Previous Page Table of Contents


LIST OF APPENDICES


APPENDIX I. LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
APPENDIX II. DRAFT PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE CONDUCT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT
APPENDIX III. DRAFT AMENDMENT TO THE RECOMMENDED INTERNATIONAL CODE OF PRACTICE - GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOOD HYGIENE
APPENDIX IV. PROPOSED DRAFT CODE OF HYGIENIC PRACTICE FOR THE TRANSPORT OF FOODSTUFFS IN BULK AND SEMI-PACKED FOODSTUFFS

APPENDIX I. LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

LISTE DES PARTICIPANTS
LISTA DE PARTICIPANTES

Chairperson:

Dr. I. Kaye Wachsmuth

Président:

Deputy Administrator

Presidente:

Office of Public Health and Science


Food Safety & Inspection Service


U.S. Department of Agriculture


14th & Independence Avenue, SW


Jamie Lee Whitten Building - Room 341E


Washington, DC 20250


Tel: (202) 720-2644


Fax: (202) 690-2980

Assistant to the Chairperson:

Dr. Morris Potter

Assistant au Président:

Assistant Director for Foodborne Diseases

Asistente al Presidente:

National Center for Infectious Diseases


Center for Disease Control & Prevention


1600 Clifton Road


Atlanta, GA 303333


Tel: (404) 639-2213


Fax: (404) 639-2237


E-mail: mep1@cdc.gov


ARGENTINA/ARGENTINE

Dr. Alfredo Jorge Nader
Director de Calidad de la
Dirección Nacional de Alimentación
SAGPyA (Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería,
Pesca y Alimentación)
Paseo Colón 922, Piso 2 o, Oficina 223
1603 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel: +54 1 349 2043
Fax: +54 1 349 2041
E-mail: anader@sagyp.mecon.ar
codex@sagyp.mecon.ar

Dr. María Teresa Pennimpede
Coordinación de Relaciones Internacionales
e Interinstitucionales
SENASA (Servicio Nacional de Sanidad
y Calidad Agroalimentaria)
SAGPyA (Secretaría de Agricultura,
Ganadería, Pesca y Alimentación)
Paseo Colón 367-Piso 6°
1603-Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel: +54 1 345 4110/4112
Fax: 334-4738
E-mail: Relint@inea.com.ar

Ing. Carlos Benzi
Director del Instituto Nacional de Alimentos
(INAL) - Administracion Nacional de Medicamentos
Alimentas y Tecnologia Medica (ANMAT)
Estados Unidos 25
1101 Buenos Aires
Tel/Fax: 54 1 331- 6418

Ing. Juan Daniel Irigoyen
COPAL/Capia/ALA
Corrientes 119, 7° “710”
1043 Buenos Aires
Argentina
Tel: 0054 (1) 313 5666
Fax: 0054 (1) 313 5666
E-mail: capiavicolas@yahoo.com
Capia@ssdnet.com.ar

AUSTRALIA/AUSTRALIE

Dr. Peter Miller
(Joint Head of Delegation)
Veterinary Counselor
Australian Embassy
1601 Massachusetts Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: 202 797-3319
Fax: 202 797-3307
E-mail: peter.miller@dfat.gov.au

Richard Souness
(Joint Head of Delegation)
Program Manager, Food Hygiene
Australia New Zealand Food Authority
P.O. Box 7186
Canberra MC ACT 2610, Australia
Tel: +61 2 6271 2249
Fax: +61 26271 2278
E-mail: richard.souness@anzfa.gov.au

AUSTRIA/AUTRICHE

Mag. Dieter Jenewein
c/o Federal Chancellery
Bundesanstalt fuer
Lebensmitteluntersuchung
A-6020 Innsbruck
Technikerstrasse 70
Tel: +43-512-22440-0

BELGIUM/BELGIQUE/BELGICA

Benoit Horion
(Head of Delegation)
Food Inspection Officer
Foodstuff Inspection Service
Ministry of Public Health
Cité Administrative de l’Etat, Esplanade
Bd. Pachéco, 19, Bte 5
1010 Bruxelles - Belgium
Tel: +32 2 210 4618
Fax: +32 2 210 4816
E-mail: benoit.horion@health.fgov.be

José Bontemps
Scientific Advisor
Spadel Corporation
Colonel Bourg Road 103
1030 Bruxelles - Belgium
Tel: +32 2 702 3811
Fax: +32 2 702 3812
E-mail: Spadel.dbs@Spawater.com

BRAZIL/BRESIL/BRASIL

Ms. Dilma S. Gelli
Microbiologist, Scientific Researcher
C.A.C. Brazil
Av. Br. Arnaldo, 355
Instituto Adolfo Lutz, ZC 01246902
S. Paulo-S.P., Brazil
Tel: +55-11 3061-0111, Ext 197
Fax: +55-11 853-3501
E-mail: martinelli@montreal.com.br
cmarques@ial.sp.gov.br

CANADA

Dr. Karen Dodds
(Head of Delegation)
Special Assistant to Director General
Policy and Integration
Food Directorate
Health Protection Branch
Health Canada
Ottawa, Ontario K1A OL2 (0701A5)
Tel: (613) 952 3368
Fax: (613) 957 1784
E-mail: karen_dodds@hc-sc.ca

Ms. Hélène Couture
A/Chief
Evaluation Division, Bureau of Microbial Hazards
Food Directorate
Health Protection Branch - Health Canada
Ottawa, Ontario K1A OL2 (2204A1), Canada
Tel: (613) 957 1742
Fax: (613) 952 6400
E-mail: helene_couture@hc-sc.gov.ca

Mr. Bertrand Gagnon
Inspection Strategies Division
Policy, Planning and Coordination Directorate
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
59 Camelot Dr. - Nepean, Ontario K1A 0Y9
Tel: (613) 225 2342
Fax: (613) 228 6633
E-mail: bgagnon@em.agr.ca

Dr. Jean Kamanzi
Chief, Program Development and Evaluation
Foodborne Pathogen Unit
Laboratory Services Division
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
59 Camelot Dr. - Nepean, Ontario K1A 0Y9
Tel: (613) 225 2342
Fax: (613) 228 6633
E-mail: jkamanzi@em.agr.ca

Ms. Isabelle Laberge
Food Safety Officer
Fresh and Processed Plant Products Division
Plant Products Directorate
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
59 Camelot Dr. - Nepean, Ontario K1A 0Y9
Tel: (613) 225 2342
Fax: (613) 228 6632
E-mail: ilaberge@em.agr.ca

Mr. Glenn McGregor
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
59 Camelot Drive - Nepean, Ontario K1A 0Y9
Tel: (613) 225 2342
Fax: (613) 228 6638
E-mail: gmcgregor@em.agr.ca

Dr. Anne MacKenzie
Associate Vice-President - Science Evaluation
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
59 Camelot Dr. - Nepean, Ontario K1A 0Y9
Tel: (613) 225 2342
Fax: (613) 228 6638
E-mail: amackenzie@em.agr.ca

Mr. Chris Palmer
Bureau of Food Regulatory
International and Interagency Affairs
Health Protection Branch - Health Canada
Ottawa, Ontario K1A OL2 (0702C)
Tel: (613) 941 4616
Fax: (613) 941 3537

CHILE/CHILI

Gonzalo Rios Kantorowitz
Jefe Departamento Asuntos Internacionales
S.A.G.
Avda Bulnes 140 - Santiago, Chile
Tel: 56 2 672 3635
Fax: 56 2 671 7419
E-mail: rrii@sag.minagri.gob.cl

COLOMBIA/COLOMBIE

Stella Correa Lozano
Ministerio de Salud - Colombia
Cra 13 No. 32-76 Piso 14
Santafé de Bogota - Colombia
Tel: 336-5066, ext. 1421-1419
Fax: 336-0182
E-mail: alimento@bogota.minsalud.gov.co

COSTA RICA

Ing. Leda Madrigai
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería
Dirección de Servicios de Protección Fitosanitaria
Apartado 1736
2050 San Pedro de Montes de Oca, Costa Rica
Tel: (506) 2606190 - Fax: (506) 2608301
E-mail: protagro@sol.racsa.co.cr

Dr. Ligia Quirós
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia
Dirección de Salud Animal
Box 662-2150 - San Jose, Costa Rica
Tel: (506) 260-61-90 - Fax: (506) 260 83-01
E-mail: ligand@sol.racsa.co.cr

Dr. Bernardo Monge Urena
Asesor De Ministro y Viceministra De Salud
Oficinas Centrales
San Jose, Costa Rica
Tel: 223-7058 - Fax: 276-9535
E-mail: Kquesada@ucr.ac.cr

COTE d’IVOIRE

Docteur Coulibaly Mamadou
Directeur - Laboratoire National de la Santé Publique
52, Boulevard de Marseille (Zone 3)
18 BP 2403 - Abidjan 18,Cote d’Ivoire
Tel: 225 35 65 99 - Fax: 225 24 48 73
E-mail: Inspci@globeaccess.net

CUBA

Dr. José Antonio Carrera Vara
Ministry of Public Health
Area de Higiene y Epidemiologia
Doctor en Ciencia Médicas Profesor Titular
Asesor en Protección de Alimentos
Calle 23 y N. Vedado, Cludad de La Habana
Tel: (537) 55 3384 - 55 3381
Fax: (537) 66 2312
E-mail: carreraj@hesp.sld.cu

DENMARK/DANEMARK/DINAMARCA

Mr. Jørgen Schlundt
(Head of Delegation)
Head of Section
Danish Veterinary and Food Administration
Mørkhøj Bygade 19
DK-2860 Søborg
Tel: +45 33 95 60 00 - Fax: +45 3395 60 01
E-mail: js@vfd.dk

Ms. Mariane Furbo
Scientific Adviser, M.Sc. Food Technology
Danish Veterinary and Food Administration
Rolighedsvej 25
DK-1958 Frederiksberg C
Tel: +45 33 95 60 00 - Fax: +45 33 95 60 01
E-mail: mfu@vfd.dk

Ms. Mette Hjulmand-Lassen
Veterinary Officer
Danish Veterinary and Food Administration
Rolighedsvej 25
DK-1958 Frederiksberg C
Tel: +45 33 95 60 00 - Fax: +45 33 95 60 01
E-mail: mhl@vfd.dk

Ms. Kirsten Jacobsen
Head of Department, M.Sc. Food Science
Confederation of Danish Industries
DK-1787 Copenhagen V
Tel: +45 33 77 33 77 - Fax: +45 33 77 34 20
E-mail: kja@di.dk

