Field Document No. 5



Based on the Work of

Charles Angell

FAO Consultant on Coastal Aquaculture



Table of Contents







This report covers the mission from March 9 to 28, 1998. It is the second part of the coastal aquaculture consultancy called for within the scope of the Aquaculture Development Project TCP/SRL/6712. The terms of reference were as follows:

1. review the work carried out and evaluate the need for modifications to the approach to the survey of the selected pilot study area;

2. carry out additional visits to potential areas in which new form of coastal aquaculture could be developed and collect data necessary for the evaluation of this potential;

3. prepare a contribution of this component for the final workshop of the project;

4. prepare a technical report on this component.

This consultant collaborated with the Project Information Unit (PIU) staff of the National Aquatic Resources Agency (NARA) and the FAO International Consultant in the Applications of GIS and Remote Sensing, to refine and elaborate the GIS data base, undertake field surveys and gather relevant data.


2.1 Map Preparation by Criteria

The preparation of maps or layers is confined to the Pilot Study Area (PSA) for the present. The PSA is probably the most extensively studied coastal region in the country, consequently most of the criteria can be mapped and layered. When the zoning exercise extends beyond the PSA, the task will be much more difficult since few studies have been done of the coastal aquatic environments of the south, east and northeast coasts. A list of maps completed by the PIU in the PSA and those still being processed are listed in Annex 1.

2.1.1 Soils

Two aspects of soils are considered important criteria for brackish water pond culture, texture and pHKCL or other measures of pH which indicate potential sulfate acidity. Data is available for these criteria in areas covered by the NARA survey for shrimp culture feasibility on the western and southern coasts of the country.

The Coconut Research Institute (CRI) has done detailed soil surveys in the "coconut triangle" of the northwestern province. These data have been incorporated into the soil map prepared by the PIU. However, the map should be revised to more accurately reflect the proposed scoring system. Scores range from 1 to 3, representing soils which are not optimal, neutral, or positive. CRI soil types in the pilot area generally fall in A, B, or C series (see CRI maps). These could be scored as follows:

All A series......................... 1

B1, B2 series........................1

B4 series............................. 2

C1 series..............................2

C2 series..............................3

A through B2 are sandy, meriting a low rank. B4 includes sand, loam and clay, while the C series are loam and clay which are very suitable for pond construction. C2 appears to contain more loam and clay, hence it is given the highest rank.

NARA has collected soil pH measurements in the pilot study area which can be mapped. There is also data available for the south coast. The measurement of interest is the pH KCl which gives some indication of potential sulfate acidity. Both the surface and 25 - 50 cms depths can be plotted as individual overlays.

Comparable soil data for the east, northeast and northern coasts have not been found to date. Soil surveys in key areas may be required, but can only be implemented when the security situation permits.

2.1.2 Elevation

Elevation below sea level is referred to as bathymetry. Bathymetry layers have not yet been prepared for lagoons in the pilot study area. The resolution of nautical charts is too low to locate the 5 m depth contour for coastal waters. It may be possible to estimate its location by interpolation between the 5 fathom curve and the shoreline.

Detailed bathymetry of Puttalam Lagoon, Mundel Lake and Chilaw Lake is available from the Wetlands Conservation Project. There may also be Admiralty charts with bathymetry for Jaffna and Trincomalee harbors. It will probably be necessary to undertake field surveys to obtain bathymetric data for the lagoons of the northeast and east coast.

The upper elevation limit for brackishwater pond development is 5 m. The 1:50.000 maps show only the 20 m contour. It might be possible to get topographic data from the highway department relating to coastal road construction. There are highways parallel to Negombo, Chilaw, Mundel and Puttalam lagoons. Some local roads run perpendicular to the coast, so a combination of survey data from different roads could possibly enable location of elevations between 20 m and sea level.

The GIS consultant has interpolated the 5 meter contour from 1:50,000 scale maps. As the digitizer has not yet been delivered, it has not been possible to incorporate this data into the GIS data base.

