Hundred and Twentieth Session
Rome, 18-23 June 2001
ELEMENTS OF A DRAFT RESOLUTION FOR WFS:FYL
1. In accordance with the decision of the Committee on World Food Security at its Twenty-seventh Session, the CFS Bureau has undertaken to identify the elements of a concise draft resolution, based on the views provided by the Members of the Committee.
2. This document was prepared by the Bureau on the basis of inputs received in writing from Members or groups of Members by 1 June, 2001. In CL 120/10/Sup.2/Rev.1, Members' inputs are presented in the language in which they were received.
3. The recommendation of the CFS is that "a working group, open to all countries invited to the WFS:fyl, be established by the Council to undertake negotiations on the resolution at its June Session, and that the elements identified by the Bureau for the resolution be transmitted to this working group."
The preamble to the resolution could include introductory points such as the following:
The World Food Summit: five years later,
Attended by Heads of State and Government, or their representatives, at the invitation of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations;
Recalling the World Food Summit (WFS) held in Rome in November 1996 at which Heads of State and Government, or their representatives, adopted the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the WFS Plan of Action and pledged their political will and their common and national commitment to achieving food security for all and to an ongoing effort to eradicate hunger in all countries, with an immediate view to reducing the number of undernourished people to half their level no later than 2015;
Reaffirming the right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food, consistent with the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger;
Reiterating that the multifaceted character of food security necessitates concerted national action, and effective international efforts to supplement and reinforce national action;
Acknowledging the considerable efforts which have been made in many countries to reduce poverty and improve food security, and recognizing the commitment of the international community to assisting this effort as expressed in the United Nations Millennium Declaration and elsewhere;
Recognizing with deep concern that, despite these efforts and if present trends continue, the WFS target of reducing the number of the undernourished by half by 2015 will not be attained.
1. Implementation of WFS
|Africa Group||We the Heads of State and Governments reaffirm our commitment
to meet the goal set out in the 1996 Rome Declaration of reducing the undernourished by
The resolution should start by addressing mainly the constraints of not achieving the goals of the Summit, e.g. lack of governance; natural disasters e.g. drought, floods, cyclone etc; civil strife; conflict; low budgets to agriculture; insufficient international assistance to agriculture.
|West Africa||The need to establish a clear link between the failures of the Plan of Action of the WFS of 1996 and the declaration of the WFS: fyl. Commitments were made during the WFS, but their implementation has proven a failure. We therefore need to examine how to rally greater commitment on the part of Heads of State and Government so that they will strive to rectify matters.|
|EU||Reaffirming once more the agreement from 1996. Underlining
the strong commitment and the importance of vigorously implementing the Plan of Action.
Pledging to intensify the efforts towards fulfilling all the seven commitments of the World Food Summit, an important part of which will be learning from each other and sharing experiences.
|G-77||Reaffirms the global commitment made at the WFS 1996 to halve the number of undernourished by 2015 through the implementation of the WFS Plan of Action.|
|North America Group||Recommitment to the Rome Declaration and Programme of Action,
no renegotiation of any elements of the declaration.
Recognition of need to refine data gathering and improve accountability in reporting.