EGYPT/EGYPTE/EGIPTO

Prof. M. Fahmy Saddik
Head of Food Hygiene Department
Institute of Food Nutrition
Ministry of Health
16 Kasr El-Aini St. - Cairo, Egypt
Tel: 587-4999/364-6413

Dr. Zeinab Abd El-Haleim Abd El-Aziz
Director of Food Safety & Control
M.O.H.
Cairo - A.R.E.
Tel: 594-1077 - 3548152
Fax: 594-1077

Dr. Salwa Dawoud
Senior, Central Laboratory
for Food and Feed
11, Al Eslah Al Zeraie St
P. O. Box 28
Code No. - 21321, Ibrahemia
Alexandria, Egypt
Tel: 3375182 3373412 3375029
Fax: 337.8563

Mrs. Khadiga Mahmoud Khalil
Director General of Quality Control
Alex Oil and Soap.Co.
76 Canal El-Mahmodya
Alexandria, Egypt
Tel: 4922006 - Fax: 4922220

FINLAND/FINLANDE/FINLANDIA

Mr. Matti Aho
(Head of Delegation)
Deputy Director General
Veterinary and Food Department
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
P.O. Box 232
FI-00171 Helsinki - Finland
Tel: +358.9.1603380
Fax: +358.9.1603336
E-mail: matti.aho@mmm.fi

Mr. Pekka Pakkala
Deputy Director
National Food Administration
P.O. Box 5
FI-00531 Helsinki - Finland
Tel: +358.9.77267616
Fax: +358.9.77267666
E-mail: pekka.pakkala@elintarvikevirasto.fi

Ms. Marjatta Rahkio
Senior Health Official
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health
Siltasaarenkatu 18C, P.O. Box 197
FIN-00531 Helsinki, Finland
Tel: +358 9 160 4121
Fax: +358 9 160 4120
E-mail: marjatta.rahkio@stm.vn.fi

FRANCE/FRANCIA

Dr. Jacky Le Gosles
Sous-Directeur de l’hygiène alimentaire
Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche
DGAL
175, Rue du Chevaleret
75646 Paris, France
Tel: +33-1-4955-18 - Fax: +33-1-4955-80

Mrs. Dominique Burel
CNIEL
34, Rue de Saint-Petersbourg
75382 Paris Cedex 08, France
Tel: +33 1 49 70 71 11 - Fax: +33 1 42 80 63 45

Pr. Vincent Carlier
Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort
7, Avenue du Général de Gaulle
94704 Maisons-Alfort Cedex
Tel: +33 1 43 96 71 19
Fax: +33 1 43 96 71 21
E Mail v.carlier@net-alfort.fr

Mrs. Françoise De Buttet
Chambre Syndicale des Eaux Minérales
10, Rue de la Tremoille
75008 Paris, France
Tel: +33 1 47 20 3110
Fax: +33 1 47 20 2762

Mrs. Nelly Delfaut
ATLA34
Rue de Saint Petersbourg
75382 Paris Cedex 08, France
Tel: +33 1 49 70 7272
Fax: +33 1 42 80 6362

Mr. François Falconnet
SYNAFAP
44 Rue d’Alésia
75682 Paris Cedex 13, France
Tel: +33 1 43 21 38 21
Fax: +33 1 43 21 88 39

Mrs. Brigitte Flamion
DANONE 7
Rue de Téhéran
75381 Paris Cedex 08, France
Tel: +33 1 44 35 25 98
Fax: +33 1 44 35 25 99

Mr. Jean Kahn
F.I.C.
3, Rue Anatole de le Forge
75017 Paris
Tel: +33 1 53 81 78 87

Mr. Vincent Leclerc
Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche
CNEVA-LCHA
43, rue de Dantzig
75015 Paris, France
Tel: +33 1 55 76 21 69
Fax: +33 1 55 76 27 06
E-mail: vapa10@calvacom.fr

Mr. Olivier Pierre
Ministère de l’Economie et des Finances
DGCCRF
59, Boulevard Vincent Auriol
75703 Paris Cedex 13, France
Tel: +33 1 4497 3206
Fax: +33 1 4497 3037
E-mail: olivier.pierre@dgccrf.finances.gouv.fr

Dr. Jean Michel Poirson
SGCI - Codex
Carré Austerlitz - 2, Boulevard Diderot
75012 Paris Cedex
Tel: 33-1-4487-1578 - Fax: 33-1-4487-1604
E-mail: sgci-codex-fr@sgci.finances.gouv.fr

M. Philippe Martineau
SGCI - Codex
Carré Austerlitz - 2 Boulevard Diderot
75012 Paris Cedex
Tel: +33 (0) 144 87 1603
Fax: +33 (0) 144 871604
E-mail: sgci-codex-fr@sgci.finances.gouv.fr

Mme. Bernadette Ruetsch
Départment Qualité de la Vie
Association Francaise de Normalisation
Tour Europe
92049 Paris La Défense Cedex France
Tel: +33 (0)1 42 91 62 08
Fax: +33 (0)1 42 91 56 56

GERMANY/ALLEMAGNE/ALEMANIA

Dr. Hans Dieter Boehm
(Head of Delegation)
Head, Division of Food Hygiene
Federal Ministry for Health
Am Propsthof 78a
D-53121 Bonn, Germany
Tel: +49 228 9414220
Fax: +49 228 941 4944
E-mail: h.boehm@bmg.bund400.de

Dr. Paul Teufel
Director and Professor
Federal Institute for Health Protection
of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine
Thielalle 88-92
D-14191 Berlin, Germany
Tel: +49 30 84122101
Fax: +49 30 84122951
Email: p.teufel@bgvv.de

Dr. Hans-Herbert Pott
Lieutenant Colonel (Vet. Command)
Federal Ministry of Defense
Postfach 1328
D-53003 Bonn, Germany
Tel: +49 228 126275
Fax: +49 228 126689

Dr. Sieglinde Stähle
Bund für Lebensmittelrecht
und Lebensmittelkunde e.V. (BLL)
(Assoc. for Food Law and Food Science)
Godesberger Allee 157
D-53175 Bonn, Germany
Tel: +49 228 819930 - Fax: +49 228 375069
E-mail: bll.be@t-online.de

Dr. Georg Wittich
Association for Food Law and Food Science (BLL)
c/o Suedzucker AG Mannheim/Ochsenfurt
Marktbreiter Strasse 74
D-97199 Ochsenfurt, Germany
Tel: +49 93 31 91436 - Fax: +49 93 31 91428
E-mail: ZAQ.Ochsenfurt@suedzucker.de
Mr. Thomas Kuetzemeier
German Dairy Association
137, Meckenheimer Allee
D-53115 Bonn
Tel: +49 228 982 430 - Fax: +49 228 982 4320
E-mail: V.D.M.@t-online.de

Prof. Dr. W. Heeschen
c/o Federal Dairy Research Centre
Institute for Hygiene
Hermann-Weigmann- Str. 1
D-24103 Kiel, Germany
Tel: +49 431 609 2388 - Fax: +49 431 609 2308
E-mail: heeschen@bafm.de

GREECE/GRECE/GRECIA

Mr. Dimitris Gerakopoulos
Head of Division
Directorate of Food Processing, Standardization and
Quality Control - Ministry of Agriculture
2 Acharnon Street
101 76 Athens, Greece
Tel: 01 52 46 364 - Fax: 01 52 38 337

GUATEMALA

Dr. Antonio Ferrate de la Riva
(Head of Delegation)
Director of Codex Committee of Guatemala
7th Avenue 12-90, Zona 13 Edificio Monja Blanca
Guatemala City, Guatemala
Tel: 475 30 54-64-74-84
Fax: 594 14 19
E-mail: aferrate@ufm.edu.gt

Ing. Agr.-MSc. Manuel Alonzo Padilla
Oficina Inocuidad de los Alimentos
Unidad Normas Y Regulaciones Maga
7 Av. 12-90, Zona 13
Edificio Manja Blanca/Anexo
Tel/Fax: 475-3064/68/74/84

HUNGARY/HONGRIE/HUNGRIA

Professor Barnabas Sas
Head, Department of Food Hygiene
University of the Veterinary Science
2 István Street
Budapest, PF:2, Hungary H-1400
Tel/Fax: +36 1 3427141

Dr. Bela Ralovich
Senior Counsellor, Ministry of Welfare
Department of Health Policy
HB 1245, P.O. Box 987
(HB 1051 Arany Janos u. 6-8)
Budapest, Hungary
Tel: +36 1 30-20-965, ext. 352
Fax: +36 1 33-14-524

ICELAND/ISLANDE/ISLANDIA

Mr. Asmundur E. Thorkelsson
Chief of Division, Dept. of Food & Hygiene
Environmental and Food Agency of Iceland
P.O. Box 8080
128 Reykjavik, Iceland
Tel: +354-5688848, +354-5688848
Fax: +354-5681896
E-mail: asmundur@hollver.is

INDIA/INDE

Sh.D. Rajagopalan
Chairman
Agriculture and Processed Food
Products Export Development Authority
3rd Floor, Ansal Chamber II
6, Bhikaji Cama Place
New Dehli - 110066
Tel: 6164350, 619141, 6192148
Fax: 011 6195016
Telex: 031-72261 FEDAIN.CABLE:APEDA
E-mail: chairman@apeda.delhi,nic.in

Cdr. Ravindra Kumar
Executive (R & D)
National Dairy Development Board
Anand, India
Tel: 0091 2692 40148 40149
Fax: 0091 2692 40165, 40156
E-mail: ravindra@anand.nddb.ernet.in

INDONESIA/INDONESIE

Drs. Rahardjo

Head of Sub-Directorate of Food Control
Directorate General of Food & Drug Control
Ministry of Health
Jl. Percetakan Negara No. 23
Jakarta 10560 Indonesia
Tel: +62 21 424 1781
Fax: +62 21 425 3856

Mr. P. Natigor Siagian
Agricultural Attaché, Embassy of Indonesia
2020 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036, USA
Tel: (202) 775-5340
Fax: (202) 775-5343

IRELAND/IRLANDE/IRLANDA

Mr. Jim Egan
Senior Veterinary Inspector
Department of Agriculture & Food
Agriculture House 3W
Kildare Street
Dublin 2, Ireland
Tel: +35 3 1 607 2456
Fax: +35 3 1 661 6263

Mr. John O’Mahony
Senior Agricultural Inspector
Department of Agriculture & Food
Agriculture House 1E, Kildare Street
Dublin 2, Ireland
Tel: +35 3 1 607 2219
Fax: +35 3 1 676 7100
E-mail: JOHN.OMAHONY@daff.irlgov.ie