The 5 m criterion is an important one in defining areas suitable for brackishwater pond culture. If an undeveloped area is deemed to have good potential for shrimp farming, a topographic survey is called for. The survey could be limited to the immediate area of interest and would establish elevations from mean sea level at 1 m intervals up to 5 m or 2 km from the coast, whichever comes first.

2.1.3 Vegetation and Land Use

A layer for mangrove distribution in the pilot study area was prepared from satellite data. There are digitized maps for limited areas in other provinces. The survey of the coastal zone done by Bandara (1989) has some mangrove areas mapped and may still be valid for the east coast. Use of recent satellite imagery is the most appropriate for this task. There has most likely been extensive removal of mangroves in the past ten years.

Other land use layers are in preparation, including population agriculture by crop, salt pans and protected areas. Survey maps of 1:50,000 scale contain most of this data and can be readily digitized as staff and time become available.

Ground water data is available, but is very expensive. While the TCP agreement seems to imply the Government could provide such data (General Provisions, paragraph 5), the issue has not yet been resolved. Well water data near the coast would be very useful to identify possible sources of brackish ground water which could be drawn on for fish or shrimp culture. Flood prone areas have also been layered for the pilot study area.

Many, if not the majority of farms along the Dutch Canal are unregistered. Hence, the farms shown on the map were personally visited by NARA staff and their position determined by GPS. Many farms, especially along the eastern shore of Puttalam Lagoon, have not been sited on the map (for example, Link Aqua Farm). Satellite data will shortly be available which will show the present situation and enable a more complete mapping of farms.

The location of seagrass beds reveals areas suitable for seaweed and sea cucumber culture. There are maps showing the distribution of seagrass beds in Puttalam Lagoon in the Wetland Site Report for Puttalam Lagoon, Dutch Bay and Portugal Bay. The NARA research officer mentioned that seagrass beds in Negombo are currently being mapped. Other areas will require ground surveys. Seagrass is a sensitive habitat that is negatively affected by increased turbidity from shrimp farm discharges and may require protection.

Very extensive seagrass beds are encountered in the shallow lagoons and bays south of Jaffna. It is likely they are found all along the sandy inshore areas of the Gulf of Mannar. It can be assumed that the interior waters south and south east of Jaffna, between the mainland and the islands of Velanai and Mandaitivu, are host to seagrass beds.

2.1.4 Access to Infrastructure

One of the strong advantages of the PSA for shrimp farms and other aquaculture enterprises is the well developed system of roads and electrical distribution. Scored layers have been prepared for this criteria within the PSA. Scoring was based on distance from the road or power line.

2.1.5 Salinity

A salinity map has been prepared for Puttalam Lagoon, but needs higher resolution. The salinity ranges should be amplified to accommodate the high salinity in southern Puttalam Lagoon and Mundel Lake. For example, 35 - 45 ppt and >45 ppt , or even 46 to 55 since shrimp culture can be done in high salinity water. There may be lagoons in the northern and eastern coasts which have similar salinity distributions. The problem is that much of this data is not spatial and cannot be readily represented in map form except as point locations where samples where taken.

Potential evapotranspiration or the difference between precipation and evaporation could be plotted, but could be misleading if there is a bay or lagoon in a semi-arid region which receives seasonal runoff from a large watershed which extends into a more humid zone. In any event, a plot of evapotranspiration would give a general idea of suitability for shrimp farming. As the difference increases, an area becomes less suitable since salinity will increase.

Salinity data is scarce for the coastal waters of Sri Lanka, even for most of the PSA. In view of this, an attempt has been made to approximate the conditions which affect salinity of lagoons and embayments. Thus scoring has been done on the basis of annual rainfall, river inflow, lagoon surface area and the surface area/mouth width ratio (the report of the GIS consultant, Dr. Geoffrey Meaden, refers).

2.1.6 Water Quality

Water quality data is very scarce and generally inadequate to construct base maps. On the other hand, appropriate limits of BOD and other parameters are poorly known for most species except penaeid shrimp. However, because of its importance to aquaculture, the GIS consultant devised a scoring system based on distance from point sources of pollution, urban areas and river mouths and also lagoon ratios. This will have to suffice until such time as more precise data can be obtained.

