The Council adopted its agenda as set out in Appendix A, and re-appointed Dr. A. Davatchi (Iran) and Mr. C.F. Pennison (United Kingdom) as first and second Vice-Chairmen respectively (paragraphs 1–3).
ACTIVITIES OF THE ORGANIZATION
Program Activities - Statistics, Economic Analysis and Commodities Divisions
The Council considered the programs of the above Divisions (CL 44/5, CL 44/6, CL 44/7) and the report of the Program Committee thereon (CL 44/3), and made a number of suggestions regarding the future orientation of the activities of these Divisions (paragraphs 4–25).
The Council took note of the Report of the Thirty-Eighth Session of the Committee on Commodity Problems (CL 44/8) which reviewed the world agricultural commodity situation and the proposed Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development and made suggestions regarding food aid and surplus utilization, the Rice Regulation of the European Economic Community and the market survey to be undertaken in 1966–67 of chemical uses of coconut oil. The Council further noted that the CCP had established a Study Group on Bananas, had widened the terms of reference of the Group on Coconut Products, to be renamed the Study Group on Oilseeds, Oils and Fats, had extended the mandate of the Group on Citrus Fruit, and requested that the Director-General convene another Ad Hoc conference on tea (paragraphs 26–37).
The Council endorsed the preliminary conclusions of the CCP with regard to matters arising from the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and noted that the CCP would hold a brief session in October to consider matters relating to its future work in the light of further developments (paragraphs 38–43).
Role of FAO in World Fishery Development
The Council discussed the constitutional means by which a Committee on Fisheries might be established to deal with international collaboration in fisheries and to advise the Conference, the Council and the Director-General on the formulation, implementation and co-ordination of policy programs and activities in the field of fisheries. The Council decided to recommend that the Committee on Fisheries be established under Article V of the Constitution and recommended the necessary amendments to Article V and the text of a new Rule to be inserted in the General Rules of the Organization. It requested the Director-General to give Member Nations and Associate Members notice of the proposed amendment. The Council supported the Director-General's proposals for a strengthening of the staff in the field of fisheries (paragraphs 44–55).
The Council authorized the Director-General to invite as observers to the Second Session of the Working Party for the Rational Utilization of the Tuna Resources in the Atlantic Ocean those Member Nations that have coasts in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas, as well as the Republic of Korea (paragraph 56).
The Council approved the Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee (CL 44/12) and noted the Committee's decision to discuss the future of the Committee at its next session. The Council decided that the question of membership of the Committee and its continuation after 1967 should be reconsidered by the Council toward the end of 1966 or at its spring session in 1967 (paragraphs 57–63).
André Mayer Fellowships
The Council noted and approved the conclusions of the Program Committee on this subject (paragraphs 64–68).
1970 World Census of Agriculture
The Council noted the report of the Working Party on the Agricultural Census Fund (CL 44/14) and the report on the subject by the Program and Finance Committees (CL 44/3), and welcomed the constructive plan recommended by the Working Party of co-ordinating the assistance for agricultural censuses available from bi-lateral and multilateral sources. The Council noted the steps taken by the Director-General to assess the census needs of the developing countries (paragraphs 69–73).
Activities under EPTA and UNSF
The Council took note of recent progress and development of the Organization's activities under EPTA and UNSF. It recalled its earlier views on the need for carrying out a systematic evaluation of the impact of the Organization's field programs on the economic and social development of recipient countries, and was informed that arrangements for undertaking pilot evaluation projects were proceeding. The Council indicated three areas of review and evaluation which would have to be undertaken in order to make technical co-operation field programs as effective as possible. It suggested that the Conference at its Thirteenth Session establish an ad hoc committee to make a start with this review and proposed an agenda for this ad hoc Committee (paragraphs 74–77).
Relationship of Field Programs and the Regular Program
The Council noted the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions of the United Nations (ACABQ) and reiterated its view that a more realistic financial support needed to be obtained from the extra-budgetary sources which sponsored the growing field programs, in order to ensure adequate central management and servicing and to avoid impairing the quality and effectiveness of the Regular Program. The Council appealed to Member Governments also represented in ECOSOC or in the governing bodies of the operational programs to lend the necessary support corresponding to their views as expressed in FAO (paragraphs 78–85).