ISRAEL

Ms. Hanna Markowitz
Senior Food Engineer
HACCP and GMP Section
Ministry of Health
14 Haarbah St. 64739
P.O. Box 20301
Tel Aviv 61203 - Israel
Tel: 03.5634782 - Fax: 03.5619549

Etian Markowitz
Food Engineer
HACCP and GMP Advisor
Ministry of Health
14 Haarbah St. 64739
P.O. Box 20301
Tel Aviv 61203 - Israel
Tel: 03.5634782 - Fax: 03.5619549

ITALY/ITALIE/ITALIA

Drssa. Lo Turco Brunella
Segretario Generale del Comitato Nazionale Codex
Via Sallustiana 10
Roma, Italy
Tel/Fax: +39 (06) 4880273
E-mail: bloturco@ats.it

Drssa. Paola Picotto
Dirigente Veterinario, Ministero della Sanità
Piazza Marconi 25 - 00144 Roma, Italy
Tel: +39 (06) 59943752
Fax: +39 (06) 59943676
E-mail: dav-04.sanita@interbusiness.it

Dr. Claudio Mariani
Diretore Scientifico - Legale e Qualità
Agricola Italiana Alimentare SpA
Via S. Antonio, 60
37036 S. Martino B.A. (Verona), Italy
Tel: +39 (045) 8094111
Fax: +39 (045) 8920810

Dr. D. de Medici
Researcher, Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Viale Regina Elena 299
00161 Roma, Italy
Tel: +39 (06) 49902477
Fax: +39 (06) 49387101
Email: demedici@iss.it

JAPAN/JAPON

Dr. Hajime Toyofuku
National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Center for Infectious Disease Surveillance
Ministry of Health and Welfare, #817
Veterinary Sanitation Division,
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyodaku
Tokyo, Japan, 100-8045
Tel: +81-3-3595-2337
Fax: +81-3-3503-7964
E-mail: HT-TIY@classic.msn.com

Dr. Shigeki Yamamoto
Head, Section of Meat and Milk Hygiene
Department of Veterinary Public Health
National Institute of Public Health, M.H.W.
4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku
Tokyo 108, Japan
Tel: +81-3-3441-7111
Fax: +81-3-3446-7162
E-mail: yamamoto@iph.go.jp

Mr. Masahiko Fukuda
Technical Adviser
Japan Food Hygiene Association
6-1 Jingumae 2-Chome, Sibuya-ku
Tokyo 150, Japan
Tel: +81-3-3403-2112
Fax: +81-3-3478-0059

Yoshiaki Hayasaka
Deputy Director, Standards
and Labeling Division
Food and Marketing Bureau
Ministry of Agriculture Forestry & Fisheries
1-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 100-8950, Japan
Tel: +81 3 3501 4094
Fax: +81 3 3502 0438

Masamichi Hirayama
Deputy Director, Vegetable Production Division
Agricultural Production Bureau
Ministry of Agriculture Forestry & Fisheries
1-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
100-8950
Tel: +81-3-3501-0984
Fax: +81-3-3593-2606
E-mail: masamiti_hirayama@nm.maff.go.jp

Teruaki Inarimori
Section Chief, Fishery Processing Industries Division
Fisheries Agency
Ministry of Agriculture Foresty & Fisheries
1-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo
100-8950
Tel: +81 3 3501 5988
Fax: +81 3 3508 1357

Shinichi Ito
Deputy Director
Technical R&D Division
Japan Food Industry Center (JAFIC)
1-2-2 Kamimeguro, Meguro-ku
Tokyo 153-0051, Japan
Tel: 03 (3716) 2176
Fax: 03 (3716) 6226

Toshiaki Kuwasaki, DVM
Deputy Director, Veterinary Sanitation Division
Environmental Health Bureau
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki Chiyodaku,
Tokyo, Japan
Tel: 81.3.3595.2337
Fax: 81.3.3503.7964
E-mail: kt-sav@mhw.go.jp

Hideshi Michino, DVM
Quality Program Officer
Food Sanitation Division
Environmental Health Bureau
Ministry of Health & Welfare
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki Chiyodaku
Tokyo, Japan
Tel: 81-3-3595-2326
Fax: 81-3-3503-7965
E-mail: hm-dqt@mhw.go.jp

Naoki Takatori
Japanese Fisheries Association
Sankaido Building
9-13, Akaskaka 1, Minato-Ku

Tokyo 107-0052
Tel: 81-3-3585-6682
Fax: 81-3-3582-2337
E-mail: ntakatori@suisankai.or.jp

Susumu Kumagai
National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Dept. Biomedical Food Res,
Toyama 1-23-1, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo 162
Tel: 81-3-5285-1111
Fax: 81-3-5285-1176
E-mail: ntakatori@suisankai.or.jp

REPUBLIC OF KOREA/REPUBLIQUE DE
COREE/REPUBLICA DE COREA

Gil-Hong Lee
Deputy Director, Animal Health Division
Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry
Government Complex II 1-1
Choongang-Dong, Kwacheon City
Kyunggi-Do, Republic of Korea
Tel: 82-2-504-9438
E-mail: ghlee@maf.go.kr

Seong-Keun Byun
Veterinary Officer, Microbiology Division
Livestock Products and Inspection Department
National Veterinary Research
& Quarantine Service
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
San 23-4 Deungchon-dong Kangseo-gu
Seoul, Republic of Korea
Tel: 82-2-6500-646 - Fax: 82-2-6500-655
E-mail: Byunsk@nvrqs.go.kr

Park Ji-Yeon
Researcher - Codex Office
Food Sanitation Council
Ministry of Health and Welfare
KFDA,5 Nokbun-Dong Eeunpyung-Ku
Seoul, Korea 122-704
Tel: (02) 380-1558 - Fax: (02) 383-8321

Yun-Sook Kang
Researcher
Korea Food & Drug Administration
Food Evaluation Department
Food Microbiology Division
5 Nokbun-Dong Eunpyung-ku
Seoul, 122-704, Korea
Tel: 82-2-380-1682 - Fax: 82-2-382-4892
E-mail: CodexKorea@kfda.go.kr

MALAYSIA/MALAISIE/MALASIA

Dr. Azriman Rosman
Assistant Director, Food Quality Control Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia
Block E, Office Complex

Jalan Dungun, bukit Damansara
50490 Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 603 254 0088 -
Fax: 603 253 7804
E-mail: Azriman@dph.gov.my

Dr. T. Thiagarajan
Science Attaché - Embassy of Malaysia
1900 24th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20008, USA
Tel: (202) 328-2794
Fax: (202) 332-2902

MEXICO/MEXIQUE

Ms. Elvira Espinosa Gutiérrez
Biotechnology Mastery Standardization Manager
(Directora de Normalización)
Ministry of Health (Secretaría de Salud)
Donceles No. 39, Col. Centro-Deleg.
Cuauhtemoc-C.P. 06010, Mexico
Tel: 518 36 96/510 01 96
Fax: 512 96 28
E-mail: dgcsbysmex@iserve.net.mx

Irueste Alejandre Mercedes
Q.F.B.
Instituto Mexicano de Normalización
y Certificación A.C.
Directora General
Manuel Ma. Contreas No. 133, 6o Piso
Col. San Rafael, C.P. 06470, Mexico
Tel: 52 (5) 566 47 50
Fax: 52 (5) 705 3686
E-mail: imnc@inetcorp.net.mx

Mr. Fernando Contreras
Director General
de Inspeccion Fitozoosanitaria
Sagar Conasag
Recreo No. 14, Piso 10o
Col. Actipán del Valle, C.P. 03230, Mexico
Tel: 534-5018 - Fax: 534-2402
Email: fcontreras@sagar.gob.mx

Ing. Miguel Angel Usabiaga Gonzalez
Asesor del Gobierno
del Estado de Guanajuato

Ing. Marco Antonio Felix Leon
Presidente del ATAM, Asociación Nal. de Tecnólogos
de Alimentos de Mexico, Seccion 26
del Institute of Food Technologists
Mar del Norte No. 5, Sn. Alvaro
CP 02090, Mexico DF
Tel: 386 4225, 26, 27 - Fax: 386 5122
E-mail: atam@mail.internet.com.mx
Website: http://www.atam.com.mx

Lic. Ricardo Rojas Wens
Ing. en Sistemas de Calidad
Jugos del Valle, S.A. de C.V.
Insurgentes No. 30
Barrio Texcacoa, Tepotzotlan
Edo de Mexico C.P. 54600
Tel: 899-1000/876-0600, Ext. 1417 or 1418
Fax: 899-1064
E-mail: icalidad@jvalle.com.mx

NIGERIA

Mr. R. K. Omotayo, B. Pharm., PhC. MPSN
Director, Food and Drugs Services
Federal Ministry of Health
Federal Secretariat
Shehu Shagari Way, Abuja
Tel: 09-5237759

Mrs. Comfort Bosede Osaniyi
Deputy Director
Food and Drugs Services
Federal Ministry of Health
Federal Secretariat
Shehu Shagari Way, Abuja
Tel: 09-523775

NETHERLANDS/PAYS-BAS
PAISES BAJOS

Dr. J. T. Jansen
(Head of Delegation)
Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports
P.O. Box 16108
2500 BC Den Haag, Netherlands
Tel: +31 70 340 5089
Fax: +31 70 340 5435
E-mail: jj@ry.igb.nl

Mr. J. M. Francken
Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport
P.O. Box 20350
2500 EY Den Haag, Netherlands
Tel: +31 70 340 6848
Fax: +31 70 340 5554
E-mail: jm.francken@minvws.nl

Mr. Hans van den Heuvel
Ministry of Agriculture
Nature Management and Fisheries
P.O. Box 20401
2500 EK The Hague, Netherlands
Tel: +31 70 378 4410
Fax: +31 70 348 6141
E-mail: j.j.m.van.den.heuvel@mkg.agro.nl

Mr. M. Bouwman
COKZ
P.O. Box 250
3830 AG Leusden
Tel: +31 33 496 5696
Fax: +31 33 494 0674
E-mail: cokz@cokz.nl

Dr. P. Klapwijk
Van den Bergh Food
Molenweg 80 - 5349 TD Oss
Tel: +31 412 620197
Fax: +31 412 620777
E-mail: Pret.Klapwijk@UVGN.Unilver
YB.spring.com

