FAO/GOVERNMENT COOPERATIVE PROGRAMME
AFFORESTATION, FORESTRY RESEARCH, PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE
THREE NORTH REGION (PHASE I)
Report prepared for
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
The Government of China's goal for self-sufficiency in food production requires close cooperation between the forestry and agricultural sectors. Since reforestation plays a significant role in the protection and rehabilitation of soils, the Government of China launched a massive reforestation effort in the arid northern region of China under the "Three North Shelterbelt System Programme", intended to establish 35 million hectares of shelterbelt forests to fight desertification in the area. Reforestation activities were divided into three periods: 1978-2000, 2001-2020 and 2021-2050. Operationally, the first period was composed of three phases: 1978-1985, 1986-1994 and 1995-2000. During Phase I, 4.6 million ha of shelterbelt plantations were successfully established and currently protect 8 million ha of farmland. During the second phase, an additional 9 million ha of shelterbelts were planted, 0.4 million ha were reforested by aerial seeding and 4 million ha of natural forest were closed to grazing and protected from fire. Towards the end of the first phase, the Government of China approached FAO for technical assistance on the mechanization of reforestation activities.
This led to the formulation of project GCP/CPR/009/BEL, Afforestation, Forestry Research, Planning and Development in the Three North Region, to assist the Three North Bureau (a special Department under the Ministry of Forestry established to implement the Three North Programme) by implementing a research development programme with associated training and machinery development work. The project is situated in the eastern part of the Three North area, in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and the provinces of Jilin and Liaoning. Its activities are concentrated in four branches, Linghai, Naiman, Tongyu and Zhangwu, located in the Korqin plains, a transitional area between forest and steppe zones with a harsh semi-arid continental climate, covering 42 000 km2.
In 1983, the Government of China approached FAO for technical assistance with a proposed mechanized afforestation project. In 1988, with financial support from the Government of Belgium, a Belgian/FAO mission visited the Three North region and prepared a Plan of Operations for a two-month preparatory phase, which was signed in June 1989 with a budget of $US 351 070. During this phase a mission was fielded to define project activities, inputs and outputs and to finalize the Plan of Operations for Phase I, which was signed in August 1990.
The first phase of GCP/CPR/009/BEL began in April 1991 with a termination date of July 1996, subsequently extended to December 1997. Financial support of $US 4.5 million was provided by the Government of Belgium through FAO. The Government of China contributed an additional $US 2.7 million for office buildings, dormitories, workshops, staff salaries and operating expenses.
A mid-term evaluation mission took place in September-October 1993 and the original Plan of Operation was revised. An end-of-term evaluation mission studied project results in September-October 1996. Both recommended a continuation of the project under a second phase.
The development objective of the project was to enhance soil and water conservation as well as to expand the wood resource base to meet local and regional wood supplies and energy requirements. The strategy to achieve the overall objective focused on poplar and pine afforestation, management and research into comprehensive tree breeding and improvement.
The immediate objectives were to:
- develop a short-term poplar selection programme to improve the vigour, form and disease resistance of poplar planting stock through tree selection and breeding research;
- develop a long-term poplar selection programme to survey the performance of native and foreign species through mass selection starting at seedling stage, with a view to carrying out cross-breeding in the future;
- develop a tree improvement and breeding programme for local and imported Scots pines and other species;
- develop appropriate planting stock and planting methods for poplars and Scots pines, based on the results of field research;
- introduce, test and develop mechanical methods for afforestation techniques for poplars and pines, considering national and imported equipment and local environmental and economic conditions;
- strengthen the technical and managerial capacity of counterpart staff in all aspects of tree breeding and improvement, afforestation and mechanization systems applicable in the project area;
- support, monitor and coordinate scientific trials and activities in tree breeding, afforestation and mechanization components in the four branches, together with data collection and processing; and
- identify pests and diseases and propose methods and actions to avoid or control follow-up treatments and effects.
To achieve these objectives, the project focused on four main components: tree breeding and improvement, plant production and planting research, mechanized afforestation research and training.
The project was active in the branches of Linghai, Naiman, Tongyu, and Zhangwu. To coordinate activities among the various agencies and institutions involved within each branch, a Project Coordinating Group was established under the leadership of the Three North Bureau. In Linghai, poplar trials were carried out under favourable climatic and soil conditions, in collaboration with the Linghai Forest Bureau, Dalinghe Forest Farm and the Jinzhou Forestry Research Institute. In Naiman, poplar trials and a poplar selection programme under shelterbelt conditions (dry and sandy) were conducted with the assistance of the Naiman Banner Forestry Bureau, Xinglongzhao Forest Farm and the Tongliao Forestry Research Institute. In Tongyu, pine and poplar trials were performed under colder shelterbelt conditions including saline/alkaline flatlands with the collaboration of the Tongyu Forestry Bureau, the Xinhua and Zhanyu Forest Farms and the Baicheng Forestry Research Institute. Finally, in Zhangwu, pine trials were carried out in collaboration with the Zhangwu Forestry Bureau, Liuhe and Zhanggutai Mechanized Forest Farms and the Liaoning Sand Fixation and Afforestation Research Institute.