The Council took note of the discussion on inter-Agency co-operation that had taken place at the ACC and between Agencies, and of the latest developments concerning the UN Advisory Committee on Science and Technology, the UN Development Decade, arrangements for co-operation between UNCTAD and the Agencies, industrial development matters and institutional arrangements for co-operation between regional planning institutes and the Specialized Agencies. It also took note of a number of other questions of inter-Agency co-operation (paragraphs 86–91).
Freedom from Hunger Campaign
The Council commemorated the fifth anniversary of the inauguration of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign (FFHC) and urged Governments and nongovernmental organizations, private groups and people everywhere to intensify their actions in the struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and recommended that Member Governments give full support to the FFHC World Mobilization Appeal. The Council gave notice of a proposed amendment to the Preamble of the FAO Constitution to incorporate a reference therein to humanity's right to freedom from hunger. The Council noted the preparations which were being made for the International Rice Year (paragraphs 92–101).
Other Matters Arising Out of the Report of the Program Committee
The Council requested the Director-General to submit a report on Article XI Reports to the Thirteenth Session of the Conference. The Council also noted that the first full cycle of reviews of the program activities of the Organization had now been completed, and accordingly decided to amend paragraph 149 of the Report of its Forty-Third Session to the effect that a general examination of the work of the Departments of the Organization be undertaken at its major session in years when no regular Conference Session takes place, and laid down the order of rotation for this examination. The Council agreed with the suggestion made by the Program Committee that if necessary the Committee could hold two sessions during the non-Conference year, or a total of three sessions in the biennium instead of two (paragraphs 102–110).
PROGRAM OF WORK AND BUDGET FOR 1966–67
The Council considered the general aspects of the Program of Work and Budget (document C 65/3 and supplements) together with the reports of the Program and Finance Committees thereon (CL 44/3) and expressed the view that the program was on the whole a very good one, giving evidence of careful selection of the principal items in terms of the priorities imposed by the existing world situation. The Council recognized that the mandatory increases, although they imposed a heavy charge on Member Governments, were in the circumstances inescapable. The Council adopted Resolution 2/44 recommending to the Conference the level of the budget as proposed by the Director-General (paragraphs 111–121).
WORLD FOOD PROGRAM
The Council took note of the Third Annual Report of the UN/FAO Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Program (CL 44/17) and endorsed the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Committee, transmitting them to the Conference. The Council adopted Resolution 3/44 recommending the continuation of the World Food Program and proposed a draft resolution for the UN General Assembly and the FAO Conference on this subject (paragraphs 122–126).
Technical Committees of the Conference
The Council considered the Director-General's report on the timing and method of work of the Technical Committees of the Conference (CL 44/29) and the report of the Program Committee thereon (CL 44/3). The Council decided to place the question of the Technical Committees on the Agenda of the Thirteenth Session of the Conference, and to re-examine the question in 1966, in the light of any comments made by the Conference on the functioning of these Committees. (Paragraphs 127–136).
Appointment and Functions of Vice-Chairmen of the Council
The Council adopted Resolution 4/44 recommending to the Conference amendments to Rule XXIII to the General Rules of the Organization in regard to the exercising of the functions of the Independent Chairman of the Council if the latter were prevented from exercising his functions for the remainder of his term of office due to resignation, disability, death or for any other reason (paragraphs 137–139).
Statutes and Rules of Procedure of Article VI Bodies
The Council adopted Resolution 5/44 amending the terms of reference of the FAO Desert Locust Control Committee and the FAO Technical Advisory Committee on Desert Locust Control (paragraphs 140–144).
Increase in Membership of the Committee on Commodity Problems
The Council submitted a draft resolution to the Conference with a view to amending Rule XXIX of the General Rules of the Organization to increase the membership of the CCP from twenty-four to thirty Member Nations (paragraph 145).
Agreement for the Establishment of a Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Near East
The Council adopted Resolution 6/44 establishing a Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Near East, within the framework of FAO, under Article XIV of the Constitution (paragraphs 146–148 and Appendix E).
Establishment of the Desert Locust Control Organization for Eastern Africa (DLCO-EA) within the Framework of FAO
The Council adopted Resolution 7/44 approving the Agreement under Article XV of the Constitution (paragraphs 149–153 and Appendix F).
Agreement for the Co-ordination of FAO and Inter-American Development Bank Activities
The Council adopted Resolution 8/44 approving the Agreement with IDB (paragraphs 154–159 and Appendix G).