|Pakistan||A strong reaffirmation of commitment to the Plan of Action and objectives of the WFS.|
|Africa Group||Aware of the debt burden on developing countries and the increased demand of resources for food security (agriculture and rural development), call upon the developed countries to implement the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative and link this with investments aimed at aspects of food security.|
|West Africa||The debt issue needs to be raised.|
|Algeria||To highlight the acceleration and broadening of existing mechanisms to eliminate the excessive burden of external debt of the poorest countries and extend these to the heavily indebted so-called middle-income countries.|
|EU||Press forward with debt relief and improve analysis of poverty vulnerability and food insecurity (e.g. strengthen national vulnerability information systems).|
|Africa Group||Notes with concern the incidence of HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis in developing countries, encourages the developed countries to support the Abuja HIV/AIDS initiative.|
|West Africa||This needs to be reinforced by encouraging FAO to include a component on "fighting HIV/AIDS" when formulating its projects. The pharmaceutical industries need to be urged to allow easier access to medicines against HIV/AIDS.|
|Algeria||Reference should be made to concrete actions involving States, the international pharmaceutical industry, the non-profit sector and multinational companies to make medicines accessible to African populations, especially those with low income and affected by pandemics such as AIDS.|
|Gabon||We would also like to mention that the consequences of AIDS and other endemic diseases should be taken into consideration and that the mobilization of international aid should include the mobilization of the pharmaceutical industries in support of countries affected by these devastating diseases. A draft resolution should not fail to refer to international aid in this sector.|
|North America Group||Take into consideration the new challenges such as the critical relationship of HIV-AIDS on all aspects of food security.|
|Norway||Prevent and mitigate the effects of HIV/AIDS through food security policies, programmes and activities.|
|Africa Group||Calls upon developed countries to open their markets with the prospects of expanding markets for developing countries.|
|West Africa||Reference should be made to the difficulties and inequalities associated with international trade.|
|Algeria||Facilitate access of commodities from the South to the markets of the countries of the North, ... and review the new protectionist initiatives.|
|EU||Foster pro-poor markets at national level and strengthen efforts to ensure a fair international trade environment.|
|GRULAC||The liberalization of trade is a priority ingredient for the
achievement of equality. Free access to markets and the elimination of subsidies and
discriminatory, tariff and tariff-like measures are indispensable to avoid distortion of
international prices that directly influence decisions concerning investment, methods of
production, trade and consumption.
It is important for Latin America and the Caribbean that fair trade practices be respected, particularly with regard to agriculture, enabling us to compete under conditions of equality and thereby also fostering the obtainment of greater resources to deal with food insecurity and, in general, the development of individual countries.
At the same time, there should be an effective application of the special and differentiated treatment for net food-importing developing countries, under the agreements established by the World Trade Organization.
|Pakistan||A call for increased market access for the agricultural produce of the developing countries.|
|USA||Trade and economic growth are key elements in achieving food security.|
5. Agricultural Research/Transfer of technology
|Africa Group||Stresses the importance of technology transfer, information sharing and capacity building as crucial to achieving the WFS PoA goals.|
|Algeria||The promotion of agricultural research to raise productivity ... facilitate the transfer of technology.|
|Bulgaria||Taken the pivotal and, in the present context, crucial role of the new technologies, at the Summit we would also be looking forward to an appreciation of the initiative of G-8 countries to consider at the Summit in Genoa next July the launching of two new facilities, namely: a Global Research and Development Fund and a New Trust Fund for Health, that comprise, as they are presented at this moment, components directly linked to agriculture and rural development.|
6. Hunger and Poverty
|Afghanistan||A Resolution that heightens the inherent twinning between
food security and poverty reduction in general, and of rural poverty in particular.
A Resolution that gives specific attention to the plight of the LDCs and LIFDCs in improving their food security.
|Africa Group||Noting that the fight against poverty begins with the fight against hunger.|
|Bulgaria||In the first place, the need to reach a concerted understanding and agreement that the fight against poverty begins with eradicating hunger, the primary responsibility for which lies with national governments and policies. The role of the external factor, in all its variety, is only of complementary character, no matter how important that be. Therefore, there is the need to rethink, at the national and international level, the whole concept of the economic and social function of the State under the conditions of the global problems of today.|
|EU||Strengthen direct action to mitigate hunger in the short term
(move beyond a narrow focus on food aid; Re-think approaches to people living with
Encourage provision of global public goods in support of poverty elimination (e.g. capacity building for international trade negotiations; code of conduct on responsible fisheries).
|G-77||Give priority to the fight against hunger as the principal means to eradicate poverty.|
|GRULAC||Given that chronic hunger is in equal measure a cause and effect of poverty, GRULAC is convinced that any resolution adopted by our Heads of State and Government should be based on the conviction that the fight against poverty begins with the fight against hunger. Success also depends on this being replicated at world level. Given that the eradication of hunger is in itself an objective of international development, we consider that this should be expressly included in the strategies and mechanisms for the reduction of poverty of international cooperation agencies and international financing institutions.|
|North America Group||Recognition of the need for demand-driven approach based on country-owned strategies including an environment for the eradication of hunger and poverty.|
|Norway||Setting the interest of the poor and hungry first|
|Pakistan||A call for including WFS targets as monitorable objectives in
the International Development Goals.