Mr. Gerrit M. Koornneef
Central Product Board for Arable Products
P.O. Box 29739
2502 LS The Hague
Tel: +31 70 370 83 23
Fax: +31 70 370 84 44
E-mail: g.m.koornneef@hpa.agro.nl

Dr. A. E. Leon
Unilever Research Laboratory
P.O. Box 114
3130 AC Vlaardingen
Tel: +31 10 460 5892
Fax: +31 10 460 5867
E-mail: alain.leon@unilver.com

NEW ZEALAND/NOUVELLE ZELANDE
NUEVA ZELANDIA

Dr. Steve Hathaway
(Head of Delegation)
National Manager (Research and Development)
MAF Regulatory (Meat and Seafood)
P.O. Box 646 - Gisborne, New Zealand
Tel: +64 6 867 1144
Fax: +64 6 868 5207
E-mail: hathaways@maf.govt.nz

Mr. Derek Buckland
Senior Advisor (Food Safety)
Food and Nutrition Section - Ministry of Health
P.O. Box 5013 - Wellington, New Zealand
Tel: +64 4 96 2120
Fax: +64 4 96 2340
E-mail: derek_buckland@moh.govt.nz

Philip Fawcet
National Manager Internal Standards (Dairy)
MAF Regulatory Authority
P.O. Box 2526 - Wellington, New Zealand
Tel: 64 6 498 9874
Fax: 64 4 474 4196
E-mail: fawcetp@maf.govt.nz

Dr. Bill Jolly
Counsellor (Veterinary Services)
New Zealand Embassy
37 Observatory Circle, NW
Washington, DC 20008, USA
Tel: (202) 328-4861
Fax: (202) 332-4309
E-mail: jolly.wt@juno.com

NORWAY/NORVEGE/NORUEGA

Dr. John Race
(Head of Delegation)
International Liaison Officer
Norwegian Food Control Agency
P.O. Box 8187 Dep.
N-0034 Oslo, Norway
E-mail: race@snt.dep.telemax.no

Dr. Hilde Kruse
National Veterinary Institute
P.O. Box 8156 Dep.
N-0033 Oslo, Norway
Tel: +47 22 59 7472
Fax: +47 22 59 7475
Email: Hilde.Kruse@vetinst.no

Dr. Nina Krefting Aas
Veterinary Hygienist
Norwegian Food Control Authority
P.O. Box 8187, Dep.
N-0034 Oslo, Norway
Tel: +47 22 24 6758
Fax: +47 22 24 6699
Dr. Bjorn Alf Gondrosen
Senior Executive Officer
Norwegian Food Control Authority
P.O. Box 8187, Dep.
N-0034 Oslo, Norway
Tel: +47 22 24 6650 - Fax: +47 22 24 6699

PERU/PEROU

Mr. Carlos Pastor Talledo
Director Ejecutivo de higiene alimentaria y control de
zoonosis
Ministerio de Salud, Dirección General de Salud
Ambiental
Las Amapolas No. 350, Urb. San Eugenio
Lima 14, Peru
Tel: 440-2340 - Fax: 440-6797
E-mail: cpastor@digesa.sld.pe

Ing. Alejandra Díaz Rodríguez
Comission for Export Promotion
Augusto Tamayo 160 4TO. Piso
San Isiddro Peru
Tel: (511) 4214650
(511) 3517624
Fax: (511) 3517624
E-mail:acring@dnet.com.pe

Ing. Carmen Vidal
Sociedad de Asesoramiento Tecnico S.A.
Av. Javier Prado Este - 1352
San Isidro - Lima - Peru
Tel: (511) 224-2994 - (511) 224-2993
Fax: (511) 475-0101

Blga. Hilda Vidal
Sociedad de Asesoramiento Tecnico S.A.
Av. Javier Prado Este - 1352
San Isidro - Lima - Peru
Tel: (511) 224-2994 - (511) 224-2993
Fax: (511) 475-0101

POLAND/POLOGNE/POLONIA

Dr. Lucjan Szponar
(Head of Delegation)
Head of National Food and Nutrition Institute
61/63 Powsinska St. - 02-903 Warszaw
Tel: +48 22 411171
Fax: +48 22 421103

Boleslaw Wojton
Associate Professor
National Veterinary Research Institute
Department of Hygiene of Food
of Animal Origin
57 Partyzantow Street
24-100 Pulawy
Tel: +48 818863051
Fax: +48 818862595
E-mail: wojton@esterka.piwet.pulawy.pl

PORTUGAL

Dr. Pedro Pina Manique
(Head of Delegation)
Ministry of Agriculture
Av. Conde Dte VALBOM 96-98
1050 Lisbon
Tel: 798 38 2617 - Fax: 798 38 35

Eng. António Cabrera
FIPA - Av. Antonio Yosi de Almeida 7 - 2°E
Lisboa
Tel: 793-8671 - Fax: 793 8537
E-mail: Antonio.Cabrera@Unilever.com

SLOVAK REPUBLIC/REPUBLQUE SLOVAQUE
REPUBLICA ESLOVACA

Dr. Elena Ceppanová
Head of the Department of Food Hygiene
National Veterinary Association
Bratislava, Slovakia
Tel: 421.7.654.23375
Fax: 421.7.654.20745

Katarina Chudikova
Section of Health Protection
Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic
Limbova 2, 833 43 43 Bratislava, Slovakia
Tel: +421 7 378 8215
Fax: +421 7 376 142

SLOVENIA/SLOVENIE/ESLOVENIA

Mr. Pavel Polak, DVM
Institute of Public Health of Slovenia
Trubarjeva 2
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Fax: +386.61.1323 295

SOUTH AFRICA/AFRIQUE DU SUD
AFRICA DEL SUR

Mrs. V.J. Carolissen-Mackay
Assistant Director
Directorate: Food Control - Department of Health
Private Bag X828
0001 Pretoria, South Africa
Tel: 27.12.3120494 - Fax: 27.12.3264374
E-mail: carolv@hltrsa2.pwv.gov.za

SPAIN/ESPAGNE/ESPAÑA

Dr. Oscar Hernández Prado
Jefe del Servicio de Programas de
Prevención de Riesgos en Alimentos
Subdirección General de Higiene de los Alimentos
Dirección General de Salud Pública
Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo
Paseo del Prado 18-20, 28071 Madrid, Spain
Tel: 5961968 - Fax: 5964409
E-mail: ohernandez@msc.es

SWEDEN/SUEDE/SUECIA

Dr. Sven Lindgren
Professor, Internal Scientific Council
National Food Administration
Box 622
S-751 26 Uppsala, Sweden
Tel: +46 18 17 56 06
Fax: +46 18 10 58 48
Email: Sven.Lindgren@slv.se

Mrs. Karin Winberg
Government Inspector, Food Control Division 2
National Food Administration
Box 622 - S-751 26 Uppsala, Sweden
Tel: +46 18 17 55 00
Fax: +46 18 10 58 48
E-mail: kawi@slv.se

Ms. Kerstin Jansson
Head of Section
Ministry of Agriculture
SE-103 33 Stockholm
Tel: +46 8 405 11 68
Fax: +46 8 20 64 96
E-mail: kerstin.jansson@agriculture.ministry.se

SWITZERLAND
SUISSE/SUIZA

Dr. Andreas Baumgartner
(Head of Delegation)
Swiss Federal Office of Public Health
CH-3003 Berne, Switzerland
Tel: +41 31 322 95 82
Fax: +41 31 322 95 74
E-mail: andreas.baumgartner@bag.admin.ch

Dr. Jean Vignal
Nestec Ltd.
Avenue Nestle 55
CH-1800 Vevey, Switzerland
Tel: +41 21 924 35 01
Fax: +41 21 924 45 47
E-mail: jean.vignal@nestle.com

THAILAND/THAILANDE
TAILANDIA

Prakarn Virakul
Minister Counselor (Agriculture)
Office of Agricultural Affairs
Royal Thai Embassy
1024 Wisconsin Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20007, USA
Tel: (202) 338-1543
Fax: (202) 338-1549
E-mail: MOACDC@EROLS.COM

Jirawatana Fasawang
Standards Officer
Office of the National Codex
Alimentarius Committee
Thai Industrial Standards Institute
Rama V1 Street - Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400
Tel: (66 2) 2023442-3
Fax: (66 2) 2487987
E-mail: jiraw@ttisi.go.th

Wanchai Somchit
Executive Manager
Thai Food Processors’Association
170/22 9th Floor Ocean Tower 1 Building
New-Rachadapisek Road
Klongtoey, Prakhanong
Bangkok, 10110, Thailand
Tel: 261-2684, 261-2995
Fax: 261-2996-7

Amorn Ngammongkolrat
Manager - Technological Services Department
National Food Institute
539/2 Gypsum Metropolitan Tower -11th Floor
Sri-Ayudhya Road
Rajdhevee, Bangkok 10400
Tel: (662) 642-5335-40
Fax: (662) 642-5342

TUNISIA/TUNISIE

Amara Meftah
Director General of Agro-alimentarius
Ministry of Industry
Tunis, Tunisia
Fax: 216.1.789159

UNITED KINGDOM
ROYAUME UNI/REINO UNIDO

Mr. John Barnes
Principal, Joint Food Safety and Standards Group
Department of Health
Room 503A, Skipton House
80 London Road - London ES1 6LW
Tel: +44 171 972 5067
Fax: +44 171 972 5141
E-mail: jbarnes@doh.gov.uk

Dr. Jonathan Back
Food Hygiene Division
Microbiology Branch
Joint Food Safety & Standards Group
Room 421, Ergon House
17 Smith Square, London SWIP 3JR
Tel: 0170-238-6019
Fax: 0170-238-6745
E-mail: j.back@fscii.maff.gov.uk

Mr. Malcolm Kane
Chief Food Technologist
J. Sainsbury Plc., Stanford House
Stanford Street
London, SE1 9LL, UK
Tel: +44 171 695 6672
Fax: +44 171 695 7165

Dr. David Jervis
Group Food Safety Adviser
Unigate European Food, Group Technical Centre
Station Road, Wooton Bassett
Swindon, Wiltshire SN4 7EF, UK
Tel: +44 1793 852451
Fax: +44 1793 853915
E-mail: iain.bremner@st-ivel.co.uk

Chris Pratt
Food Hygiene
Joint Food Safety and Standards Group
Room 416, Ergon House, c/o Nobel House
17 Smith Square, London SW1P 3JR
Tel: 0171-238 6461
Fax: 0171-238 6745
E-mail: c.pratt@msf.maff.gov.uk