Procedures which could be Applied in the Event of Urgent Issues Arising Between Council Sessions
The Council endorsed the suggestion of its Committee on Constitutional and Legal Matters (CL 44/4) that Rule XXV of the General Rules of the Organization be amended so that, should matters of exceptional urgency arise between sessions of the Council, on which Council action is required, the Director-General having consulted the Chairman of the Council or after notifying him, may seek the opinion of Members of the Council, and proceed with the action contemplated as soon as concurrence has been received from the majority of the Members of the Council or from two-thirds of the Members of the Council where a qualified majority is required. (paragraphs 160–162).
ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL MATTERS
The Council considered the reports of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Session of the Finance Committee covering the financial matters on the Agenda (CL 44/2, CL 44/3, CL 44/32), and noted that careful financial management had resulted in an improved financial position of the Organization. The Council noted with concern that as the arrears due from Bolivia, Haiti, Paraguay and Uruguay exceeded the contributions due from them for the two preceding years, these countries would have no vote at the next Session of the Conference. After considering a proposal from Bolivia to liquidate its arrears over a 10-year period while meeting its current assessments due, the Council proposed a draft resolution for the Conference, which would consider this as fulfillment of Bolivia's financial obligations while not establishing a precedent. The Council further agreed on a second draft resolution for the Conference that in view of the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964, the separate assessment of these countries for 1964 and 1965 would be cancelled and replaced by a single assessment of the United Republic of Tanzania (paragraphs 163–168).
The Council examined the audited accounts for the Regular Program and FFHC for the fifteenth financial period 1962/63, and of EPTA, WFP, the European Commission for the Control of Foot and Mouth Disease and the UNSF for 1963, as well as the External Auditor's report thereon, and proposed draft resolutions for adoption by the Conference (paragraphs 169–170).
Working Capital Fund
The Council concurred with the conclusions of the Finance Committee that the Working Capital Fund should be increased to $4,500,000, and submitted a draft resolution for the consideration of the Conference (paragraphs 171–174).
The Council noted that the Finance Committee would submit to the Forty-Fifth Session of the Council its proposals for reimbursing the withdrawal of $400,000 from the Fund, authorized by Council Resolution 6/43.
The Council adopted Resolution 9/44 authorizing the Director-General to contract loans to a limit of $1.5 million until the end of 1966, in case a temporary shortage of funds should arise during that year.
The Council submitted a draft resolution for the Conference altering the amount to be withdrawn from the Fund to meet expenditures resulting from the change in the basis of pensionable remuneration as adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (Resolution No. A/RES/2007 (XIX)), from $170,000 to $140,000 (paragraphs 175–179).
The Council agreed with the proposal of the Finance Committee concerning the financing of initial emergency measures to control epizootics, and accordingly submitted a draft resolution to the Conference authorizing the Director-General, after appropriate consultation, to withdraw up to $500,000 from the Working Capital Fund to finance such measures, of which not more than $100,000 up to 30 June 1966 (paragraph 180).
Scale of Contributions 1966–67
The Council took note that the UN Committee on Contributions had developed a new scale of contributions for the UN fiscal years 1965 to 1967, and recommended that the Conference adopt that scale (Appendix B). The Council also agreed that Indonesia, which was liable for its contribution to FAO in 1966 since its withdrawal would take effect in February 1966, should be assessed for 1966 in addition to the 100 percent scale (paragraphs 181–185).
The Council noted the action being undertaken by the Director-General to strengthen the Recruitment Section of the Personnel Branch, and improve recruitment procedures for professional staff.
It considered developments in Post Adjustments and Wage Index (CL 44/31), concurring to the establishment of Rome as Class 5 as of 1 May 1965, and endorsing the recommendations (CL 44/3) of the Finance Committee with regard to the General Service salary scale for Rome, the Council noted that ICSAB planned to carry out at its 1966 session a comprehensive review of the salary scale for the Professional Category and above, amended Staff Regulation 301.133 and appealed to the Italian Government to take steps to permit the allocation of Building D to the Organization at an early date to help solve the acute space problem (paragraphs 186–206).
The Council adopted Resolution 10/44 re-appointing the Comptroller and Auditor General of Great Britain as External Auditor of the Organization for 1966–67, and elected members and alternates to fill vacancies in the Staff Pension Committee arising from the departure from Rome of incumbents.
