will provide information about marketing channels, marketing intermediaries, profits of marketing intermediaries both in domestic and export market of marine fishes, so as to improve the marine fish marketing system in the country.

c) Practical utility:

The information generated will help the Government to judiciously screen the different methods and technologies, to support and expand desirable ones, to augment marine fisheries production and also to improve the existing marketing system and marketing infrastructure.

d) Methodology of the studies

i) Economics of Small-Scale Marine Fisheries in Bangladesh

The proposed research aims at making use of primary data to be collected from selected locations depending upon the concentration of gears intended to be investigated. Since, the marine fishing activities are concentrated in only the coastal districts of Cox's Bazar, Chittagong, and Barisal-Patuakhali, selected locations of these districts will be chosen for the study. Gill net, longline and set bag net fishing will be investigated because these three gears contribute the major portion of catch through small-scale marine fishing. For these gears data will be collected on trip monitoring basis covering one year period. Information on quantity of catch, different species being caught, fishing inputs used, revenue received from disposal of fish and sources of fund used in making investment in fishing gear as well as of fund required in meeting variable expenses along with cost involved in getting credit will be collected from the selected fishermen (fishing boat). A total sample of 500 fishing units comprising 300 gill net, 100 longline and 100 set bag net unit will be purposively selected from Cox's Bazar, Chittagong, Barisal and Patuakhali.

The sample selection will depend on the availability of population of each categories of gear and types of fisherman.

The selection of sample fishermen will then follow both stratified random and purposive random sampling procedure.

The production aspect of small-scale marine fisheries will be analyzed by making use of simple tabular technique using mean, percentage and ratios. Standard farm management procedures are expected to be applied in studying the costs, returns and profitability in marine fishing. The input-output relationship in marine fish production technology will be analyzed with the help of production function approach. Inputs productivity and returns to scale will be investigated after estimating the fishery production function.

ii) Marine Fish Marketing in Bangladesh

Five fish species will be selected for marketing study. They include: (i)Shrimp, (ii) Hilsa, (iii) Jewfish, (iv) Ribonfish and (v) Promfret. These fishes have been selected on the basis of their contributions to sales revenues. They together represent more than 80% of sales revenue.

Data for the research will be collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data on marine fish processing and marketing will be collected from different market locations and marketing intermediaries. The number of samples cannot be ascertained before hand, as the research depends upon product market structure i.e., number of intermediaries involved with marketing in different stages for different fishes.

Secondary data will be collected from published and unpublished records, and reports of different government and international institutions.

3.2.3 Economic, Social and Environmental Consequences of Shrimp Farming in Bangladesh

a) Objectives of the study:

i. To studies economics of shrimp farming to determine the nature and magnitude of environmental degradation, socioeconomic disputes and intersectoral land/water use conflicts in shrimp farming areas.

b) Output:

This study will provide information about the economics of shrimp farming and social benefit being derived. Socioeconomic consequences and environmental degradation resulting from shrimp farming will be determined. This will help in better planning and policy formulation in future.

c) Practical utility:

The information generated will help the public authority to set guidelines for controlling the incentive structure for shrimp cultivation in the public interest and also to avoid the adverse social tension and environmental degradation.

d) Methodology of the study:

The primary data will be collected from Khulna and Cox's Bazar region depending upon the concentration of shrimp farms. From. these two regions 10-15% of total farms will be selected. As the shrimps are still produced seasonally in traditional method with the alternative of rice and salt production, data will be collected both for shrimps and other crops, if they are produced in the same farming areas. Therefore, there are other peoples who are directly and indirectly involved with shrimp industry and they are either benefited or adversely affect, will be selected for this study. Information on shrimp production under different management practices and farm sizes in owned and leased in farms, costs of inputs and revenue received from disposal of shrimps, and problems and constraints in shrimp farming will be collected from shrimp farmers. On the other hand, the nature and magnitude of environmental degradation, socioeconomic problems, and causes of social tension, will be collected from cross section of concerned people in farming areas. However, for all these information, different categories of respondent will be selected purposively. The sample selection will depend on availability of population of different categories of fishermen.

In most cases, tabular method of analysis will be used to determine the costs, returns and profitability of farm enterprises, and to assess and forecast the social tension. However, specific analytical technique will depend upon the requirement of the objectives.