A call for internalizing and integrating the National Plans of Action in the Poverty Reduction Strategies being prepared.
7. Enabling environment/governance
|Bulgaria||We will be looking forward to see as a second focal point of the Summit and the Final Declaration the need to elaborate and implement policies at the national level that would more effectively and timely create political, economic and legal environment conducive to enhancing resources for sustainable agriculture and rural development in the context of broader economic growth policies.|
|EU||Strengthen good governance in developing countries and
prevent/mitigate situations of chronic political instability (e.g. conflict - actual or
threatened - in much of sub-Saharan Africa)
Highlighting the positive impact of conflict resolution, of good governance, of respect for human rights, of rule of law, as conditions for food security.
|North America Group||Recognition that some valuable progress in enhancing food security globally has been achieved although much remains to be done and that factors including economic growth, market liberalization, policy reforms and poverty reduction efforts contribute to food security enhancement along with explicit food security programmes.|
|USA||This includes developing an enabling environment in all its governance, policy, and economic aspects and having policies that ensure peace and stability and that protect and promote human rights.|
8. Development assistance
|Africa Group||Call upon developed countries to raise ODA allocations towards the 0.7% of GDP as agreed.|
|Bulgaria||Here the Summit and the Final Declaration could also confirm
the catalytic role of the bilateral and multilateral assistance for development and the
need to continue the concerted efforts to make it more efficient and thus revert the
negative tendencies of the recent past that are a valid cause for concern.
The Summit itself could encourage the implementation of type-specific programs for eradicating hunger by mobilizing national, bilateral and/or multilateral resources depending on the specific cases that demand differentiated approaches. It could stress the need to focus these programs on fighting hunger in the rural areas through special measures for agriculture and rural development.
|Recognizing the difficulties faced by the countries with
economy in transition conducting market-oriented reforms and the necessity to enhance
their capacity to address their food security needs, and to utilize effectively the
benefits and mitigate the negative implications of globalization.
Calls upon the international community to continue assistance to the countries with economy in transition with a view of sustaining positive trends in their economic and social development, also in regard to attaining the objectives set by the World Food Summit.
|G-77||Urge the concerned governments to take the necessary action to ensure that their ODA reaches the level of 0.7 per cent of GNP, agreed as part of the International Development Strategy adopted in 1970, from the current level of 0.24 per cent, for the international financing institutions to reverse the declining trend in their lending to agriculture and rural development which fell by 37 per cent between the years 1990 and 1999.|
|GRULAC||Food aid for development plays a fundamental role in national
strategies against hunger in our region, which is why we consider that greater efforts
should be made to increase this form of aid, without however this being used to justify
the disposal of existing surpluses in countries that employ subsidies.
In this connection, Latin America and the Caribbean are most concerned over the impact of conflicts and the global drug problem on world food security and the development of the rural and environmental sector.
The process of crop substitution needs urgent economic and social sustainability, as well as implementation of a system that will channel resources to integrated projects that will provide added value to production chains, so that peasant farmers of affected countries can earn fair incomes for growing legal products. Shared responsibility and an integrated and balanced approach in this regard need to be reflected in greater cooperation for programmes of alternative development, and through easier access of substitute products to international markets. It is important in this context to establish agreements for the promotion and protection of capital investment.
|Pakistan||A call to the developed countries to strive to attain an ODA
level of 0.7% of GNP.
A call to reverse the declining trend in investment in agriculture and rural development from bilateral and multilateral assistance.
9. Role of FAO
|Bulgaria||The renewal of the common and sincere commitment to raise the standing and more effectively use the unique instrument that we all have in behalf of FAO and to support the consolidation of its activities.|
|GRULAC||The lines of action proposed by FAO as a basis to design
improved national food security programmes, to determine institutional responsibilities
and to forge partnerships are useful, if applied flexibly and according to individual
realities. FAO can play a guiding role in this regard.