The problems encountered with salinity and water quality emphasize the need to embark on a base line study which will acquire this and other data over time and space. Base line data for water quality is critical, especially in undeveloped areas. Given the importance of shrimp farming, collection of primary data from field observations should be considered. Sampling may be limited to areas which have potential for shrimp farming, leaving aside other species until more information is available on their requirements. Water quality is a criteria that will require considerable field sampling, since so little data exists.

Certain areas will score very high for shrimp culture based on salinity, soil texture and pH, and elevation. These areas can be targeted for water quality sampling which can be further restricted in time to reduce cost. The peaks of monsoon and intermonsoon periods may be appropriate for such sampling.


The scope for assessing the potential of new forms of coastal aquaculture is very limited due to the prevailing security situation. The extensive lagoon systems of the eastern and northeastern coasts probably have considerable possibilities for shrimp farming and mariculture of fin fish, seaweeds and sea cucumbers. Artemia production can be readily incorporated into existing salt works in these areas. Only the south coast and the secure area around Jaffna could be briefly visited by this consultant.

3.1 South coast

The area under consideration includes the coast from Matara to Yala Wildlife Park. NARA has conducted a survey along the coast for shrimp culture potential. While some small areas have been identified as suitable, there is little potential. Many of the lagoons are periodically close off from the sea, making them unsuitable for either intake or discharge of farm water. Several exhibit extreme fluctuations in salinity ranging from fresh water to nearly 100 o/oo.

There are two critical habitat types associated with lagoons on the south coast: mangroves and salt marshes. Mangroves are important nurseries for commercially important fish and crustaceans as well as supplying nutrients to adjacent lagoons. Salt marshes are important bird habitats and nutrient filters. Shrimp farm development would severely disturb these habitats through direct destruction or disturbance of freshwater flow.

A site at Koholankala, Hambantota, was studied for shrimp farm development and an environmental impact assessment prepared. The site contains about 363 ha deemed suitable for shrimp production. However, it lies within the buffer zone of Bandala National Park and is in the path of an elephant migratory route. In fact, local opposition has halted the project at the public hearing stage. The site lies within the arid zone which implies only one crop is possible based on salinity reduction during the short rainy season (October - December). Ground water resources are probably inadequate to maintain salinity within acceptable limits. In any event, ground water extraction for shrimp farming should be prohibited as it leads to salinization and subsidence. Freshwater runoff could possibly be captured in reservoirs for this purpose. The seawater inlet and discharge canals would have to be quite long unless a source of brackish ground water could be found at the farm site.

Salt works are found at Hambantota and adjacent to the western boundary of Yala Wildlife Park. Lanka Salt Works, Hambantota, is the largest of these and has been producing about 500 kg per year of Artemia cysts as well as processing cysts from other salt works. The productivity is low, at only about 5 kg/ha, whereas it can be increased to 25 to 40 kg/ha with appropriate modifications to the condensers. Similar potential exists in other salt works provided the necessary modifications are made. Artemia biomass is not utilized, but could be developed as an additional by product.

As a consequence of low fresh water input, the sea water bathing the southern coast is of extremely high quality and consistent salinity. As such, many excellent sites can be found along this coast for marine finfish hatcheries including ornamental species and food fish. Finfish fry production could include sea bream, mullet, milkfish and rabbit fish.

Rekawa Lagoon has the most significant mangrove habitat on the south coast. Thus, the lagoon is an important nursery area and fishing ground for adjacent villagers, who do not fish in the open sea. Any disturbance of the mangrove forest would have severe local repercussions. Indeed, interest in developing shrimp farming on its shores has been blocked by local opposition.

Rekawa and other lagoons along the south coast, as well as similar water bodies in other provinces, could become centers for culture based fisheries. The results of trials with stocking and capture of tiger shrimp have been encouraging and there is great interest among the fisherfolk living on the shores of the lagoon. Trials have been completed at two sites, Rekawa and Mawela Lagoons.