3.3 Proforma for Benchmark Survey

For conducting the socioeconomic benchmark survey, structured proforma or interview schedule is needed to be developed by keeping in view the objectives of the study. Accordingly, to fulfill the objectives of three proposed studies, different types of proforma have been prepared to collect data and information from cross section of people (Appendices 1-3). Appendix 1 presented a proforma through which data on credit programmes extended for pond fish production may be collected. Credit need and its utilization and subsidy for marine fish processing and marketing are indicated in Appendix 2. A short proforma is prepared for benchmark survey indicating the social tension arised in shrimp farming (Appendix 3). However, for collecting data and information each of these studies will follow the respective methodology.

3.4 Initiating Pilot Scale Benchmark Survey

Among the three studies, pilot scale benchmark survey was initiated to evaluate the credit programmes extended for pond fishery development. As a pilot scale survey, initially two thanas in Mymensingh district namely Mymensingh sadar and Muktagacha were selected. Following the objectives of the study, 20 pond fish farmers from each thana were interviewed. This survey investigated the sources of credit, their utilization and subsequent increase in production and income from fish pond.

It was reported that pond fish farmers receive credit mainly from two sources, that is commercial banks, and Grameen Bank and NGOs. For small-scale fish farming commercial banks made provision to provide credit with subsidized rate of interest (9%). Grameen Bank and NGOs provide supervised credit for small farmer development. DANIDA under the Mymensingh Aquaculture Project also provided supervised credit through some nationalized commercial banks. In the 1st phase, the project covered 6 thanas in Mymensingh district but in the 2nd phase, the programme has been extended to 20 additional thanas in 7 districts namely Mymensingh, Kishoregonj, Netrakona, Sherpur, Jamalpur, Tangail and Gazipur. Second phase was started in July 1993 and it will be continued for the next 7 years and there is a target to bring 27,000 ponds under semi-intensive aquaculture.

Under all these credit programmes, specially through supervised credit, pond fish production increased up to 3 to 4 mt/ha/year. Therefore, to evaluate these credit programmes and to have representative data and information, detailed survey is needed.

4.0 ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL TENSION ARISING IN SHRIMP FARMING IN BRACKISHWATER AREAS

4.1 Socioeconomic Problems and Constraints that Cause Social Tension in Shrimp Culture Operation


4.1.1 Leasing Arrangement and Managerial Constraints
4.1.2 Social Problems and Conflict
4.1.3 Administrative Problems and Conflict
4.1.4 Environmental Problems


Visits have been made to Khulna and Cox's Bazar regions and a first hand information was collected from the farmers and entrepreneurs. In addition to observation, secondary sources of information were used. The following are the major problems and constraints which lead to social tension in shrimp farming areas.

4.1.1 Leasing Arrangement and Managerial Constraints

Leasing Arrangement of Brackishwater Areas and Conflict of Land Use

Areas of shrimp farm are either under private or public ownership. The privately owned lands are small in size and in the majority of the cases, land belongs to several owners. They are procured or taken as lease for establishing a shrimp farm (locally it is called gher). In some areas of Khulna region such as Paikgacha, shrimp farmer procure land on lease for 3 to 5 years from 50 to more than 100 farmers to make a shrimp farm unit. Shrimp farmer(s) sign on an agreement with the lessors to gain legal right to use the leased in land for producing shrimp either seasonally (December to July) or annually. For seasonal lease, shrimp farmer has to pay Tk. 7000-8000/ha and for annual lease, rental cost is doubled. Normally shrimp farmers(s) returns the land after contract period is over. If the lease is taken for a particular season only to grow shrimp, the owner of the land retains the use right for rest of the months during when he cultivates rice or salt depending on the suitability of the land. In such condition, the land owners normally do not allow any excavation or topographic changes in their land. Structural improvements for shrimp farming such as diking the polder into easily manageable units, construction of supply canals, etc. are not allowed by the actual owner. That creates the problem and friction with the owner. Similarly, the shrimp cultivator invest money on construction of brick masonry sluices or any other permanent structures on lands. They do not like to part with the land after the expiry of the contact period, which lead to conflict between the rice farmers and shrimp cultivators. Chowdhury (1988) stated that 89.83% of the lessors are found to be affected due to shrimp cultivation and most of the affected lessors are of the poor and small farmer category.

In certain case when the rice farmers do not wish to lease out their lands for aquaculture and continue rice cultivation are forced to lease out by the pressure of influential people. Sometimes the gher owners deliberately flush out the adjoining land of small farmers with saline water and compel them to lease out the land at nominal rate.