The Project Branch Offices were located within the respective Forestry Bureaus, while the bulk of the field activities was conducted in the forest farms with assistance from the research institutes.
The project shifted from working with high-yield poplars for wood production, which require good climatic conditions, to hardier varieties for the harsher conditions of the northern Korqin plains, concentrating on soil conservation and shelterbelts for dry marginal sands. Activities gradually moved to Xinglongzhao Forest Farm, selected as the most appropriate location for this kind of work.
A medium-sized provenance collection of native poplars (P. simonii and P. pseudosimonii) and imported species (P. deltoides, P. trichocarpa and P. nigra) was established in Xinglongzhao Forest Farm. Native poplars were collected in five provinces (Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Liaoning and Shanxi) over a northeast/southwest span of 1 500 km. Fifty different provenances of native poplars were distinguished.
Imported poplars came from Belgium, France and Canada. A total of 267 seedlots (including 150 lots of P. simonii) and cuttings from 349 trees (260 from P. simonii) was propagated, resulting in 1 234 trees grown from seed and 33 from cuttings.
A total of 471 different poplar clones was distributed among the four branches (Linghai, 258; Naiman, 302; Tongyu, 154; and Zhangwu, 26), to be grown in propagation stool beds, nursery trials, gene banks or comparative field trials. Clones included the traditional P. simonigra as well as new, faster-growing creations such as P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa, P. deltoides x P. nigra and P. deltoides x P. cathayana. Common methodologies for trial establishment and data monitoring were recommended throughout the project.
After nursery screening, field work was initiated in 1994 with deep planting of shelterbelt sites (dry sandy semi-fixed dunes) in San Qu (Naiman), Zhenbei and Talaba (Tongyu) and Daleng (Zhangwu). Superior growing clones were identified in nursery trials and observed during these field trials.
A total of 30 forest species and varieties from 101 different seedlots was introduced. A first selection, principally based on frost-resistance and survival, was carried out in the nursery, followed by field trials. These trials should be monitored for at least ten more years and, ideally, a complete rotation.
Plus-trees of the local Mongolian pine were selected in Zhanguttai and conserved (by grafting) in a clonal bank.
This programme was executed by the Tongliao Research Institute, using P. alba x P. bolleana x P. canescens from the Beijing Forestry University (BFU), propagated and outplanted in Xinglongzhao Forest Farm to screen for frost-resistance and growth under local conditions.
Deep planting started in autumn 1992 in an attempt to obtain uniform growth in clonal trials. Deep planting involved planting unrooted one-to-two-year-old saplings without irrigation. The variables studied were: the clone and its rooting capacity, type of stock, stock preparation, origin and planting technique.
Consultants in pathology and staff from the College of Environmental Sciences of the BFU concluded that there were no serious disease or insect problems with the poplars. There were, however, some disease problems with the Zhanggutai pines. The project acquired a specimen collection of pests and diseases from the BFU for easy reference and potential training activities.
A distinction was made between short- and long-term poplar improvement programmes, shifting from an emphasis on varieties for high-yield sites to clones adapted to marginal dry sandy lands.
A solid basis was established for a long-term breeding programme for poplars, with a medium-sized provenance collection of P. simonii (endangered species) and some related species and imported provenances of P. deltoides.
Clonal banks were established, incorporating much of the existing poplar genetic variety of northeast China, together with some imported varieties. The conifer selection programme indicated the superiority of the local provenance of P. sylvestris var. mongolica, while research on white poplars revealed their marginal importance for massive shelterbelt afforestation, owing to poor rooting capacity.
Deep planting (up to 1.3 m) proved a reliable technique for the establishment of clonal trials. These trials are medium- to long-term activities and require an additional 5-10 years of investigation to provide reliable results.
Forty-nine trials on afforestation techniques were established during the project: 11 in Linghai, 10 in Naiman, 13 in Tongyu and 15 in Zhangwu. The trials covered nursery and field operations such as land preparation, fertilization, spacing and tending. Pilot plantation establishment was suspended in 1994, awaiting research results on suitable clones and planting methods.
Trial results confirmed the effectiveness of traditional techniques, but indicated that quality of operations, particularly of nursery operations, could be significantly improved. The need for site preparation was not proven by trials. Simple disc-harrowing along planting lines would control weeds, if required, and minimize the potential for wind erosion. Fertilizer trials showed no significant increase in growth, presumably because of the low clay and organic matter content of soils.
Traditional planting is carried out by trenching (40 cm deep) and making pits in the trench. One-year-old rooted cuttings of P. simonii x nigra hybrids are usually planted in spring or autumn, during the short planting periods of, respectively, late April to early May and late October to early November. Irrigation is sometimes adopted. The excavation of the trench is mainly to achieve a planting depth of at least 60 cm, providing the root system with protection from the cold and placing it closer to the groundwater table. The process of trenching, planting and refilling the trench is expensive; potential cost savings, and thus the capacity to expand planting operations, encouraged the project to perfect the deep planting of unrooted stock.
Preliminary costing of traditional nursery and afforestation practices was calculated and a comparison made with new techniques using current project inputs.