Culture-based fin fisheries could operate in a similar fashion. Fisherfolk would be responsible for rearing hatchery fry to fingerling size, stocking the lagoon and management of the fishery. Fry produced in the hatchery could also be sold to private entrepreneurs for cage and pen culture. Sea bream and rabbitfish have export potential to the Middle Eastern countries even though the local market value may be low. Milkfish has potential for pen culture in larger lagoons such as Puttalam and Negombo which are suffering from heavy fishing pressure. Fisherfolk in Rekawa are also interested in planting milkfish in the lagoon.

The technology for marine ornamental fish breeding is rapidly developing. Anenome clown fish, gobies, wrasses, and even some angel fish can be bred on a commercial basis. Some of the ornamental marine shrimps are now commercially produced. The south coast is an ideal area for the development of this activity with its ready access to high quality sea water.

3.2 Jaffna

A brief survey was made of the coastal areas around Jaffna including Velanai, Kayts, Punkudutivu, Navatkuli and Chavakachchavi. Several sites were selected for possible shrimp culture pilot projects by the Fisheries Department of the Northern Province. There are a number of serious constraints which limit the potential for shrimp culture in the area around Jaffna. The following table indicates the major constraints:

Constraint Effect
High salinity Requires high pumping rate or storage of runoff in reservoirs. Increases investment and operating costs.

Slows growth of Penaus monodon. Culture of P. indicus in high salinity needs further testing.

Withdrawal of ground water for salinity control will lead to salt water intrusion into the freshwater table.

Sand and sandy loam soils prevalent Sandy soils require liners, which increases investment cost.

Ponds built on sandy loam will cause salinization of ground water.

Elevation Some sites are near sea level. Pond construction would render the pond bottom below sea level making drying impossible and require harvest by pumping rather than gravity.
Transport and marketing The present security situation renders input supply and sales to exporters nearly impossible.

Shrimp culture in any area where evaporation exceeds precipitation is problematic because of high salinity. It can be done, but production costs are increased. It might be possible to do shrimp culture using reservoirs to store runoff and initiating culture during the peak of the rainy season. One crop of P. monodon followed by a crop of P.indicus could be a viable management strategy. If sufficient freshwater can be stored, a closed system might be the best approach. However, with the current security situation, shrimp culture or any other technology which requires inputs not readily found in the Jaffna area is not feasible.

Several aquaculture technologies may be suitable for development in Jaffna, even in the resent security environment. Among these are mud crab fattening, seaweed farming and sea cucumber ranching.

3.2.1 Mud Crab Fattening

Mud crab fattening is not really aquaculture, but more akin to a feed lot operation. Recently molted soft shell crabs are held in pens and fed inexpensive fish or fish processing waste. "Fattening" usually takes 15 to 20 days, at which time the crabs have filled out with flesh and their shells have hardened. They are trussed, packed and can be air freighted to the buyers in Colombo.

The ease of shipping favors crab fattening in Jaffna, but timely transport must be assured. If security measures overly delay shipment, crab fattening will not be viable. The two major inputs are, of course, crabs and inexpensive fish or fish waste. Seventy crabs will consume about 5 kg of fish waste per day.

3.2.2 Seaweed Farming

Experiments and field trials in 1982 and 1983 demonstrated the possibility of seaweed farming using the local species of Gracilaria edulis. The culture trials were conducted on the shores of Mandaitivu Island. Growth, agar yield and agar strength were found quite acceptable for food grade agar.

Gracilaria can be propagated vegetatively or by spore setting. Vegetative propagation is simple and involves attaching apical cuttings to ropes, strings or even rocks. The trials at Mandaitivu Island used coir ropes and rocks. Rocks gave the best result, but production from coir ropes was also satisfactory. The yield was about 1 kg wet weight per m of rope. The seaweed can be periodically harvested by pruning during the growing season. The harvest is dried on screen. Harvesting can be done periodically by "pruning" the plants, which will grow back. Culture is reported to be possible throughout the year, but weeding of "pest" species of algae is required during some months.