Salination of Paddy Field and Forceful Occupation of Land

Standing saline water has an adverse effect on yield of paddy and even it damage the crop. Many gher owners do not construct the dike properly as a result of which saline water leak out or even flush the adjoined paddy field. Poor paddy farmers cannot afford to go against the gher owners who are rich and influential. Such harassments compel the farmers to abandon as rice farming and fall prey in the trap of gher cultivators. In Satkhira 30 percent of affected people are the victims of this forceful occupation (Chowdhury, 1988).

Possession of Land in Different Coastal Islands

Islands such as Maheshkhali, Kutubdia, Sandip etc. where new lands have emerged from the sea known as 'Char'. They are government khas lands which are supposed to be leased out to interested people but lack of proper guidelines and because of government administration leasing out get delayed. In the meantime, influential local people take possession of such land and convert them into shrimp farms. Equally strong rival groups clash over the ownership of such char lands.

Conversion of Mangroves into Shrimp Farms and Delaying Leasing Arrangement

Bangladesh supports about 587,380 ha of natural mangrove forests and also about 24,120 ha of planned mangrove forest (Mahmood, 1986). These lands are forcefully occupied by the influential persons who often even do not care to take the land on lease from the government. However, in Teknaf, 20-30% shrimp farming areas are government khas lands which are leased out to the farmers. In the mangrove areas of Chakoria Thana, altogether 3,000 ha of mangrove forest land were made available by the government for the development of shrimp farming from 1976 to 1982 (Das, 1992).

4.1.2 Social Problems and Conflict

Multiple Ownership of Gher and Its Division

In Khulna region, specially in Paikgacha, shrimp ghers are normally owned by more than one person. Among the sharers or partners bitterness arise because of vested interest.

Theft and Violence

Sometimes thieves, dacoits and even rival groups attack the shrimp farms and steal shrimp. In Cox's Bazar and Khulna, respectively 20% and 25% of the shrimp farmers reported that theft of shrimp from the farm is one of the main cause of social tension (Das, 1992 and Mia, 1993).

Entry of Saline Water to Freshwater Pond

There is scarcity of freshwater in all the coastal regions of the country. The local farmers try to resist construction of shrimp pond near freshwater pond. This leads to clashes between the two parties.

4.1.3 Administrative Problems and Conflict

Intake of Water from BWDB Canals

Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) constructed embankment to protect the agricultural land from flood and saline water and earlier BWDB banned entry of saline water into the polders from its canals along the embankment. But at present, many farmers in Khulna and Satkhira districts culture shrimp near the embankment made by BWDP. They use water from BWDP canals and sometimes police cases are filed against them. But considering the demand of shrimp farmers, of late, the government has permitted saline water intrusion in some of the polders for shrimp culture, subject to the condition that the water control structures to be used at BWDB dike opening, and constructed as per BWDB specification. But the BWDB specification are too elaborate and expensive to be readily acceptable to the shrimp farmers.

Complex Procedures in Providing Institutional Credit

It is alleged that the local bank officials make intentional delays in processing the loan applications for certain vested interest. This attitude has resulted in antagonistic relationship between the local shrimp farmers and the bank officials.

Deterioration of Law and Order

The law and order situation in the farming areas deteriorates, particularly in the harvesting season when monetary transactions are made. The farm owners constantly suffer from a sense of insecurity. In Khulna region, 9% of shrimp farmers reported this as a serious problem (Das, 1992).

4.1.4 Environmental Problems

Besides the above problems and constraints which lead to social tension centering shrimp farming, a number of environmental problems have cropped up.

Because of horizontal expansion of shrimp farming, very little land has been left for cultivation of other crops. Ninety eight and 78% of farmers complained about scarcity of grazing land in Khulna and Cox's Bazar areas respectively (Rahman, 1990). Similarly, poultry raising is also hampered (Rahman, 1990 and Das, 1992). Even the source of drinking water is getting limited. Most of the ponds have been converted into new shrimp farms.

All the above mentioned problems and constraints are associated with shrimp farming and each of these, to some extent, create social tension in shrimp farming areas. However, to assess and forecast the social tension, in-depth studies are required.

5.0 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

Following recommendations have been made to improve the present status of socioeconomic research and for upliftment of fishermen and fish farmers.

- Relevant research should be carried out by competent socioeconomist as set out in this report to provide proper guidelines to the government on this aspect.