It had been shown that planting at a depth of 1.3 m was slow and impractical for large-scale operations. Trials were therefore directed at identifying the optimum minimum depth required to provide good survival and subsequent growth. The results indicated that these could be obtained by planting unrooted 80-cm-long cuttings into a 70 cm slit in the soil made by a mechanical device, either in spring (and buried over winter) or in autumn. A mechanical soil ripper, named the Medium Depth Planter, was developed by the project for this kind of planting.
Although deep planting is less expensive than traditional practices, its overall effectiveness requires further study.
The Zhanggutai Research Institute developed a reliable method of producing and outplanting pine seedlings. Quality, however, should be improved within the nursery as the stock tends to have distorted root systems, owing to transplanting techniques. At the time this report was written, a new trial had been initiated with raised beds and taproot pruning without transplanting.
Traditional nursery and afforestation techniques, both for poplars and pines, are reliable but there is ample room for quality improvement. Site preparation and tending practices should be minimal and take into consideration the hazards of wind erosion. Fertilization trials have not yet proven their effectiveness, although progress has been made towards the requirements of cheap and effective deep planting of poplars making use of unrooted planting stock in non-irrigated dry sandy conditions.
During 1990-93, the mechanization component remained weak and the mid-term evaluation mission recommended that it be scaled down. The new objectives were the establishment of a workshop in each branch and the introduction, modification and testing of mechanical equipment.
The project purchased a variety of equipment (both domestic and imported), including tractors, ploughs and disc-harrows. All branches were equipped with irrigation systems for their nurseries, while Naiman received extra items, such as drip irrigation equipment, for demonstration purposes and its experimental poplar breeding nursery.
A simple equipment record sheet was introduced, mentioning consumption and related work results per type of machinery. An agro-economics consultant checked these sheets and calculated working averages. This led to preliminary costing of traditional nursery and afforestation techniques which shows potential cost savings. However, further investigation is required.
Workshops were established during 1994-96, involving new constructions, connection to the electricity grid and the installation of equipment, machinery and tools. The workshops were located at Dalinghe Forest Farm (Linghai), Liuhe Forest Farm (Zhangwu) and Xinglongzhao Forest Farm (Naiman) in September 1995 and at Xinhua Forest Farm (Tongyu) in August 1996. Staff were trained to maintain and service project machinery. Machinery development in these workshops is limited without further technical assistance from the BFU and international consultants.
Effective nursery and afforestation techniques require a minimal development of new equipment. Simple agricultural implements such as disc-harrows, trenchers and tractors are readily available in China and continuous-furrow machines for pine planting are currently used with satisfactory results. Minor adjustments could be made to implements such as the pine seedling lifter/cutter in order to improve taproot pruning in nurseries.
The project focused on the development of machinery for the deep planting of unrooted poplar stock in light sandy soils. Equipment development and trials proceeded in close collaboration with the College of Forestry Industries of the BFU through a Contractual Services Agreement and several consultancies. Two prototypes for poplar deep planting were manufactured: an earth auger for drilling to a depth of 2 m and a medium-depth planter based on a simple ripper (maximum depth 70 cm). The medium-depth planter performs well in sandy soils and can plant up to 10 000 cuttings a day. Eventual improvements would enable it to make a slit 80-100 cm deep, to increase the moisture available to the developing root system.
Four mechanical workshops were established, with trained staff able to service, repair and adapt mechanical equipment. Cooperation with the College of Forestry Industries of the BFU proved to be fruitful for both prototype development work and training. It was found that traditional machinery was suitable for field work and that minor improvements were possible. Prototype development centred on implements for medium and deep planting of unrooted poplar stock, principally an earth auger and a modified ripper, with the latter possessing the greater potential for economical operational use. Equipment use and costs were monitored, but improvements need to be made before plantation establishment can be accurately costed.
Central computerized databases came into operation in October 1995. The project used TESTBASE for the storage of field trial results, EQUIPBASE for data storage related to project equipment, WEATHERBASE for meteorological data and POPLARBASE for records of poplar species and varieties for the long-term breeding programme. These databases could be enhanced by the use of Chinese Excel. TESTBASE and WEATHERBASE need further improvement and a Chinese version of POPLARBASE would be desirable.
English language training was provided for 54 participants, computer training and software use for 37 participants and training courses on basic mechanics, workshop operations, diesel pump injector calibration, use and maintenance of project machinery for 68 participants. Training in afforestation techniques was also provided, as were several short workshops in tree breeding and improvement, meteorological training, soil sampling and soil laboratory operations and pest control.
Emphasis on English language training led to improved communication between national and international staff and was essential for sending fellows abroad.
Eight local study tours were organized: three to the Sino-German Poplar Project in Shanxi Province, one on pine nursery production, three poplar inspection tours, and a tour to the Three North Headquarters in Central China.
Eight study tours were organized abroad. Four study tours took place, combined with management training for the National Project Directors in the Regional Asia Pacific office of FAO, in Thailand. Two study tours, one to France and another to New Zealand in 1994, focused on mechanized afforestation. A study tour to Belgium and France in 1993 looked at forestry management and a final tour in western Europe (Belgium, the Netherlands and France), in 1996, focused on tree breeding.