Agar extraction is adaptable to "cottage industry" scale. The only equipment needed is a pressure cooker and freezer along with some ancillary tools (filter bags, metal trays, etc.). Agar is extracted by cooking the seaweed in a pressure cooker after which the liquid, viscous agar is poured into trays through a filter bag or filter press. After cooling, the trays are placed in the freezer. Water is extracted from the agar. After removing from the freezer, the agar is thawed at ambient temperature and the water poured off. Freezing may be repeated several times until the appropriate water content is reached. The resulting product is light and easily shipped by air to Colombo for the national market or for export to India. There may even be a small local market in Jaffna which could be availed of to get the project started.

3.3 White Shrimp Culture in High Salinity

The Indian white shrimp, Penaeus indicus, can tolerate and grow in higher salinity water than the tiger shrimp. Its culture requires different management as a consequence of its growth behavior. White shrimp grow rapidly to a size of 10 to 12 g after which growth slows considerably. Culture management at high salinity (above 45 o/oo) is based on high stocking rates supported by high aeration. Profitability is based on the harvest of a large yield of small shrimp in a short time, usually no longer than 12 to 15 weeks. White shrimp culture could be undertaken after the tiger shrimp harvest.

An on farm trial has been completed in Puttalam with assistance from the NARA laboratory at Negombo. The results of the trial, courtesy of Mr. Sumanadasa, are shown in the following table.

Area of pond, m2 8150
PL's stocked 54,000
Stocking rate per m2 6.6
Growout period, days 180
Salinity range o/oo 60 - 70
Number of aerators 4
Depth of pond, m 1.2
Harvest, kg 374
Farm gate price, SLR 220
Production kg/ha 459
Average wt, g 17
Survival, % 41

Note that the stocking rate was quite low. Survival was 20% lower than normally experienced with a similar species, P. vannamei. Stocking older PL's or using a nursery might increase the survival. The long grow-out period was most likely a result of the very high salinity. To achieve profitability, the stocking rate should be raised to 50 to 100/m2, while increasing the number of aerators. Further on farm trials are required to verify the viability of this strategy.

3.4 East and Northeast Coasts

Discussions on the aquaculture potential of the country often exclude the east and northeast coasts in light of the current security situation. However, for future development, these coasts probably have the greatest scope for expansion of the aquaculture industry. One of the first shrimp farms in the country was established in Batticaloa.

Although it was not possible to visit any of the sites along the east and northeast coast, one can infer that the numerous lagoons and the deep harbour of Trincomalee will be suitable for the culture of various species. Those lagoons with freshwater input are likely to be particularly desirable for shrimp farming. In view of the problems that have arisen in the Northwestern Province as a result of the uncontrolled development of shrimp farming, it is critical that an enforceable coastal zone management plan be implemented for the northeast and eastern coasts when the security situation allows survey work to be carried out.


4.1 Workshop

A final workshop is to be given at the completion of this TCP project, with assistance by the GIS consultant. The Terms of Reference for the coastal aquaculture consultancy call for the preparation of materials for this workshop which will not be given until about January 1999. The materials will be prepared and provided in due course.

4.2 Base Line Data Collection

The completion of the GIS data base is hampered by the lack of data, even in the pilot study area. Measurements of water quality parameters are particularly scarce. Recognizing that the time remaining for implementation of the project is limited, water quality data should be obtained for Puttalam Lagoon and Mundel and Chilaw Lakes. If possible, Rekawa Lagoon should be included in the sampling. Sampling can be timed to coincide with the peak of the dry and rainy seasons in the remaining months of the project duration.

The NARA Negombo station has included water sampling in each ecological study of Negombo Lagoon which can be incorporated into the GIS data base. Other key regions will be very difficult to sample because of the security situation. However, it may be possible to do some field work in collaboration with Jaffna and Eastern Universities.

4.3 Collaboration with Jaffna and Eastern Universities

The Eastern University has indicated his interest in collaborating with the PIU, but lacks funds to support field work. There may also be some equipment needs which could be met by the provision of a Hach water quality test kit. Soil samples could be sent to NARA for detailed analysis if facilities are not available at Eastern University. Although the present security situation prevents a thorough survey of the coast of the Eastern Province, some base line data could be collected.

A similar arrangement might be possible with Jaffna University. Perhaps the Department of Zoology would be interested in participating in survey activities.