A more effective communications strategy needs to be developed to sensitize international public opinion to the scourge of hunger. FAO has a vital function to play in this regard.
We are concerned that utilization of the LIFDC list is preventing recipient countries from receiving assistance proportionate to their actual internal needs. This is impediment is due to the fact that the list serves as a criterion of bilateral and multilateral donor assistance. GRULAC requests that, in consultation with the Member Nations, FAO rectify the classification criteria for such lists and include the criterion of food security within each country when drawing them up. We are convinced that present indicators give an incomplete and superficial picture of country situations as they fail to include an analysis of the level of food security of the population or the number of people living below the poverty line.
10. Trust Fund
|Afghanistan||A Resolution that provides additional extra-budgetary resources to FAO to enhance its field activities in the area of food security, particularly capacity building in the LDCs and LIFDCs and further promoting the South-South Programme.|
|Africa Group||That a Trust Fund be established from which various agricultural and development projects geared towards the achievement of food security could be funded.|
|West Africa||The establishment of a trust fund to enable FAO to perform its mandated duties.|
|G-77||Establish a Trust Fund in FAO to be financed by voluntary contributions, initially for an amount of US$ 500 million, to serve as a catalyst for accelerating food production and improving food access in developing countries.|
|Gabon||Finally, we support the idea of setting up a trust fund aimed at reinforcing food security.|
|GRULAC||A trust fund needs to be created in FAO on the basis of voluntary contributions to help, among other aspects, with the formulation of projects that will enable developing countries to gain easier access to multilateral and bilateral financial resources.|
|Pakistan||We have been consistently arguing for higher resources for SPFS. This argument stems from our firm belief that SPFS is useful in contributing to fight against hunger. In this sense we re open to and support the concept of a trust fund. However given the fact that FAO was only able to mobilize over $200 million over five years towards SPFS, the question would arise as to how realistic would be the figure proposed for the size of the Fund.|
11. Access to Food/Right to Food
|West Africa||Reaffirmation of the right to food as a basic human right. The operative part of the declaration should begin with this reaffirmation, while stressing that any intention to combat rural poverty must begin by combating hunger. Priority should be given to fighting hunger within the framework of fighting poverty.|
|EU||Reaffirming the right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food, consistent with the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger.|
|G-77||To reaffirm the need to refrain from adopting unilateral measures that are inconsistent with international law and the Charter of the United Nations or that place food security in danger.|
|GRULAC||We support the drafting of the international code of conduct on the right to food provided that this refers to access to food, as this will spur national and international efforts to generate greater and better access to sufficient, appropriate and safe food. It is also important because it will generate mechanisms that will promote the effective realization of the right to food.|
|Norway||The right to adequate food as a human right and the
implementation of this right.
Access to food for all, in particular for the poorest.
12. Empowerment of people/gender
|North America Group||Recognition of the continuing critical role of women in all aspects of food security and the need to increase efforts to provide equal access to land as well as resources, including inputs, credit, financing and markets; education and training.|
|Norway||Equality through empowerment of people, both men and women, with specific attention to the role of women in achieving food security.|
|USA||Consideration of the gender, population, and health factors in the food security equation.|
13. Sustainable development
|West Africa||Complete the paragraph by adding the phrase "and ban the
use of pesticides that are dangerous to humans and animals". (Para XXII)
The declaration should also highlight the need to combat desertification.
|GRULAC||At the same time, greater attention needs to be paid to the more disadvantaged areas, in particular those affected or threatened by desertification or by particular conditions of ecological deterioration. Environmental protection and the sustainable use of natural resources is also a challenge that implies shared but differentiated responsibilities, as well as assistance to the developing countries.|
|Norway||Fostering sustainable rural policies, including agriculture, forestry and fisheries|
|USA||The importance of sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and rural sectors and using natural resources in an economically sound and sustainable manner.|
14. National/international responsibilities
|Afghanistan||A Resolution that calls for renewed policy initiatives at the
national level closely linked to the implementation process of the 1996 Plan of Action and
with greater emphasis on peoples participation and the empowerment of the underprivileged.