Twelve fellowships, for an average duration of six months, were organized. Most of the essential project staff received training abroad.
All project reports on research results were written in English and translated into Chinese. A publication on poplar pests and diseases was printed (1 000 copies) and distributed to all agencies concerned. The distribution of other reports was limited to project staff and supervising organizations, owing to the preliminary nature of their content or narrow field of specialization.
Some individual trials were published in forestry journals, at both national and provincial levels. Ample scope exists for publishing further research results and most reports provide an excellent base for further development.
Clonal work on poplars must be continued to verify suitable clones. The long-term poplar breeding programme must continue. The newly developed afforestation techniques (deep planting) need further field testing to ascertain their overall value, although preliminary figures indicate significant cost savings compared with traditional techniques.
The principal results can be summarized as follows:
- a properly-staffed and functioning central management administration unit able to coordinate activities within the four branches of the project;
- trained staff, reasonably proficient in English, computer literate and with developing skills for conducting scientific research;
- a solid basis for a long-term breeding programme for poplars from a medium-sized provenance collection of P. simonii and some related species, plus imported provenances of P. deltoides et al;
- clonal banks incorporating much of the existing poplar genetic variety for northeast China with some imported material and the beginning of comparative studies on behaviour and growth;
- progress towards defining the requirements of cheap and effective deep planting of poplars, making use of unrooted stock, in non-irrigated dry sandy lands;
- the development of a poplar planting machine of simple and sturdy construction;
- the establishment of four mechanical workshops with trained staff able to service, repair and adapt mechanical equipment; and
- the establishment of computer databases for silviculture research, equipment, native poplar provenances and exotic clones.
The four branches are now provided with: sound research methodologies, procedures and programmes; trained staff; computers, software and data bases for data management; gene banks and collections and ongoing field trials; field equipment; and well-equipped mechanical workshops for maintenance.
Phase I laid the foundation for the development of suitable planting material and techniques. However, further investment is required to assist the Government with the development, dissemination and field application of the appropriate technologies. It is therefore recommended that the project be continued for an additional five years, to consolidate and apply promising research results, and to train counterpart staff in their use.
Future activities should focus on poplar conservation and breeding and conifer species selection; afforestation techniques involving the deep planting of unrooted poplar stock; the preparation of an investment project document for reforestation activities; and training and the dissemination of results.
It is recommended that the actual long- and short-term poplar selection programmes be continued and extended towards a methodological breeding plan.
The in situ collection of native poplars P. simonii and P. pseudosimonii, established during Phase I, should be systematically extended over the whole range of the species and the material propagated in nurseries and duplicated in at least a second stand.
Importation of the North American poplar, P. deltoides, should continue to cover the frost-resistant and drought-hardy provenances of its natural range. The European Black Poplar, P. nigra, should also be imported, again from suitable provenances in eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.
The initiation of a poplar breeding programme, based on P. simonii, P. deltoides, P. cathayana and P. nigra, is recommended as a logical sequel to the first phase.
Controlled crosses of these species should be executed by two different institutions on a contractual basis, followed and coordinated by specialized project staff. One institution should be outside Beijing, preferably in the project area and close to the required genetic resources, and the second in Beijing, with close relations with the National Poplar Commission.
Sound methodologies for comparing poplar clones of different age, different planting techniques, and different site conditions should be adopted and the conifer species selection programme should be continued with regular monitoring of existing trials.
Additional provenances of P. sylvestris should be collected from suitable areas in eastern Europe, Russia, Siberia and northern China. It is also recommended that provenances of Pinus banksiana be imported from their natural range in the USA, as this species is the only one to have shown initial growth superior to the local provenances of P. sylvestris var. mongolica. These conifer species should be tried over the whole range of the project, extending from Zhangwu branch to Naiman and Tongyu branches.
Close collaboration with the Chinese Poplar Commission is strongly urged in order to integrate the poplar breeding programme with relevant institutions, such as the Chinese Academy of Forestry, and other ongoing efforts, to ensure sustainability of the programme.
It is recommended that ongoing afforestation research be continued, with emphasis on poplar nursery and planting techniques. Trials on the deep planting of poplar should be continued for an additional three to four years. These trials should be established on a scale of 3-5 ha on dry sandy sites.
Existing poplar cutting production should be expanded to pilot nurseries and permanent stool beds should be established. Pilot plantations should be established yearly, from a modest start in the first years until full production capacity at the end of the project. Pilot plantations of poplars and other species should not exceed 3 000 ha.
Agroforestry demonstration trials with fruit trees and fodder shrubs should be established for demonstration and training purposes. Cost/benefit studies should be conducted for pilot plantations, examining the creation of direct employment, the generation of secondary and tertiary industries and services, the reduction of soil erosion, the economics of fodder collection and the effects on agricultural production.
Site classification work should continue and be developed with land/vegetation maps based on satellite imagery. Site classification should be translated into large-scale mapping of planting areas for future species/provenance site matching. Further monitoring of environmental factors such as climate and groundwater table depth is also advised.