4.4 Problems of Establishing Coastal Aquaculture Zones in Insecure Areas

Incorporating the eastern, northeastern and northern coastal zone in the GIS data base is obviously difficult. A very thorough search of older scientific papers, maps and agriculture surveys will have to be done. As we have learned, data is very widely dispersed through every ministry dealing with any form of land use. Universities and public libraries may hold agricultural and forestry data for these areas. Recent satellite imagery may be used to map mangroves and current land use. Perhaps the resources of the FAO remote sensing facility can be availed of.

The importance of establishing zones and implementing an effective permit process for the above coastal areas cannot be over emphasized. Uncontrolled shrimp farm development will result in extensive habitat destruction in the absence of management.

4.5 Species Other than Shrimp

The emphasis on shrimp farming and its problems are understandable in light of the industry's position in the export market. However, it should be kept in mind that lagoons such as Puttalam and Negombo are subject to heavy fishing pressure. Small scale aquaculture has potential for income and employment generation with relatively small investment. Due attention should be given to alternative aquaculture technologies in the GIS data base. There is less relevant data than for shrimp (which is why it was chosen for the PSA), consequently more field sampling will be necessary.

Annex 1

Maps Completed for Pilot Area

Pilot Area Status
1. Coast line Completed
2. Ground water annual recharge Completed
3. Power lines Completed
4. Roads Completed
5. Soils Completed
6. Rivers Puttalam to Chilaw Completed
7. Salinity Needs modification
8. Urban areas Completed
9. Mangrove Completed
10. Contours In progress
11. Bathymetry 5 m contour only.
12. Existing farms Nearly completed
13. Flood areas Completed
14. Lagoon uses Completed
15. Soil pH In progress
16. Protected areas Completed
17. Transformers Completed
Sri Lanka Data Base  
1. Base map Completed
2. National parks Completed
3. Main roads Completed
4. Reservoirs Completed
5. Geological formation Completed
6. Mangroves Completed
7. Sea bottom sediments Completed
8. Bathymetry, oceanic Completed
9. Districts Completed

Annex 2

Itinerary and Activities

3/10 Tuesday. Arrive Colombo. Discussions with international and national GIS consultants. Formulated tentative work plan. Attended briefing at FAO office.

3/11 Wednesday. Map review and planning work program at NARA.

3/12 Thursday. Government holiday, NARA closed. Travel planning with assistance of Mr. Sugathapala. Document review.

3/13 Friday. Meeting with Dr. Sunil DeSilva from Australia, Dr. Amarasinghe, Chandana Nissanka, Dr. Meaden and PIU staff at NARA

3/14 Saturday. Technical report preparation.

3/15 Sunday. Technical report preparation. Prepared materials for workshop.

3/16 Monday. AM. Meeting with Upali Pushpakumari, NPD. PM. Meeting with PIU staff. Discussed various aspects of mapping. Meeting with Mr. Sugathapala at FAO office.

3/17 Tuesday. Attended meeting of Project Coordinating Committee at MOFARD.

3/18 Wednesday. Travel to south coast via Ude Walawe with Dr. Sepalika Jawamenne. Stopped by Fisheries Office in Tangalle for brief discussion with S.W. Patirana, Dist. Fisheries Officer. Discussions with Mr. M. M. Ranjith, President, Rekawa Development Foundation regarding shrimp stocking and culture based fisheries. PM. Traveled to Uda Walawe Fisheries Station.

3/19 Thursday. Brief visit to Uda Walawe station. Visited Lanka Salt Limited at Hambantota. Interviewed Mr. Balichandran, resident chemical engineer, regarding Artemia production. Visited proposed shrimp culture site at Koholangkala. Returned to Colombo in the afternoon.

3/20 Friday. Arranged travel to Jaffna. Met Mr. Joseph, Jaffna Fisheries extension officer. Met with Dr. H. Dessanayake and Ms. Sharmila Corea, research officers, NARA to discuss water quality issues.

3/21 Saturday. Travel to Jaffna. Arranged accommodations at UNDP logistics center. Met Gary Helseth, UNOPS staff. Discussed proposals for fisheries and aquaculture.