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ETATS UNIS D’AMERIQUE
ESTADOS UNIDOS DE AMERICA

Mr. E. Spencer Garrett
(Head of Delegation)
Director, National Seafood Inspection Laboratory
DOC/NOAA/NMFS
705 Convent St. - Pascagoula, MS 39567
Tel: 228.769.8964
Fax: 228.762.7144
E-mail: spencer.garrett@noaa.gov

Mr. Dane Bernard
National Food Processors’ Association
1350 I St., Suite. 300
Washington, DC 20005
Tel: 202.639.5983
Fax: 202.637.8473
E-mail: dbernard@NFPA-Food.org

Mr. Jeffrey Brown
Food and Drug Administration
200 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20204
Tel: 202.205.4231
Fax: 202.260.0136
E-mail: JBROWN1@BANGATE.
FDA.GOV

Dr. Robert Buchanan
Food and Drug Administration
200 C St., SW - Washington, DC 20204
Tel: 202.205.5053
Fax: 202.401.7740
E-mail: rbuchana@bangate.fda.gov
Dr. Robert Byrne
National Milk Producers Federation
2101 Wilson Blvd.
Suite 400 - Arlington, VA 22201
Tel: 703.243.6111, ext. 345
Fax: 703.841.9328
E-mail: rbyrne@nmpf.org

Dr. Martin Cole
Nabisco, Inc.
200 DeForest Ave.
E. Hanover, NJ 07936
Tel: 201.503.4500
Fax: 201.503.3255

Ms. Emilie Cole
Principle Programs Support Officer
DOC/NOAA/NMFS
705 Convent St.
Pascagoula, MS 39567
Tel: 228.769.8964
Fax: 228.762.7144
E-mail: USCCFH@aol.com

Ms. Peg Coleman
USDA, FSIS
Rm. 3714 Franklin Court
14th & Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20250
Tel: 202.501.7379
Fax: 202.501.6929

Mr. Bob Collette
National Fisheries Institute
1525 Wilson Blvd., Suite. 500
Arlington, VA 22209
Tel: 703.524.8883
Fax: 703.524.4619
E-mail: bcollete@NFI.org

Mr. Randy Dougherty
NSF International
2100 Commonwealth, Suite. 100
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Tel: 734.332.7331
Fax: 734.669.0196
E-mail: dougherty@nfs.irs.org

Professor Stephen Edberg
Yale Medical School
Tel: (203) 688-2457
Fax: (203) 688-4170

Ms. Edith Garrett
IFPA
1600 Duke St., Suite. 440
Alexandria, VA 22314
Tel: 703.299.6282
Fax: 703.299.6288

Ms. Julia Howell
The Coca-Cola Company
1 Coca-Cola Plaza
Atlanta, GA 30313
Tel: 404.676.4224
Fax: 404.676.7166

Ms. Martha Hudak-Roos
TFIS
2108 Walnut Creek Dr.
League City, TX 77573
Tel: 281.538.4556
Fax: 281.538.6452
E-mail: tfis2@ix.netcom.com

Dr. George J. Jackson
HFS-500 FDA
200 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20204
Tel: 202.205.4051
Fax: 202.401.7740

Dr. Michael Jahncke
Virginia Tech. Seafood Research Center
102 S. King St.
Hampton, VA 23669
Tel: 757.727.4861
Fax: 757.727.4871
E-mail: MJACHNCKE@VT.EOU

Joseph A. Levitt
Director
Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition
U.S. Food & Dryg Administration
200 C Street, SW
Washington, DC 20204
Tel: (202) 205-4890

Dr. Anne Marie McNamara
USDA, FSIS
Rm. 3714 Franklin Court
14th & Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20250
Tel: 202.501.6022
Fax: 202.501.6929
E-mail: annmarie.mcnamara@usda.gov

Dr. Roberta Morales
University of Maryland
8075 Greenmead Drive
College Park, MD
Tel: (301) 935-6083
Fax: (301) 935-6079
E-mail: rm207@umail.und.edu

Mr. Jack Mowbray
FDA
200 C St., SW - (HFS-306)
Washington, DC 20204
Tel: (202) 205-1731
Fax: (202) 205-4422
E-mail: jmowbray@bangate.fda.gov
Dr. Marguerite Neill
Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island
111 Brewster St. - Pawtucket, RI 02860
Tel: (401) 729-2534
Fax: (401) 729-2795

Dr. Joyce Saltsman
FDA - 200 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20204
Tel: 202.205.5916
Fax: 202.260.9653
E-mail: jsaltsman@bangate.fda.gov

Dr. Larry Steenson
International Dairy Foods Association
1250 H St., NW Suite. 900
Washington, DC 20005
Tel: 202.737.4332
Fax: 202.331.7820
E-mail: lsteenson@idfa.org

Dr. Dorothy Stringfellow
USDA, FSIS
300 12th Street (Annex Building)
Washington, DC 20250
Tel: 202.205.0010
Fax: 202.501.7639

Dr. Michael Wehr
U.S. Food & Drug Administration
200 C St., SW
Washington, DC 20204
Tel: 202.260.2786
Fax: 202.260.0165
E-mail: mwehr@bangate.fda.gov

Ms. Betsy Woodward
AFDO
1238 Sedgefield Rd.
Tallahassee, FL 32311
Tel: 850.878.7440
Fax: 850.878.1763
E-mail: betsy_woodward@hotmail.com

Specials
Ms. Barbara Comstock
Visual Information Specialist
NMFS/NSIL
705 Convent St., Pascagoula, MS 39567
Tel: 228.769.8964
Fax: 228.762.7144
E-mail: barbara.comstock@noaa.gov

Dr. Allan Hogue
USDA, FSIS
Rm. 3719 South Bldg.
1400 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20250
Tel: 202.205.7458
Fax: 202.501.6982
E-mail: allan.hogue@usda.gov
Dr. Marilyn Moore
U.S. Codex Office
USDA, FSIS
Rm. 4867 South Bldg.
1400 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20250
Tel: 202.205.7760
Fax: 202.720.3157
E-mail: marilyn.moore@usda.gov

Mr. Robert Reeves
Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils
1750 New York Ave., NW, Suite. 120
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: 202.783.7960
Fax: 202.783.1367

Mr. Duane Spomer
USDA
1400 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20250
Tel: 202.720.9382
Fax: 202.720.2643

URUGUAY

Dr. Gabriela Sierra
(Head of Delegation)
Deputy Director of Health
Ministerio Salud Publica
18th Street 1892 Office 211
Montevideo, Uruguay
Tel: 400 39 61 - 408 8103
Fax: 408 8103

Dr. Delvey Anchieri, DMV, MSc
Directora del Departamento de Higiene de los
Alimentos
Ministerio de Salud Pública
18 de Julio de 1892, 4o piso, Anexo B
Montevideo, Uruguay
Tel/Fax: +598 2 409 8302
E-mail: pizanchi@adinet.com.uy

Dr. Hector J. Lazaneo, DMV, Ph.D.
Director - Division Industria Animal
Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca
Constituyente 1476
Montevideo, Uruguay
Tel: +598 2 402 6346
Fax: +598 2 402 6317
E-mail: hlazaneo@multi.com.uy

Dra. Graziella Verger, DMV, DEA
DGQ-EOQ Quality Auditor
Jefe Sector Microbiolgia
Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay (LATU)
Av. Italia 6201 - CP. 11500
Montevideo, Uruguay
Tel: (+598-2) 601.3724, Int. 285
Fax: (+598-2) 600.4753
E-mail: gverger@latu.org.uy

VIETNAM

Dr. Huynh Hong Nga
Head of Vietnam Codex Committee on Food Additives
and Contaminants
Director, Department Food Science & Hygiene NIN,
MOH - 48 Tang Bat Ho Str
Hanoi, Vietnam
Tel: 84.4.9717090
Fax: 84.4.971885

Dr. Bui Minh Duc
Associate Professor
Senior Adviser of Food Hygiene
& Safety (Institute of Nutrition)
Ministry of Health
48 Tang Bat Ho Str - Hanoi, Vietnam
Tel: 84.4.9717090
Fax: 84.4.9717885

Dr. Bui Huy Khoi, Ph.D.
Head of Vietnam Codex Committee on Food Additives
and Contaminants
Head of Food Control - NIN
Ministry of Health
48 Tang Bat Ho Str - Hanoi, Vietnam
Tel: 971 7090
Fax: 971 7885

Dr. Phan Thi Kim
Associate Professor
Vice Director of the Institute
of Nutrition - Ministry of Health
48 Tang Bat Ho Str. - Hanoi, Vietnam
Tel: 84.4.9717090
Fax: 84.4.9717885

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
ORGANISATIONS INTERNATIONALES
ORGANIZACIONES INTERNACIONALES

CONSUMERS INTERNATIONAL

Ms. Lisa Lefferts
Consumers’ Union
5280 Rockfish Valley Highway
Faber, Virginia 22938-4001
Tel: +1 804 361 2420
Fax: +1 804 361 2421
E-mail: lefferts@sprynet.com

COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE EU
CONSEIL DES MINISTRES DE L’EU
CONSEJO DE MINISTROS DE LA EU

Paul Culley
Head of Unit
Secretariat of the Council of the European Union
175 Rue de la Loi - 1048 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: 32.2.285.6197
Fax: 32.2.285.7928
E-mail- dgb@consilium.eu.int

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
COMMUNAUTE EUROPEENNE
COMUNIDAD EUROPEA

Ms. Christine M. Majewski
Administrator
Directorate General III/E/1
Rue de la Loi 200 - B-1049 Bruxelles, Belgium
Tel: +32 2 295 08 74
Fax: +32 2 296 09 51
E-mail: christine.majewski@dg3.cec.be or
majewskic@aol.com

Leo Hagedoorn
Expert à la C.E.
Produits Alimentaires - Législation
Aspects scientifiques et techniques
Commission européenne
Direction générale III - Industrie
Rue de la Loi 200 - B-1049 Bruxelles
Tel: (+32-2) 299.31.49/295.46.61
Fax: 295.17.35
E-mail: Leo-Frans.Hagedoorn@dg3.cec.be

Veli-Mikko Niemi
DGVI/BII-3 - European Commission
200 rue de la Loi
B-1049 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: +32-2-296 2222
Fax: +32-3-295 3711
E-mail: veli-mikko.niemi@dg6.cec.be

Professeur Jean-Louis Jouve
Principal Administrator - DGXXIV
Rue de la Loi 200
B-10049 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: +(32 2) 295 07 32
Fax: +(32 2) 299 62 97
E-mail: jean-louis.jouve@dg24.cec.be