It is recommended that planting sites be extended towards moving dunes, where vegetation is almost absent. Local experience in treating these sites, such as aerial seeding of shrubs, should be studied in the literature and through field visits to experimental plots in northern China. Suitable shrub and tree species should be selected, preferably nitrogen-fixing ones or those having a direct economic use as fodder, and tried within animal-exclusion plots.
The medium-depth planter prototype should be modified to reach a depth of 80-100 cm. It is also recommended that the planter be manufactured locally.
Regarding pine planting, it is recommended that nursery work concentrate on the production of high-quality stock with well-developed root systems. Raised beds and root pruning with mechanized tools for the production of bare-rooted stock has been started and should be continued. Further studies should also be conducted on the containerized raising of nursery stock.
It is recommended that an investment project document for afforestation activities be prepared for the Korqin Sandy Lands in Zhelimu League, Inner Mongolia, under the authority of the Three North Bureau and in collaboration with local forestry authorities.
Preparation of the investment project document should include: documentation of the rural socio-economic system, land allocation and use and relevant government policies and regulations; confirmation of the actual deep planting technique, including nursery operations, and completion of a pilot plantation phase; cost/benefit studies of these afforestation techniques and of non-wood products and services; and complete data on the ecological aspects of the area.
National project staff should have more contact with local and international forestry research through publications gathered in a library in Tongliao Headquarters and project results should be disseminated through publications, short video films and conferences.
Study tours should give priority to the project area. Additional study tours should be organized in the SanBei (Three North) area, a wide arc south of the Gobis and Shamos (stony deserts and sand lands) of northern China, from western Manchuria to western Gansu.
Conferences should be held on shelterbelt design, including revegetation techniques and mixed windbreaks, at the beginning of Phase II. At the end of Phase II, additional conferences, with international participation, should be organized to present results on revegetation and afforestation techniques and the poplar breeding programme.
The continuation of training begun during the first phase on afforestation practices, nursery management, mechanized afforestation and forestry economics is recommended not only for project staff, but also for forest farm managers and professionals of the Korqin Sandy Lands.
Additional fellowships are recommended in poplar breeding, forest economics, afforestation, agroforestry and forestry management. Local institutions that offer specialized short-term education in such fields as database management should also be considered for training purposes.
It is recommended that project activities be continued for an additional five years. Ongoing short- and long-term poplar selection programmes should be continued and extended towards a methodological breeding plan for northeast China, in close collaboration with the Chinese Poplar Commission. Ongoing afforestation research should be continued, concentrating on poplar nursery and planting techniques. The deep planting of unrooted poplar stock should be further investigated, including mechanization for large-scale application. Pilot plantations based on the new techniques and selected poplar clones should be established. Fruit trees, pines and sand fixing shrubs for fodder production should also be included. An investment project document for afforestation activities should be prepared for the Korqin Sandy Lands in Zhelimu League, Inner Mongolia, based on the project's work in poplar breeding, afforestation, land classification and economic analysis. Further training should include local training for staff from the forest farms of Zhelimu League, fellowships, local and international study tours. All study tours should have a strong link with the project's research in semi-arid land reforestation, tree breeding and provenance selection. The conifer species selection programme should continue, concentrating on provenance research of the most promising species and varieties. Finally, the project area should be restricted to the branches and field stations situated in the Korqin Sandy Lands.
|Dates of Services|
|Name||Function||Starting Date||Concluding Date|