The Council adopted Resolution 11/44 arranging for a Survey of the Organization's General Structure. The Council also adopted Resolution 12/44, amending the Agreement between IBRD/IDA and FAO (paragraphs 207–221).
PREPARATIONS FOR THE THIRTEENTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE
The Council requested the Director-General to circulate proposals for the above session and the Provisional Agenda (C 65/1, C 65/2), noted that The Gambia, Malawi and Zambia had submitted applications for admission to membership in the Organization, authorized the Director-General to invite these countries to participate in an observer capacity in the technical conferences, sessions, seminars and training centers in which they had a technical interest, and established the deadline for nominations to the office of Independent Chairman of the Council (paragraphs 222–225).
DATE AND PLACE OF THE FORTY-FIFTH SESSION OF THE COUNCIL
The Council decided to convene the above session on 15 November 1965 (paragraph 226).
1. The Forty-Fourth Session of the Council was held in Rome from 21 June to 2 July 1965. It was opened by Abbas Davatchi, First Vice-Chairman of the Forty-Third Session of the Council.
2. A. Davatchi (Iran) and C. F. Pennison (United Kingdom) were reappointed respectively First Vice-Chairman and Second Vice-Chairman.
3. The Agenda of the Session, as adopted, is set out in Appendix A to this Report.
4. The Council expressed satisfaction with the progress made by the Statistics Division and noted with approval the main lines of work. It noted that the statistics available in many countries were often limited in scope and sometimes of doubtful accuracy. More than thirty countries had never taken an agricultural census, and in many countries agricultural development planning was impeded by the lack of basic agricultural statistics. The Council agreed with the recommendation of the Program Committee that there was no substitute for the basic work that needed to be undertaken to improve the objective basis of national statistics. In this connection delegates stressed the importance of the effort being made to promote the 1970 Census of Agriculture, and emphasized that the improvement of agricultural statistics should be on a continuous basis and should not suffer from the demands of ad hoc projects.
5. Lack of trained personnel was a handicap throughout the developing countries and the Council emphasized the need to promote programs to train national personnel. Disappointment was expressed that it had so far proved impossible to enlist the support of the UN Special Fund to establish a training and research institute in agricultural statistics. The Council requested the Director-General to make renewed efforts to have such centers established, particularly in Africa.
6. Delegates felt that there was a need to expand the publication program of the Division, and in particular to produce a yearbook of country tables dealing with statistics of agricultural institutions, government services to agriculture, agricultural income and expenses, and other statistics not covered by present publications. The Council suggested that the Statistics Advisory Committee should be consulted on the format of such a yearbook and proposals prepared as part of the long-term planning of the Division's work.
7. The Council discussed the question raised by the Program Committee of the relationship in FAO between the work of technical specialists and statisticians. The science of statistics had gone through considerable development during the present century and modern applications involved much more than the collection and tabulation of figures from administrative records. Probability theory provided the basis for inference on the reliability of results and for planning experiments. It has thus contributed significantly to the development of modern science and not least in agricultural research where advances depended on repeated observations and experiments. This was true whether the purpose was one of planning data collection through censuses and sample surveys, or of designing scientific experiments in various technical fields. The role of the Statistics Division was thus complementary to the work of many other divisions in the Organization and had to be seen in the context of the development of joint programs. A current example of such joint work was the project on crop responses to fertilizers being carried out by the Statistics and Land and Water Development Divisions. Similarly studies for the Third World Food Survey were carried out jointly with the Nutrition Division. In the latter case the Statistics Division had played a major role because of the need to develop appropriate methodology for the estimation of hunger and malnutrition based on the concept of variation in intake of nutrients and international scales for calory requirements. Similar methods had been used to estimate future food needs. The Council also noted that the Statistics Advisory Committee was available to give advice on the statistical aspects of the work of the Forestry and Fisheries Divisions. It hoped that in developing their statistical programs the Divisions would in future work very closely with the Statistics Division.
8. The Council noted the development over recent years of agricultural trade statistics published in the FAO Trade Yearbook. The scope of these statistics had considerably improved and the date of publication advanced by the use of electronic computers. Unfortunately plans for a joint UN/FAO Computer Center for the compilation and processing of external trade statistics, conveniently located in Europe, had not materialized. However, during recent years satisfactory arrangements had been concluded with the International Computation Center (ICC) in Rome for the processing and analysis of trade statistics. Very close links had been established between the ICC and the Statistics Division. The ICC was assisting in processing trade and other statistics for FAO and staff of the Statistics Division were assisting in ICC training programs.