3/22 Sunday. Jaffna. Field survey of selected shrimp culture sites with Mr. Joseph, District Fisheries Extension Officer along with T. Vikneswaran, Dist. Fisheries Inspector. Interviewed Mr. Kandasany, fishermen and vice president of the Velanai Fishermen's Society in the village of Chavakachchavi regarding sea cucumber and shark fishery. Observed Navakulu Salt Pans. Met with Mr. Sekandaraja, Assistant Director of Fisheries for the Northern Province.

3/23 Monday. Accompanied by S. Vickneswaran, District Fisheries Inspector. Visited more sites selected for shrimp culture. Interviewed Dr. K. Chitravadivelu and T. Satchithanandam of CARE at Jaffna University regarding seaweed culture and stocking lagoons

3/24 Tuesday. Return to Colombo.

3/25 Wednesday. Debriefed Mr. Bernard, FAOR on Jaffna trip. Met with Uwe Barg, Annick Van Houtte, Rohana Subasinghe in NARA office to discuss issues relating to shrimp farming in Sri Lanka.

3/26 Thursday. AM. Brief presentation of TCP/SRL/6712 activities and the importance of zoning given at National Workshop on shrimp farming in Sri Lanka: Issues and Challenges. Discussed coastal aquaculture potential of Jaffna with Mr. Bernard, FAOR. Prepared memo to FAOR regarding coastal aquaculture in Jaffna with suggestions for sea cucumber management and culture and seaweed farming.

3/27 Friday. Prepared mission report.

3/28 Saturday. Prepared workshop materials.

3/29 Sunday. Completion of mission.

Annex 3

Persons Met

1. Dr. Sepalika Jayamanne, Research Officer, NARA

2. Mr. Adikari, FAO national GIS technician

3. Dr. Geoffrey Meaden, FAO GIS consultant

4. Mr. G. J. Bernard, FAO Representative for Sri Lanka and the Maldives

5. Mr. K.P. Sugathapala, Programme Officer, FAO Sri Lanka

6. Dr. Sena S De Silva, Professor, School of Aquatic Science and Natural Resource Management.

7. Dr. Upali S. Amarasinghe, Sr. Lecturer in Zoology, Dept. of Zoology, University of Kelaniya

8. Dr. H. Dessanayake, Research Officer, Environmental Studies Division, NARA

9. Ms. Sharmila Corea, Research Officer, Inland Aquaculture Division, NARA

10. Mr. Chandra Nissanka, University of Kelaniya

11. Mr. S. W. Patirana, District Fisheries Officer, Tangalle

12. Mr. Suminda Wickramaarachchi. Fisheries Assistant, Tangalle.

13. Mr. M. M. Ranjith, President, Rekawa Development Foundation, Tangalle

14. Mr. M. Vidath, Dharmadasa, Aquaculturist, Ude Walawa Fisheries Station

15. Mr. Balachandran, Lanka Salt Works, Hambantota

16. Mr. S. A. Joseph, Fisheries Extension Officer, Jaffna

17. Mr. Gary Helseth, UNPS, Jaffna

18. Mr. Richard Conroy, UNDP, Colombo, on duty travel in Jaffna

19. Mr. K. Joseph, District Fisheries Extension Officer, Jaffna

20. Mr. T. Vikneswaram, District Fisheries Inspector, Jaffna

21. Mr. Sekandaraja, Assistant Director of Fisheries for the Northern Province

22. Mr. Kandasany, Vice President, Velani Fishermen's Society, Chavakachchavi

23. Mr. S. Vickneswaran, District Fisheries Inspectors

24. Mr. T. Satchithanandam, Fisheries Consultant, CARE, Jaffna

25. Dr. K. Chitravadivelu, Associate Professor, Dept. of Zoology, University of Jaffna, Jaffna.

26. Ms. Annick Van Houtte, Legal Officer, FAO HQs

27. Mr. Uwe Barg, Fishery Resources Officer, FAO HQs

28. Mr. Rohana Subasinghe, Fishery Resources Officer, FAO HQs