|R. Antoine Reforestation||Consultant||1989||1994|
J.C. Heinrich Mechanization
|C. Chiang||Chief, Technical Adviser||1989||1993|
|V. Steenackers||Poplar Breeding Consultant||1991||1994|
|P. Sigaud||Tree Breeding and Improvement
|G. Arru||Poplar Pathology Consultant||1992||1994|
|G.P. Cellerino||Poplar Pathology Consultant||1992||1992|
|F. Costa||Mechanization Consultant||1993||1995|
|F. Tasse||Chief, Technical Adviser||1994||1994|
|H. Schmutzenhofer||Poplar Pathology Consultant||1994||1994|
|M.E. Mielke||Poplar Pathology Consultant||1994||1994|
|P.W. Cooper||Irrigation Consultant||1995||1996|
|P. Forrest||Mechanization Consultant||1995||1996|
|F. Beernaert||Soil Resources Consultant||1995||1995|
|R. Stevens||Reforestation Consultant||1995||1996|
|T. Houston||Statistics/Database Consultant||1994||1996|
|J. Van den Abeele||Chief, Technical Adviser||1995||1996|
|M. Villar||Poplar Breeding Consultant||1996||1996|
|Chen Shao||Field Operation Officer|
|Hu Mang||Assistant Database Officer|
|Huang Xiumao||Database Officer|
|Fang Lihua||Project Accountant/Secretary|
|Li Boyong||Contact Person/Driver|
|Wang Guochen||Tree Breeding|
|Yao Yuan||National Project Director|
|Feng Zhenfu||Junior Forester|
|He Jinxi||Forester, Head of Laboratory|
|Li You||Head of Workshop|
|Shi Shulan||Deputy Director|
|Song Guanzhi||Deputy Director|
|Wang Mingzhi||Junior Forester|
|Wu Xafu||Workshop Foreman|
|Zhou Rouxiang||Senior Engineer|
|Bi Qinglin||Junior Forester|
|Chang Feng Xi||Workshop Foreman|
|Han Yusheng||Junior Forester|
|Jiang Yunzeng||Head of Mechanization|
|Li Xiaoping||Forest Farm Manager|
|Wang Houde||Deputy Director|
|Wang Shuzhen||Mechanical Engineer|
|Zhang Jingbuo||Deputy Director|
|Chen Hongdaio||Senior Forester|
|Guan Huanwen||Senior Forester|
|Li Dan||Junior Forester|
|Li Fengshan||Deputy Director|
|Qu Xueqin||Soil Analyst|
|Tang Shucai||Mechanical Engineer|
|Xiao Baolin||Deputy Director|
|Yu Hongwen||Senior Forester|
|Zhang Zhusan||Chief Scientific Officer|
|Zhao Zhicheng||Junior Forester|
|Bao Zhimin||Database Officer|
|Gao Yinghuan||Senior Pine Breeder|
|Gu Wanchen||Workshop Foreman|
|Jia Zhihe||Workshop Head|
|Jiao Shuren||Senior Forester|
|Lei Zeyong||Junior Forester|
|Liu Tie Zheng||Mechanic|
|Ma Xiangjin||Deputy Director|
|Song Xiaodong||Conifer Introduction|
|Wang Guocheng||Junior Forester|
|Wang Jun||Junior Forester|
|Xing Zhaokai||Senior Forester|
|Zhu Dehua||Deputy Director|
|Zhang Minjie||Mechanization Officer|
|Huang Jindong||Poplar breeding||Institute for Forestry and Game Management Geraardsbergen, Belgium||Nov. 1990-June 1991|
|Zhang Xiao Lin||Machinery||AFOCEL, Bordeaux, France||Oct. 1990-June 1991|
|Li He||Poplar breeding||Institute for Forestry and Game Management, Geraardsbergen, Belgium||Oct 1992-April 1993|
|Wei Yongxin||Poplar breeding||Institute for Forestry and Game Management, Geraardsbergen, Belgium||Oct. 1992-April 1993|
|Xong Xiaodong||Pine breeding||University Louvain
La Neuve, Belgium
|Oct. 1992-April 1993|
|Huang Xiumao||Computer||Silsoe College,
|Nov. 1994-April 1995|
|Zhao Zhicheng||Poplar pest control||St. Paul, Minneapolis,
Minnesota, the USA
|March 1995-Sept. 1995|
|Wang Mingzhi||Afforestation and nursery management||St. Paul, Minneapolis,
Minnesota, the USA
|March 1995-Sept. 1995|
|Wang Jun||Afforestation||St. Paul, Minneapolis, Minnesota, the USA||March 1995-Sept. 1995|
|Wang Guocheng||Disease control||St. Paul, Minneapolis, Minnesota, the USA||March 1995-Sept. 1995|
|Hu Mang||Computer-based statistics||University of Ghent, Belgium||Aug. 1996-Oct. 1996|
|Fan Jinshan||Computer-based statistics||University of Ghent, Belgium||Aug. 1996-Oct. 1996|
|Chen Shao||Machinery||Silsoe College,
|Jan. 1997-June 1997|
|Gao Zhihua||Poplar breeding||Institute for Forestry and Game Management, Geraardsbergen, Belgium||March-1997-Aug. 1997|
|1||Vehicle, Toyota Corona Sedan||15 918|
|1||Vehicle, Isuzu pick-up||14 846|
|4||Motor tricycle, with cabin||5 452|
|1||Vehicle, Toyota Landcruiser, with optionals||14 774|
|1||Vehicle, Toyota Landcruiser||12 711|
|3||Vehicle, Toyota Landcruiser|
|1||Vehicle, Toyota Hilux||85 192|
|1||Vehicle, Toyota Corona||9 700|
|1||Vehicle, Toyota Hilux||14 942|
|4||Vehicle, Toyota Landcruiser|
|2||Vehicle, Toyota Hilux||128 460|
|4||Vehicle, Truck CA1091||27 200|
|2||Tractor, Changchun 40, TN-55, 2 DFH-802||40 946|
|4||Tractor, FS, with 2-ton trailers||15 012|
|4||Generator, diesel||11 831|
|1||Tractor, DFH 70, Crawler||11 899|
|1||Tractor, TJTN 654||9 271|
|1||Tractor, JD4450, with spare parts||48 890|
|1||Tractor TN650, with spare parts||69 129|
|2||Tractor, JD4450, with spare parts||58 200|
|1||Rotary hoe, ZH145||3 912|
|1||Rotary hoe, ZH125||2 415|
|1||Dozer blade||9 676|