GROUPEMENT INTERNATIONAL DES
SOURCES D’EAUX MINERALES NATURELLES
ET DES EAUX DE SOURCE (GISEMES)

M. Philippe Caradec
GISEMES
10, rue de la Tremoille
75008 Paris, France
Tel: 33.1.47.20.31.10
Fax: 33.1.47.20.27.62

INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER
ASSOCIATION (IBWA)

Robert. R. Hirst
Director of Technical Affairs
International Bottled Water Association
1700 Diagonal Rd., Suite. 650
Alexandria, VA 22314
Tel: 703.683.5213
Fax: 703.683.4074
E-mail: bhirst@erols.com

Cindy A. Yablonsky
Vice president
Research Science and Technical Affairs
International Bottled Water Association
1700 Diagonal Rd., Suite. 650
Alexandria, VA 22314
Tel: 703.683.5213
Fax: 703.683.4074
E-mail: cyablonsky@erols.com

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON
MICROBIOLOGICAL SPECIFICATIONS
FOR FOODS (ICMSF)

Dr. M. van Schothorst
Avenue Nestlé, 55
CH 1800-Vevey, Switzerland
Tel: 41.21.924.4241
Fax: 41.21.924.4598

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF
GROCERY MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
(ICGMA)

Stacey A. Zawel, Ph.D.
Vice President
Scientific and Regulatory Affairs
1010 Wisconsin Ave., NW 9th floor
Washington, DC 20007
Tel: 202.337.9400
Fax: 202.337.4508

Mr. Frederick Hegele
Director, Quality Assurance & Regulatory Affairs
General Mills, Inc.
P.O. Box 1113
Minneapolis, MN 55440-1113
Tel: 612.540.2053
Fax: 612.540.2109

Ms. Diani Santucci
Vice President
Health, Safety & Quality Assurance Bestfoods
700 Sylvan Ave.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632
Tel: 201.894.4667
Fax: 201.894.2192

INTERNATIONAL DAIRY FEDERATION
FEDERATION INTERNATIONALE DE
LAITERIE (IDF/FIL)

Mr. Jorg Seifert
IDF Secretariat
41, Square Vergote
B-1030 Brussels (Belgium)
Tel: +32 2 733 98 88
Fax: +32 2 733 04 13
E-mail: JSeifert@fil-idf.org

Prof. Dr. W. Heeschen
c/o Federal Dairy Research Centre
Institute for Hygiene
Hermann-Weigmann- Str. 1

D-24103 Kiel, Germany
Tel: +49 431 609 2388
Fax: +49 431 609 2308
E-mail: heeschen@bafm.de

Mr. C. Heggum
Danish Dairy Board
Frederiks Alle 22
DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Tel: +45 87 31 20 00
Fax: +45 87 31 20 01
E-mail:ch@mejeri.dk

INSTITUTE OF FOOD TECHNOLOGISTS (IFT)

Mr. Merle Pierson, Ph.D.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Dept. of Food Science and Technology
Food Science Building
Blacksburg, VA 21061
Tel: 540.231.8641
Fax: 540.231.9293
E-mail: piersonm@vt.edu

Ms. Rosetta Newsome, Ph.D.
Institute of Food Technologists
221 N. Lasalle St.
Chicago, IL 60606(1)
Tel: 312.782.8424
Fax: 312.782.8348
E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF FRUIT
JUICE PRODUCERS (IFFJP)

Mrs. Kristen Gunter
Lawyer - NJPA Staff Counsel
500 S. Florida Ave. - Suite 200
Lakeland, FL 33801
Tel: 941.680.9908
Fax: 941.683.2849
E-mail: gunchad@aol.com

INTERNATIONAL LIFE SCIENCES INSTITUTE
(ILSI)

Dr. Samuel Molinary
Director Scientific & Regulatory Affairs
Tate & Lyle Specialty Sweeteners
Philip Lyle Building
Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6BX
United Kingdom
Tel:44.118.925.2909
Fax:44.118.975.2484

INTERNATIONAL TOXICOLOGY
INFORMATION CENTRE (ITIC)

Ms. Katie Egan
Manager, Food and Nutrition Strategies
Novigen Sciences, Inc.
1730 Rhode Island Ave., NW Suite- 1100
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: 202.293.5374
Fax: 202.293.5377

PANAMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION
(PAHO)

Dr. Juan Cuellar
Food Safety Advisor
Panamerican Health Organization
Panamerican Food and Zoonoses Institute
Talcahuano 1660 - (1640) Martinez
Prov. Buenos Aires - Argentina
Tel: 541 836 0527
Fax: 541 836 0927
E-mail: cuellarj@inppaz.org.ar
Net Meeting: ILS.PAHO.ORG

OINT FAO/WHO SECRETARIAT
Dr. Jeronimas Maskeliunas
Food Standards Officer
Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
Food and Agriculture Organization
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel: +39-6-570-53967
Fax: +39-6-570-54593
E-mail: jeronimas.maskeliunas@fao.org

Dr. Yasuyuki Sahara
Food Standards Officer
Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
Food and Agriculture Organization
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel: +39-6-570-54098
Fax: +39-6-570-54593
E-mail: saharay@who.ch

Dr. Selma Helena Doyran
Food Standards Officer
Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme
Food and Agriculture Organization
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel: +39-6-570-55826
Fax: +39-6-570-54593
E-mail: selma.doyran@fao.org

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION
(FAO)

Dr. Maria Lourdes Costarrica Gonzalez
Nutrition Officer (Consumer Protection)
Food Quality & Standards Service
Food and Nutrition Division
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel: 39 06 57056060
Fax: 39 06 57054593
E-mail: lourdes.costarrica@fao.org

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE
ORGANIZACION MUNDIAL DE LA SALUD

Dr. Yasmine Motarjemi
Acting Director
Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid
World Health Organization
20, Avenue Appia
CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
Tel: 41-22 791 3535
Fax: 41-22 791 4807
E-mail: motarjemiy@who.ch

U.S. SECRETARIAT

Dr. F. Edward Scarbrough
Food Safety and Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
14th & Independence Avenue, SW
South Building - Room 4861
Washington, DC 20250, USA
Tel: (202) 205-7760
Fax: (202) 720-3157
E-mail: edward.scarbrough@usda.gov

Patrick Clerkin
Food Safety and Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
14th & Independence Avenue, SW
South Building - Room 4861
Washington, DC 20250, USA
Tel: (202) 205-7760
Fax: (202) 720-3157
E-mail: patrick.clerkin@usda.gov

Mr. Amjad Ali
Food Safety and Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
14th & Independence Avenue, SW
South Building - Room 4861
Washington, DC 20250, USA
Tel: (202) 205-7760
Fax: (202) 720-3157
E-mail: syed.ali@usda.gov

Jennifer Callahan
Food Safety and Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
14th & Independence Avenue, SW
Franklin Court - Room 6904E
Washington, DC 20250, USA
Tel: (202) 501-7136
Fax: (202) 501-7642
E-mail: jennifer.callahan@usda.gov

Mary Harris
Food Safety and Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
14th & Independence Avenue, SW
Franklin Court - Room 6904E
Washington, DC 20250, USA
Tel: (202) 501-7136
Fax: (202) 501-7642
E-mail: mary.harris@usda.gov

Carol Hudson
Food Safety and Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
14th & Independence Avenue, SW
Franklin Court - Room 6904E
Washington, DC 20250, USA
Tel: (202) 501-7136
Fax: (202) 501-7642
E-mail: carol.hudson@usda.gov

Ms. Edith Kennard
Food Safety and Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
14th & Independence Avenue, SW
South Building - Room 4861
Washington, DC 20250, USA
Tel: (202) 205-7760
Fax: (202) 720-3157
E-mail: edith.kennard@usda.gov

APPENDIX II. DRAFT PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE CONDUCT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT


INTRODUCTION
1. SCOPE
2. DEFINITIONS
3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT
4. GUIDELINES FOR APPLICATION

(At Step 8 of the Procedure)

INTRODUCTION

Risks from microbiological hazards are of immediate and serious concern to human health. Microbiological Risk Analysis is a process consisting of three components: Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Risk Communication, which has the overall objective to ensure public health protection. This document deals with Risk Assessment which is a key element in assuring that sound science is used to establish standards, guidelines and other recommendations for food safety to enhance consumer protection and facilitate international trade. The Microbiological Risk Assessment process should include quantitative information to the greatest extent possible in the estimation of risk. A Microbiological Risk Assessment should be conducted using a structured approach such as that described in this document. This document will be of primary interest to governments although other organizations, companies, and other interested parties who need to prepare a Microbiological Risk Assessment will find it valuable. Since Microbiological Risk Assessment is a developing science, implementation of these guidelines may require a period of time and may also require specialized training in the countries that consider it necessary. This may be particularly the case for developing countries. Although Microbiological Risk Assessment is the primary focus of this document, the method can also be applied to certain other classes of biological hazards.

1. SCOPE

The scope of this document applies to Risk Assessment of microbiological hazards in food.

2. DEFINITIONS

The definitions cited here are to facilitate the understanding of certain words or phrases used in this document.

Where available the definitions are those adopted for microbiological, chemical, or physical agents and Risk Management and Risk Communication on an interim basis at the 22nd Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The CAC adopted these definitions on an interim basis because they are subject to modification in the light of developments in the science of risk analysis and as a result of efforts to harmonize similar definitions across various disciplines.

Dose-Response Assessment - The determination of the relationship between the magnitude of exposure (dose) to a chemical, biological or physical agent and the severity and/or frequency of associated adverse health effects (response).

Exposure Assessment - The qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of the likely intake of biological, chemical, and physical agents via food as well as exposures from other sources if relevant.

Hazard - A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.

Hazard Characterization - The qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of the nature of the adverse health effects associated with the hazard. For the purpose of Microbiological Risk Assessment the concerns relate to microorganisms and/or their toxins.

Hazard Identification - The identification of biological, chemical, and physical agents capable of causing adverse health effects and which may be present in a particular food or group of foods.

Quantitative Risk Assessment - A Risk Assessment that provides numerical expressions of risk and indication of the attendant uncertainties (stated in the 1995 Expert Consultation definition on Risk Analysis).

Qualitative Risk Assessment - A Risk Assessment based on data which, while forming an inadequate basis for numerical risk estimations, nonetheless, when conditioned by prior expert knowledge and identification of attendant uncertainties permits risk ranking or separation into descriptive categories of risk.

Risk - A function of the probability of an adverse health effect and the severity of that effect, consequential to a hazard(s) in food.