- Government funded development projects should be evaluated to determine the social costs and benefits in particular to fishermen and fish farmers, and people involved in fisheries.

- All credit programmes should be evaluated to assess their achievements in terms of economic development of the farmers.

- The New Management Policy of openwater fisheries has been implemented in certain places. The impact and consequences of this policy should be analyzed in detail.

- All on-going socioeconomic projects conducted in different research institutes and organizations should have proper dialogue to arrive at a meaningful coordination and to avoid duplication of efforts.

- The government and NGOs should come forward to create employment opportunities for fishermen and their family members so that they can earn through out the year and not depend enterely, on seasonal fishing.

- Government and NGOs should actively encourage the fish farmers to apply scientific culture.

- Law and order enforcing agencies should be vigilant to minimize the social tension and improve the situation of shrimp farming areas.

- Provision should be made for lessors to get share in production rather than getting a fixed amount of rent.

- Formation of cooperatives should be encouraged with the genuine fishermen, and bank credit should be arranged through the cooperatives so that fishing boats, gears etc., can be purchased.

- A separate bank may be created or the BKB may open separate window for disbursing the loan with soft terms and conditions to fishermen and fish farmers. The credit institutions may also introduce supervised credit system not essentially requiring collateral for the loan. This system will ensure appropriate utilization of the loan and better production and loan recovery (MFL and FAO, 1992).

- With the changing pattern of land and water use, urgent research should be conducted to update data and information on different aspects of fisheries sector. For this purpose Fisheries Economics and Socioeconomic Division of FRI should be strengthened with sufficient trained staffs.

APPENDICES


Appendix 1. Proforma for benchmark survey on credit programmes extended for pond fish production.
Appendix 2. Proforma for bench mark survey en role of credit in marine fish processing and marketing.
Appendix 3. Proforma for short survey for assessing and forecasting the social tension arised in shrimp fanning.


Appendix 1. Proforma for benchmark survey on credit programmes extended for pond fish production.

Respondent: Credited pond fish farmers

1. General information:

Name of pond owner .............. Address .....................
Age .......... Education......... Social status ................. years in culturing fish pond.....................

2. Land size

Cultivable land ....... Owned ...... Rented in ..... Rented out ......
Area of pond .......... Owned...... Rented in ....... Rented out ......

3. Family members and their occupational structure

Sex

SI. No.

Agril.

Pond fishery

Hiring labour

Business

Household work

Others

D*

I*

D

1

D

1

D

1

D

1

D

1

Male

1













2













3













4













Female

1













2













3













4













Note: D = Days employed, I = Income earned.

4. Asset position

a)

Agricultural assets

Value, Tk


Land (area)

...


Agril. implements

...

b)

Household assets

...

5. Sources of income

Sources

Quantity or No. produced

Annual income Tk.

a)

Agriculture Crops Vegetables Fruits



b)

Livestock Animals



c)

Poultry birds Bond fish



d)

Business



e)

Others



6. Annual savings/dis-savings, amount Tk.

7. Sources of credit and amount taken for fish pond

Sources of credit

Fishery credit

Rate of interest

Year of receiving loan

Mode of repayment of loan

Remarks

Amount needed

Amount received

Commercial bank







Grameen bank







NGOs







Mohazon







Friends and







Relatives







Mention some problems and constraints in getting credit and mode of repayment
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................

8. Utilization of fishery credit

Items of expenditure from credit

Amount spent

Period of spending

Remarks

Tk

From

To

Pond excavation





Pond re-excavation





Purchase of fish fries





Purchase of feed





Purchase of fertilizer





Harvesting of fishes Others





9. Status of pond fish production (before and after taking loan)

Year

Area of pond (ha)

Production with species

Distribution of produced fish

Remarks

Consumed

Sold in the market

Gift

Kg

Value Tk

kg

Val

kg

Val

Kg

Val

1994











1993











1992











1991











1990











10. Technical and other necessary supports provided

1) Did you get any technical support from financial institution, NGOs, and government officials ? If yes, in which form ?

Regular supervision of pond:
Provided material support:
Advice for scientific culture:

2) Do you need more technical and financial supports and advice from concerned institutions to increase the production? If yes, how ?

Appendix 2. Proforma for bench mark survey en role of credit in marine fish processing and marketing.

Respondent: Owner of fish processing factory/fish landing centre

1. General information:

Name and address of owner of fish processing factory/Arotder of landing centre ...........................................
Location of factory/landing centre ....................................