|1||Manure spreader, Epandeur GV25||6 477|
|1||Meri crusher, MJ1.8||17 512|
|1||Backhoe, 1/RE3P||6 025|
|1||Covercrop, Crabe||16 652|
|1||Harrow, HRB 122, vertical rotary||3 416|
|1||Harrow, Nardi, offset disc||12 500|
|1||Backhoe, 3RE-3P||11 870|
|1||Backhoe, BH650||8 091|
|1||Winch for pick-up||5 076|
|1||Drill, Ciedil||2 112|
|1||Ripper, AGRI-PET 33||9 723|
|1||Oil storage tanker, tractor, trailer||19 071|
|1||Sprinkler system, trailer, sprayer||18 593|
|1||Poplar planter, lifter, disc-harrow, tank||5 179|
|1||Embanker, undercutter/lifter, rotary||2 557|
|1||Plough, disc-harrow, soil hardener||15 431|
|Seedling lifters and planters||2 182|
|1||Levelling blade, mounted||1 471|
|1||Ripper, single-tooth||2 349|
|1||Driller, prototype||3 338|
|2||Disc-harrow, with spare parts||15 300|
|1||Transplanter, for conifers and poplars||10 819|
|1||Drilling machine, Tauni Cross B||4 128|
|1||Sprayer, with spare parts||6 484|
|1||Plough, mouldboard||6 892|
|1||Tractor TN650, with spare parts||69 129|
|1||Precision seed drill||15 585|
|1||Cultivator, subsoiler/ripper, rotary||7 555|
|1||Drilling machine, Kimseed||14 200|
|1||Drilling machine, Tauni Cross B, with spare parts||4 016|
|1||Plough, mouldboard, with spare parts||5 556|
|1||Poplar cutting machine, with spare parts||10 885|
|1||Drilling machine, Tauni Cross B, with spare parts||5 649|
|Diggers and augers||11 088|
|2||Motorcultivator, with implements||30 028|
|1||Conifer seedling planter, with spare parts||18 383|
|4||Lathe, CA6240||24 260|
|4||Air compressor||8 012|
|4||Air compressor||10 180|
|4||Valve face grinder||7 888|
|4||Injection pump calibrator||17 620|
|5||Washer, high pressure hot water||9 030|
|4||Heater, oil and kerosene||6 976|
|1||Power hacksaw||1 694|
|1||Pillar drill||1 136|
|1||Hardness tester kit||2 169|
|1||Computer, IBM 386||3 080|
|1||Software, SAS system||1 800|
|1||Photocopier, NP1215||25 243|
|1||Photocopier, NP1215||6 909|
|1||Notebook computer||17 161|
|1||Computer, Compaq 486||6 769|
|1||Disklock 3.0||1 260|
|1||Computer, Compaq M420||10 275|
|1||Computer system, Acer||16 059|
|1||Wordprocessor, video, television||6 561|
|Computer hardware and software||3 461|
|1||Computer, Compac 486, with software||7 243|
|1||Communication equipment||25 107|
|1||Word processor, Stone 3||6 777|
|1||Photocopier, Canon||5 370|
Report of the FAO/BEL joint project formulation mission to the People's Republic of China (1-24 December 1988). R. Antoine and M. Bennett. February 1989.
Report on preparatory phase. C. Barneoud, C. Chiang and J.C. Heinrich. Field Document No. 1. June 1989.
Plan of operations. February 1990.
Report on preparatory phase mission (22 April-2 June 1990). C. Chiang , J.C. Heinrich. Field Document No. 2. June 1990.
First field report for Phase I (10 April-15 June 1991). Translated into Chinese. R. Antoine and V. Steenackers. Field Document No. 3. February 1991.
Report of the consultant in poplar breeding. J.C. Heinrich, P. Sigaud, C. Chiang and V. Steenackers. July 1991.
Methodology of poplars and pines selection. P. Sigaud. Field Document No. 4. September 1991.
Mission report (16-27 September). Translated into Chinese. G. Arru. Field Document No. 5. November 1991.
Mission report (17 September-5 October 1991). Translated into Chinese. G.P. Cellerino. Field Document No. 5. December 1991.
Mission report (24 April-22 May 1992). Translated into Chinese. G. Arru. Field Document No. 8. June 1992.
Interim progress report. C. Chiang. August 1992.
Mission report (15 July-5 August 1992). G.P. Cellerino. Field Document No. 9. October 1992.
Methodology of poplar and pine selection and improvement of techniques. P Sigaud. Field Document No. 11. December 1992.
Fourth report on the mechanization afforestation component. Translated into Chinese. J.C. Heinrich. Field Document No. 12. February 1993.
Fifth report on the mechanization afforestation component. J.C. Heinrich. Field Document No. 15. April 1993.
Mission report (March-22 April 1993). G. Arru. Field Document No. 16. June 1993.
Mission report (17 August-17 September 1993). Translated into Chinese. R. Antoine. Field Document No. 10. September 1993.
Sixth report on the mechanization afforestation component. Translated into Chinese. F. Costa. Field Document No. 17. September 1993.
Seventh report on the mechanization afforestation component. Translated into Chinese. F. Costa. Field Document No. 21. September 1993.
End-of-assignment report, draft (April-October 1993). C. Chiang. October 1993.
Tree improvement and research methodology, improvement of techniques and forestation trials. P. Sigaud. Field Document No. 18. October 1993.
Mission report (5-10 December 1993). G. Arru. Field Document No. 19. October 1993.