Risk Analysis - A process consisting of three components: risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.

Risk Assessment - A scientifically based process consisting of the following steps: (i) hazard identification, (ii) hazard characterization, (iii) exposure assessment, and (iv) risk characterization.

Risk Characterization - The process of determining the qualitative and/or quantitative estimation, including attendant uncertainties, of the probability of occurrence and severity of known or potential adverse health effects in a given population based on hazard identification, hazard characterization and exposure assessment.

Risk Communication - The interactive exchange of information and opinions concerning risk and risk management among risk assessors, risk managers, consumers and other interested parties.

Risk Estimate - Output of Risk Characterization.

Risk Management - The process of weighing policy alternatives in the light of the results of risk assessment and, if required, selecting and implementing appropriate control[24] options, including regulatory measures.

Sensitivity analysis - A method used to examine the behavior of a model by measuring the variation in its outputs resulting from changes to its inputs.

Transparent - Characteristics of a process where the rationale, the logic of development, constraints, assumptions, value judgements, decisions, limitations and uncertainties of the expressed determination are fully and systematically stated, documented, and accessible for review.

Uncertainty analysis - A method used to estimate the uncertainty associated with model inputs, assumptions and structure/form.

3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

1. Microbiological Risk Assessment should be soundly based upon science.

2. There should be a functional separation between Risk Assessment and Risk Management.

3. Microbiological Risk Assessment should be conducted according to a structured approach that includes Hazard Identification, Hazard Characterization, Exposure Assessment, and Risk Characterization.

4. A Microbiological Risk Assessment should clearly state the purpose of the exercise, including the form of Risk Estimate that will be the output.

5. The conduct of a Microbiological Risk Assessment should be transparent.

6. Any constraints that impact on the Risk Assessment such as cost, resources or time, should be identified and their possible consequences described.

7. The Risk Estimate should contain a description of uncertainty and where the uncertainty arose during the Risk Assessment process.

8. Data should be such that uncertainty in the Risk Estimate can be determined; data and data collection systems should, as far as possible, be of sufficient quality and precision that uncertainty in the Risk Estimate is minimized.

9. A Microbiological Risk Assessment should explicitly consider the dynamics of microbiological growth, survival, and death in foods and the complexity of the interaction (including sequelae) between human and agent following consumption as well as the potential for further spread.

10. Wherever possible, Risk Estimates should be reassessed over time by comparison with independent human illness data.

11. A Microbiological Risk Assessment may need reevaluation, as new relevant information becomes available.

4. GUIDELINES FOR APPLICATION


4.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
4.2 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE OF RISK ASSESSMENT
4.3 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
4.4 EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT
4.5 HAZARD CHARACTERIZATION
4.6 RISK CHARACTERIZATION
4.7 DOCUMENTATION
4.8 Reassessment

These Guidelines provide an outline of the elements of a Microbiological Risk Assessment indicating the types of decisions that need to be considered at each step.

4.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

The elements of Risk Analysis are: Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Risk Communication. The functional separation of Risk Assessment from Risk Management helps assure that the Risk Assessment process is unbiased. However, certain interactions are needed for a comprehensive and systematic Risk Assessment process. These may include ranking of hazards and risk assessment policy decisions. Where Risk Management issues are taken into account in Risk Assessment, the decision-making process should be transparent. It is the transparent unbiased nature of the process that is important, not who is the assessor or who is the manager.

Whenever practical, efforts should be made to provide a Risk Assessment process that allows contributions by interested parties. Contributions by interested parties in the Risk Assessment process can improve the transparency of the Risk Assessment, increase the quality of Risk Assessments through additional expertise and information, and facilitate risk communication by increasing the credibility and acceptance of the results of the Risk Assessment.

Scientific evidence may be limited, incomplete or conflicting. In such cases, transparent informed decisions will have to be made on how to complete the Risk Assessment process. The importance of using high quality information when conducting a Risk Assessment is to reduce uncertainty and to increase the reliability of the Risk Estimate. The use of quantitative information is encouraged to the extent possible, but the value and utility of qualitative information should not be discounted.

It should be recognized that sufficient resources will not always be available and constraints are likely to be imposed on the Risk Assessment that will influence the quality of the Risk Estimate. Where such resource constraints apply, it is important for transparency purposes that these constraints be described in the formal record. Where appropriate, the record should include an evaluation of the impact of the resource constraints on the Risk Assessment.

4.2 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE OF RISK ASSESSMENT

At the beginning of the work the specific purpose of the particular Risk Assessment being carried out should be clearly stated. The output form and possible output alternatives of the Risk Assessment should be defined. Output might, for example, take the form of an estimate of the prevalence of illness, or an estimate of annual rate (incidence of human illness per 100,000) or an estimate of the rate of human illness and severity per eating occurrence.

The microbiological risk assessment may require a preliminary investigation phase. In this phase, evidence to support farm-to-table modeling of risk might be structured or mapped into the framework of risk assessment.

4.3 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

For microbial agents, the purpose of hazard identification is to identify the microorganisms or the microbial toxins of concern with food. Hazard identification will predominately be a qualitative process. Hazards can be identified from relevant data sources. Information on hazards can be obtained from scientific literature, from databases such as those in the food industry, government agencies, and relevant international organizations and through solicitation of opinions of experts. Relevant information includes data in areas such as: clinical studies, epidemiological studies and surveillance, laboratory animal studies, investigations of the characteristics of microorganisms, the interaction between microorganisms and their environment through the food chain from primary production up to and including consumption, and studies on analogous microorganisms and situations.

4.4 EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

Exposure Assessment includes an assessment of the extent of actual or anticipated human exposure. For microbiological agents, Exposure Assessments might be based on the potential extent of food contamination by a particular agent or its toxins, and on dietary information. Exposure assessment should specify the unit of food that is of interest, i.e., the portion size in most/all cases of acute illness.

Factors that must be considered for Exposure Assessment include the frequency of contamination of foods by the pathogenic agent and its level in those foods over time. For example, these factors are influenced by the characteristics of the pathogenic agent, the microbiological ecology of the food, the initial contamination of the raw material including considerations of regional differences and seasonality of production, the level of sanitation and process controls, the methods of processing, packaging, distribution and storage of the foods, as well as any preparation steps such as cooking and holding. Another factor that must be considered in the assessment is patterns of consumption. This relates to socio-economic and cultural backgrounds, ethnicity, seasonality, age differences (population demographics), regional differences, and consumer preferences and behavior. Other factors to be considered include: the role of the food handler as a source of contamination, the amount of hand contact with the product, and the potential impact of abusive environmental time/temperature relationships.

Microbial pathogen levels can be dynamic and while they may be kept low, for example, by proper time/temperature controls during food processing, they can substantially increase with abuse conditions (for example, improper food storage temperatures or cross contamination from other foods). Therefore, the Exposure Assessment should describe the pathway from production to consumption. Scenarios can be constructed to predict the range of possible exposures. The scenarios might reflect effects of processing, such as hygienic design, cleaning and disinfection, as well as the time/temperature and other conditions of the food history, food handling and consumption patterns, regulatory controls, and surveillance systems.

Exposure Assessment estimates the level, within various levels of uncertainty, of microbiological pathogens or microbiological toxins, and the likelihood of their occurrence in foods at the time of consumption. Qualitatively foods can be categorized according to the likelihood that the foodstuff will or will not be contaminated at its source; whether or not the food can support the growth of the pathogen of concern; whether there is substantial potential for abusive handling of the food; or whether the food will be subjected to a heat process. The presence, growth, survival, or death of microorganisms, including pathogens in foods, are influenced by processing and packaging, the storage environment, including the temperature of storage, the relative humidity of the environment, and the gaseous composition of the atmosphere. Other relevant factors include pH, moisture content or water activity (aw), nutrient content, the presence of antimicrobial substances, and competing microflora. Predictive microbiology can be a useful tool in an Exposure Assessment.

4.5 HAZARD CHARACTERIZATION

This step provides a qualitative or quantitative description of the severity and duration of adverse effects that may result from the ingestion of a microorganism or its toxin in food. A dose-response assessment should be performed if the data are obtainable.

There are several important factors that need to be considered in Hazard Characterization. These are related to both the microorganism, and the human host. In relation to the microorganism the following are important: microorganisms are capable of replicating; the virulence and infectivity of microorganisms can change depending on their interaction with the host and the environment; genetic material can be transferred between microorganisms leading to the transfer of characteristics such as antibiotic resistance and virulence factors; microorganisms can be spread through secondary and tertiary transmission; the onset of clinical symptoms can be substantially delayed following exposure; microorganisms can persist in certain individuals leading to continued excretion of the microorganism and continued risk of spread of infection; low doses of some microorganisms can in some cases cause a severe effect; and the attributes of a food that may alter the microbial pathogenicity, e.g., high fat content of a food vehicle.

In relation to the host the following may be important: genetic factors such as Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) type; increased susceptibility due to breakdowns of physiological barriers; individual host susceptibility characteristics such as age, pregnancy, nutrition, health and medication status, concurrent infections, immune status and previous exposure history; population characteristics such as population immunity, access to and use of medical care, and persistence of the organism in the population.

A desirable feature of Hazard Characterization is ideally establishing a dose-response relationship. When establishing a dose-response relationship, the different end points, such as infection or illness, should be taken into consideration. In the absence of a known dose-response relationship, risk assessment tools such as expert elicitations could be used to consider various factors, such as infectivity, necessary to describe Hazard Characterizations. Additionally, experts may be able to devise ranking systems so that they can be used to characterize severity and/or duration of disease.

4.6 RISK CHARACTERIZATION

Risk Characterization represents the integration of the Hazard Identification, Hazard Characterization, and Exposure Assessment determinations to obtain a Risk Estimate; providing a qualitative or quantitative estimate of the likelihood and severity of the adverse effects which could occur in a given population, including a description of the uncertainties associated with these estimates. These estimates can be assessed by comparison with independent epidemiological data that relate hazards to disease prevalence.

Risk Characterization brings together all of the qualitative or quantitative information of the previous steps to provide a soundly based estimate of risk for a given population. Risk Characterization depends on available data and expert judgements. The weight of evidence integrating quantitative and qualitative data may permit only a qualitative estimate of risk.