2. Sources of income:

Sources

Annual income, Tk.

Fish business

...

Other business

...

Agriculture

...

Annual savings/dis-savings, amount, Tk.

...

3. Sources of credit and amount taken for fish processing and marketing

Sources of credit

Fishery credit

Kate of interest

Year of receiving loan

Made of repayments of loan

Remarks

Amount needed

Amount received

Tk.

Tk.

Tk.

Commercial bank







Grameen bank







NGOs







Mohazon







Friends and relatives







Mention some problems and constraints in getting loan and mode of repayment.
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................

4. Utilization of credit in processing and marketing of fish

Utilization of credit

Amount Tk

Period of spending

Remarks

From

To

Processing Factory:

Purchased land for factory





Purchased factory plant





Purchased spare parts





Building construction





Payment of wage and salary





Purchased truck and other vehicles





Purchased processing materials





Transporting fish to different local market





Creation of cash capital (cash credit loan)





Others





Landing Centre:

Creation of cash capital to purchase fish/processing material





Purchased truck and other vehicles





Transporting fish to different local market





Others





5. Prices of fish purchased and sold.

Species with grades

Purchased price Tk/kg

Sales price Tk/kg

Mkt margin Tk/kg

Remarks

Retail

Whole sale

Retail

Whole sale





























6. Fish processed and marketed.

Species with grades

Supplied to

Local and domestic market

Export market

Qnty (Ton)

Value (Tk)

High demand/low demand

Qnty (Ton)

Value (Tk)

High demand/low demand




































7. Market Trend.

Year

Fish supplied (ton)

Fish demanded (ton)

Remarks

Species and grades which have high demand

Domestic market

Export market

Domestic market

Export market


1994






1993






1992






1991






1990






8. Revenue earned from processing factory/landing centre.

Year

Full capacity (Ton)

Capacity used (Ton)

Total revenue earned

Tax paid

Total cost

Net return

Remarks

Causes of not using full capacity

1994








1993








1992








1991








1990








9. Did you get the following facilities:

a) Subsidized credit: .Amount Tk.___ Int. Rate_____ Subsidy ______
b) Tax. remission: Amount Tk. ______________________________
c) Tax holidays, period from _____________ to ________________
d) Input price support (subsidy): Tk/kg ________________________
e) Output price support (subsidy): Tk/kg _______________________
f) Technical support:
g) Material support:
h) Other financial support:

Do you think that more subsidy and financial support are needed for processing and marketing of fish in domestic market/export market? If yes, why and in which form?

Appendix 3. Proforma for short survey for assessing and forecasting the social tension arised in shrimp fanning.

Respondent: Shrimp farmers and other cross section of people.

1. General information:

Name of farmer_____________________ Age ___________
Education ____________ Social status__________________
Location of the shrimp farm(s):________________________

2. Ownership and leasing arrangement of shrimp farm.

No of shrimp farm

Area of shrimp farm, ha.

Duration of leasing (year)

Remarks

Owned

Leased in from

Other farmers

Govt.

Other farmers

Govt.

3. Assessment of social tension arised in shrimp farming1.

1 Cross section of people (paddy farmer, salt farmer, TFO and others) may be interviewed for question No. 3.

Possible causes of social tension arised in shrimp fanning

Response of farmers to causes*

Consequences of social tension

Remedial steps and measures to be taken

Owned farm

Leased in from others farmer

Leased in from govt.

a) Leasing arrangement and managerial constrains


1) Leasing arrangement of brakishwater areas and conflict of land use.







2) Possession of land of small farmers for shrimp fanning.







3) Salination of paddy field and forceful occupation of land.







4) Possession of land in different coastal islands.






b) Social Problems and Conflict


1) Multiple ownership of gher and its further division.







2) Theft and violence in fanning areas.







3) Shrimp fanning and its adverse effect on local fishermen.







4) Entry of saline water to freshwater pond. 5) Scarcity of land for rice cultivation on share cropping basis.






c) Administrative Problems and Conflict


1) Intaking water from BWDB canals.







2) Non-cooperation on immediate extension of electricity.







3) Complex procedures in providing institutional credit







4) Deterioration of law and order.






d) Environmental Problem


1) Scarcity of grazing land.







2) Hampered poultry raising.







3) Affected freshwater pond which were used for household works.







4) Extended fanning destroyed plants and trees and mangroves.






* Give mark High, Medium or Low in the column as the range of creating social tension

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