A Resolution that focuses on future policy directions/initiatives concerning national and international resource mobilization for the improvement of food security in the developing countries.
|EU||Recall that the Rome declaration underlines the national responsibility for success, as set out in the World Food Summit Plan of Action.|
|North America Group||Recognition of the need for an integrated and collaborative approach incorporating the respective efforts of the various stakeholders in the international community while avoiding duplication of effort.|
|USA||The primary responsibility for attaining food security rests with national governments, within the context of a shared responsibility for international support.|
15. Role of private sector
|USA||The essential role of the private sector.|
|Africa Group||Aware of the consequences of war and civil strife on agricultural production in the developing countries we call upon the international communities to assist in resolving the conflicts.|
|West Africa||The question is whether it is hunger, malnutrition and poverty that cause conflicts and wars or the contrary. This paragraph should be reworded by stating that conflicts and wars cause hunger, malnutrition and poverty.|
|GRULAC||We need to examine the suitability of existing mechanisms for international cooperation, with priority emphasis on their capacity to forestall and predict crises, and promote early response mechanisms.|
17. Investment in agriculture and rural development
|Afghanistan||A Resolution that proposes guidelines and not giving guidance, to regional and international financing institutions and the private sector in energizing their lending programmes in support of eradicating hunger and rural poverty in the developing countries.|
|Africa Group||Calls upon International Financial Institutions to invest heavily in
agricultural and rural development of developing countries.
Calls upon the developing countries to increase their budget allocation to agricultural and rural development.
|West Africa||To secure the commitment of all parties (developed countries, developing countries, international financing institutions) to increase the level of resources invested in agriculture.|
|EU||Make more effective use of resources for poverty reduction and combating hunger through, among others, a more appropriate level of investment in rural areas and in particular in agriculture and in rural development (relates both to donors and national governments).|
|G-77||Developing countries to increase their budgetary allocation to
agriculture and rural development from the current low level of 3.9 per cent for
sub-Saharan Africa, 1.1 per cent for Near East and North Africa, 5.3 per cent for Asia and
1.9 per cent for Latin America and the Caribbean.
Call upon the international community to ensure an increase in investment in agriculture and rural development in developing countries to reach the annual gross level of some US$180 billion which, according to updated FAO studies, is required to meet the WFS target in 2015.
|GRULAC||Adopt a firm commitment to reverse the sharp downward trend in financial resources directed towards agriculture in recent years at both multilateral and bilateral level, which has adversely affected sustainable rural development. As this trend has also been apparent in some of our own countries, corresponding domestic measures also needed to prioritize the development of agriculture.|
|North America Group||Need for "enabling environment" for domestic investment (public
and private) and foreign direct investment.
Recognition of the critical role of public and private investments in the agricultural sector and support for the full spectrum of agricultural and food security research, including knowledge generation, dissemination and transfer to enhance agricultural productivity and natural resource management.
Recognize the new opportunities that present themselves for funding for agriculture and hunger reduction such a through debt relief, PRSPs and the UNDAF programming.
|Pakistan||A pledge to increase public sector investments in agriculture particularly in water for agriculture and rural development by national governments.|
18. UN Coordination
|Afghanistan||A Resolution that links up with other important international declarations and with the most relevant activities of other UN agencies in the area of food security.|
|EU||Putting it into the context of the international developments since then, not least the Millennium Summit, while stressing the need for FAO to support an integrated follow-up of the UN major Conferences and the international sustainable development goals and the fight against poverty.|
|Pakistan||A reaffirmation of commitments to other IDGs and the Millennium Summit Declaration.|
|Afghanistan||A Resolution that is attuned to cooperative action involving many stakeholders.|
|EU||Strengthen partnerships between actors at all levels (actors are public, private, national, local and international; examples of partnerships are country-owned strategies for poverty reduction and collaboration to develop technology and agricultural services).|
|North America Group||Need for recommitment to multi-stakeholder partnership in
helping governments implement their poverty reduction and food security strategies.
Recognition that monitoring progress needs to take into account activities by other multilateral and bilateral actors, particularly those aimed at poverty reduction.
|Pakistan||A call for cooperation and partnership among all stakeholders.|