The degree of confidence in the final estimation of risk will depend on the variability, uncertainty, and assumptions identified in all previous steps. Differentiation of uncertainty and variability is important in subsequent selections of risk management options. Uncertainty is associated with the data themselves, and with the choice of model. Data uncertainties include those that might arise in the evaluation and extrapolation of information obtained from epidemiological, microbiological, and laboratory animal studies. Uncertainties arise whenever attempts are made to use data concerning the occurrence of certain phenomena obtained under one set of conditions to make estimations or predictions about phenomena likely to occur under other sets of conditions for which data are not available. Biological variation includes the differences in virulence that exist in microbiological populations and variability in susceptibility within the human population and particular subpopulations.

It is important to demonstrate the influence of the estimates and assumptions used in Risk Assessment; for quantitative Risk Assessment this can be done using sensitivity and uncertainty analyses.

4.7 DOCUMENTATION

The Risk Assessment should be fully and systematically documented and communicated to the risk manager. Understanding any limitations that influenced a Risk Assessment is essential for transparency of the process that is important in decision making. For example, expert judgements should be identified and their rationale explained. To ensure a transparent Risk Assessment a formal record, including a summary, should be prepared and made available to interested independent parties so that other risk assessors can repeat and critique the work. The formal record and summary should indicate any constraints, uncertainties, and assumptions and their impact on the Risk Assessment.

4.8 Reassessment

Surveillance programs can provide an ongoing opportunity to reassess the public health risks associated with pathogens in foods as new relevant information and data become available. Microbiological Risk Assessors may have the opportunity to compare the predicted Risk Estimate from Microbiological Risk Assessment models with reported human illness data for the purpose of gauging the reliability of the predicted estimate. This comparison emphasizes the iterative nature of modeling. When new data become available, a Microbiological Risk Assessment may need to be revisited.

APPENDIX III. DRAFT AMENDMENT TO THE RECOMMENDED INTERNATIONAL CODE OF PRACTICE - GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOOD HYGIENE

(at Step 5 of the Accelerated Procedure)

§ 6.1.2 Cleaning Procedures and Methods

Revise the fifth (5) bullet point to read:

- where necessary, disinfection, with subsequent rinsing unless the manufacturers’ instructions indicate on scientific basis that rinsing is not required.

APPENDIX IV. PROPOSED DRAFT CODE OF HYGIENIC PRACTICE FOR THE TRANSPORT OF FOODSTUFFS IN BULK AND SEMI-PACKED FOODSTUFFS


INTRODUCTION
1. OBJECTIVES
2. SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS
3. PRIMARY PRODUCTION
4. ESTABLISHMENT: DESIGN AND FACILITIES
5. CONTROL OF OPERATIONS
6. ESTABLISHMENT: MAINTENANCE AND SANITATION
7. ESTABLISHMENT: PERSONNEL HYGIENE
8. TRAINING

(At Step 5 of the Procedure)

INTRODUCTION

Foodstuffs may become contaminated or reach their destination in an unsuitable condition for consumption unless control measures are taken during transport. Such condition may occur even where adequate hygiene measures have been taken earlier in the food chain. Adequate transportation systems should be in place which will ensure that foodstuffs remain safe and suitable for consumption upon delivery and assist countries to assure continued trade.

Good communication between shipper/manufacturer, transporter and receiver of foodstuffs is essential. They share responsibility for food safety on this part of the food chain. Food manufacturers or receivers are responsible for communicating to transporters specific food safety control procedures required during transportation.

This document is formatted in accordance with the Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev.3, 1997), which must be consulted in the use of this Code. Those sections of this Code that require specific food safety requirements beyond those contained in the Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev.3, 1997), due to specific transportation characteristics, are noted and the specific requirements are detailed.

This code does not supersede the existing proposal for the Codex Draft Revised Code of Practice for the Transport of Edible Fats and Oils in Bulk.

1. OBJECTIVES

The code of hygienic practice for the transport of bulk and semi-packed foodstuffs:

- identifies additional requirements of food hygiene applicable to the Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev 3 (1997)) applicable to the condition of the food transportation unit and the loading, transport, in-transit storage and unloading of bulk and semi-packed foodstuffs to ensure that food remains safe and suitable for human consumption.

- indicates how to implement these controls, and

- provides ways to verify that these controls have been applied.

2. SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS


2.1. SCOPE
2.2. DEFINITIONS

2.1. SCOPE

This code of practice covers the condition of the food transportation unit, loading, transport, in-transit storage and unloading of bulk, semi-packed foodstuffs and fresh produce. The code’s provisions are to be applied in addition to all applicable provisions of the Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 3, 1997) including Section 8 which specifically addresses transportation.

2.2. DEFINITIONS

Foodstuff: Means primary- intermediary- as well as finished products (including food additives) intended [or suitable] for human consumption.

Food transportation unit: Includes food transport vehicles or contact receptacles (such as containers, boxes, bins, bulk tanks) in vehicles, aircraft, railcars, trailers and ships and any other transport receptacles in which food is transported.

Bulk: Means unpacked foodstuff in direct contact with the contact surface of the food transportation unit and the atmosphere (for example, powdered, granulated or liquid form e.g. oil, potato flakes).

Semi-packed foodstuff: Semi-packed foodstuff is a food which might come in direct contact with the food transportation unit or the atmosphere (e.g. vegetables and food in crates and bags).

3. PRIMARY PRODUCTION

3.1. The provisions of the Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1- 1969, Rev.3, 1997) shall be applied.

3.2. However in the case of fresh produced and seasonal crops it should be noted that these could contaminate the food transportation unit more than other foodstuff, due to treatment of the land prior to planting, use of raw sewage, animal manure, harvesting practice, processing conditions and unit operations such as peeling, cutting and slicing. Measures to overcome this problem should be directed to the foodstuff and/or the food transportation unit. Special caution should be exercised for fresh produce requiring no or little processing before consumption, which should not be transported in food transportation units used to transport manure, fertilizers, pesticides or produces which have been in contact with these.

4. ESTABLISHMENT: DESIGN AND FACILITIES

4.1 The design of the food transportation unit should be such as to avoid cross contamination due to simultaneous or consecutive transport. Important aspect are cleanability and appropriate coatings.

4.2 Construction and design of the food transportation unit should facilitate inspection, cleaning, disinfection and when appropriate enable temperature control.

4.3 Use of means for cooling or heating should by design and construction be such as to avoid contamination. Those Thermal Heating Fluids can be used which are agreed upon between sellers and buyers and are acceptable to the authorities of the receiving country, based on risk assessment.

4.4 Inner surface materials suitable for direct food contact should be used. These should be non-toxic, inert, or at least compatible with the transported foodstuff, and which do not transfer substances to the foodstuff or adversely affect the foodstuff. Stainless steel or surface coated with food-grade epoxy resins are most suitable. The interior design should eliminate areas that are difficult to access and clean.

4.5. The appropriate design of the food transportation unit should assist in preventing access of insects, vermin, etc, contamination from the environment, and when necessary insulation against loss or gain of heat, adequate cooling or heating capacity, and facilitation of locking or sealing.

4.6 There should be appropriate facilities conveniently available for cleaning and, where appropriate, disinfecting of the food transportation unit.

4.7 Auxiliary equipment should be (where appropriate) subjected to the above stated requirements.

4.8 To maintain sanitary conditions, facilities should be provided for the storage of pipes, hoses and other equipment used in the transfer of foodstuffs.

5. CONTROL OF OPERATIONS


5.1 IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL HAZARDS
5.2. SOURCES OF HAZARDS
5.3. COMMUNICATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF CONTROLS DURING TRANSPORT
5.4. DEDICATED TRANSPORT

5.1 IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL HAZARDS

It may be useful to refer to the listed questions (see Table 1) to identify and manage hazards during transport of bulk and semi-packed foodstuffs. Reference is made also to the HACCP approach.

Table 1

Are you dealing with a foodstuff “ready for direct consumption”?

Are the conditions of the food transportation unit likely to introduce or support the increase of a hazard?

Is it likely, that a hazard is introduced or increased during loading?

Is it likely, that a hazard may increase during transport or storage in the food transportation unit?

Is it likely, that a hazard is introduced or increased during unloading?


5.1.1. Records of prior cargoes and prior cleaning

The transporter should maintain records, readily available at the food transportation unit or as prescribed by the official agency having jurisdiction, of the three most recent prior cargoes and cleaning method employed of the food transportation unit including volumes transported and make this information, on request, available to the food shipper, official control authorities and/or receiver/food manufacturers, for evaluation of potential hazards.

A complete record of previous cargoes should be kept over a period of [six] month.

5.2. SOURCES OF HAZARDS

The possibility of a hazard should be considered from the following sources, cited as examples:

5.2.1. Hazards related to the food transportation unit

Unsuitability of the construction material and coating, lack of sealing/locking device, residues of previous cargoes, residues from cleaning and sanitizing materials. Where appropriate consideration should be given to food transportation unit's dedicated to single commodity use.

5.2.2 Hazards related to loading and unloading

Increase/decrease of temperature of the food. Undesirable introduction of microbes, dust, moisture, or other physical contamination.

5.2.3 Hazards related to transport

Leakage of heating/cooling fluid. Break down of temperature control.

5.3. COMMUNICATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF CONTROLS DURING TRANSPORT

Suitable controls can be formulated by shippers or receivers to ensure food safety during transport in particular cases (see questions in Table 1). Such controls should be communicated in writing. Documentation is an important tool for validation and for verification that the principles have been adhered to. This documentation may include food transportation unit number, registration of previous loads, temperature/time recordings and cleaning certificates. Such documentation should be available to the official agencies having jurisdiction. It should be noted that some food transportation unit's are intended for single use only.

5.4. DEDICATED TRANSPORT

[Bulk foodstuffs in liquid, granulated or powder for must be transported in receptacles and/or containers/tankers reserved for the transport of foodstuffs.]

In some cases it may be justified, after a proper assessment of the risks, to require transport dedicated to the foodstuff, however this does not exempt from taking the appropriate precautionary measures.

6. ESTABLISHMENT: MAINTENANCE AND SANITATION

Food transportation unit's, accessories, and connections should be cleaned, disinfected (where appropriate) and maintained to avoid or at least reduce the risk of contamination. It should be noted that depending on the commodity relevant, different cleaning procedures are applicable, which should be recorded. Rinsing and drying, where appropriate, should follow disinfection.

7. ESTABLISHMENT: PERSONNEL HYGIENE

The General Principles of Food Hygiene should apply to all personnel in contact with the food.

8. TRAINING

It is important that personnel responsible for the transport are well aware of the nature of the foods that are being handled/transported and the possible extra precautionary measures that may be required. Personnel should be trained on food transportation unit inspection procedures for food safety.


[24] Control means prevention, elimination, or reduction of hazards and/or minimization of risks.

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