Report of the mid-term evaluation mission. Translated into Chinese. C. Davis and J. Van den Abeele. October 1993.
Mission report (20 April-5 December 1994). R. Antoine. Field Document No. 14. May 1994.
Proposals for revision of the plan of operations. Translated into Chinese. FAO Headquarters. June 1994.
Eighth report on the mechanization afforestation component (10 April-19 May 1994). F. Costa. Field Document No. 23. June 1994.
End-of-assignment report (10 April-9 July 1994). F. Tasse. July 1994.
Ninth report on the mechanization afforestation component (25 July-2 September 1994). F. Costa. Field Document No. 28. October 1994.
End-of-assignment report, draft (3 September-29 October 1994). Translated into Chinese. F. Tasse. October 1994.
Mission report (18 August-17 September 1994). H. Schmutzenhofer. Field Document No. 29. November 1994.
Mission report (3 September-29 October 1994). F. Tasse. Field Document No. 32. November 1994.
Breeding and selection programme of poplars. V. Steenackers. November 1994.
Tree improvement and cultivation practices, organization and management of research programmes. P. Sigaud. Field Document No. 30. December 1994.
Short-range poplar breeding and selection programme. Translated into Chinese. P. Sigaud. Field Document No. 36. December 1994.
Long-range poplar breeding and selection programme. Translated into Chinese. P. Sigaud. December 1994.
Mission report (26 September-24 October 1994). M.E. Mielke. Field Document No. 31. December 1994.
Research design. Translated into Chinese. T. Houston. Field Document No. 35. January 1995.
Formulation report of afforestation, forestry research, planning and development in Three North Region. J. Ball and A. Nanson. June 1995.
Formulation report of afforestation, forestry research, planning and development in Three North Region (Phase 2), draft. J. Ball and A. Nanson. June 1995.
Mission brief report. A. Nanson. June 1995.
Mission Report (July 1995), draft. Translated into Chinese. P.W. Cooper. July 1995.
Eleventh field report on mechanization (3 April-8 May 1995). F. Costa. Field Document No. 42. August 1995.
Twelfth field report on mechanization (3 July-1 August 1995). F. Costa. Field Document No. 43. September 1995.
Consultancy on soil resources and laboratories of the project area in the Three North Region. Translated into Chinese. F. Beernaert. September 1995.
Thirteenth field report on mechanization (3 July-1 August 1995). P. Forrest. Field Document No. 45. September 1995.
Fourteenth field report on mechanization (19 September-17 October 1995). F. Costa. October 1995.
Fifteenth field report on mechanization (19 September-15 October 1995). P. Forrest. October 1995.
Afforestation consultancy report (10 September-9 October 1995). Translated into Chinese. R. Stevens. Field Document No. 49. October 1995.
Statistics/database report, draft. Translated into Chinese. T. Houston. October 1995.
End-of-assignment report (18 June-4 November 1995). J. Van den Abeele. Field Document No. 47. November 1995.
Tree improvement and planning techniques, organization of research programmes and database. P. Sigaud. Field Document No. 48. November 1995.
Statistics/database. T. Houston. January 1996.
File and data management: Preparation for the collection of poplar material. P. Sigaud. February 1996.
End-of-assignment report (11 January-10 February 1996). J. Van den Abeele. February 1996.
Draft mission report of the international irrigation consultant (June 1996). P. Cooper. June 1996.
Sixteenth field report on mechanization (15 April-14 May 1996), draft. P. Forrest. May 1996.
Afforestation consultancy report (7 May-26 June 1996). Translated into Chinese. R. Stevens. June 1996.
Review of the research programmes, preparation of the final evaluation. P. Sigaud. June 1996.
End-of-assignment report (7 April-10 June 1996). J. Van den Abeele. June 1996.
Draft seventeenth field report on mechanization (10 June-12 July 1996). P. Forrest. July 1996.
Propositions for a poplar breeding programme in North East China. Translated into Chinese. M. Villar. December 1996.
Information for the end-of-term evaluation mission. Translated into Chinese. J. Van den Abeele. September 1996.
Summary of improvements in planting techniques linked with poplar selection. Translated into Chinese. Yao Yuan, Chen Shao and P. Sigaud. September 1996.
Review of the clonal selection programme. Translated into Chinese. Wang Guochen. September 1996.
Review of the long-range poplar selection programme. Translated into Chinese. P. Sigaud. September 1996.
Review of the pine and conifer selection programme. Translated into Chinese. Song Xiaodong. September 1996.
Summary of findings and recommended practices for afforestation on the Korqin Sandy Region in North-East China. Translated into Chinese. R. Stevens. September 1996.
Field guide/manual on poplar pests and diseases in the area of the "Three North 009 Project" (North-East China). Translated into Chinese. H. Schmutzenhofer, M.E. Mielke, M. Ostry, Youqing Luo and Junbao Wen. September 1996.
Manual of experimental design, statistical analysis and computerization. Translated into Chinese. Huang Xiumao. September 1996.
Establishment and monitoring of poplar clonal trials. Translated into Chinese. P. Sigaud. September 1996.
Conservation and improvement of poplar resources. Translated into Chinese. P. Sigaud. September 1996.