9. Co-operation was also maintained with the UN International Trade Statistics Center in New York. Both the UN and FAO agreed that duplication in requesting trade information from countries should be avoided as far as possible. Full use was already made of the publications produced by the Trade Center, and it was hoped, as soon as the computer resources at ICC were sufficiently developed, to use the magnetic tapes of the UN Trade Center as input material for the production of trade statistics both for the Yearbook as well as for trade matrices by origin and destination. The origin and destination tables were primarily intended to serve other areas of the Organization, and also to provide a basis for estimating trade for non-reporting countries: they were not intended for publications as such, although some delegates felt that certain statistics of trade between developed and developing countries might merit publication. The Council also noted that such trade data by origin and destination were useful for many developing countries in the study of foreign markets for their main agricultural products.
10. The Council expressed a desire to restore to the Yearbook the estimates of trade statistics for non-reporting countries.
11. The Council noted that the economic analysis work, which was the original function of the Division, had increased substantially over the years. In addition, a considerable load of operational work had grown up, mainly on agricultural development planning and on marketing, under the EPTA, Special Fund, and other programs. An inquiry last August indicated that nearly half the time of the professional staff was spent on field programs, and since then the balance had probably tilted in favor of these programs. These dual tasks had imposed a considerable strain on the Division.
12. While welcoming the valuable services rendered to governments by operational programs, the Council emphasized the importance of the fundamental analytical work of the Division and of maintaining its present high quality. It noted that the increases in staff proposed by the coming biennium were the minimum compatible with the overall expansion of the proposed program of the Organization. It noted also that the proposed new Section for Developed Countries in the Regional Analysis Branch implied only one additional staff member and filled a long-standing gap in the existing coverage. It would be concerned mainly with North America, Oceania and the U.R.R.S. and would rely largely on liaison with the FAO/ECE Joint Agriculture Division for information on Europe.
13. One suggestion that had been put forward to minimize the impact of operational on analytical work was that a separate section should be created within the Division to deal with all operational activities, including the recruitment of staff. The Council felt that such an arrangement would not on balance be desirable, and that most sections in the Division gained from a combination of analytical and operational work. The development of the operational programs had brought vitality to the work and increased opportunities for service to Member Governments, while the insight into development problems acquired from analytical work was of great value to the staff servicing field experts. Some delegates felt that there would be some advantage in revising the name of the Division to indicate its widened field of responsibility.
14. It was also suggested that it would be valuable to provide greater opportunities for the recruitment of junior staff (at P-1 and P-2 level) in order to relieve senior staff of much of the fact-finding and preliminary analysis work. Such staff would eventually provide a field of recruitment for more senior positions in the Organization, and their experience would also be of great value if they later resumed work in their own countries, in particular in the case of staff from developing countries. Such an arrangement would also facilitate effective contacts between FAO and its Member Nations. There was general support for this proposal, though it was recognized that it might have financial implications.
15. The suggestion was made that in non-Conference years the State of Food and Agriculture might be issued in installments, in order to spread the work load and to provide more timely coverage. While the suggestion was felt to be helpful, the Council noted that this publication, as well as serving as a Conference or Council document, had a large circulation and was widely reviewed in the world's press. If issued in installments its impact was likely to be reduced. Moreover, there were advantages in an annual stock-taking of the overall situation.
16. The Council noted the work done by the Division in assisting governments, particularly in the field of agricultural development planning. The biennial training courses organized by the Division had proved successful and had enabled participants to apply the knowledge so acquired to planning problems in their own countries. The need for such training was acute, and reference was made to the proposal of the last FAO African Regional Conference to establish a new regional institute for training in agricultural development planning or, alternatively, that the existing Development Institute in Dakar should provide expanded facilities for agricultural studies. It was suggested that regional institutes for agricultural planning would be in closer touch with the views and needs of the countries of the region. Good progress was being made in the development of an earlier suggestion for such an institute in the Near East.
17. It was noted that training and advisory work on agricultural development planning under the Regular Program Technical Assistance filled a continuing need. It was therefore proposed that the Secretariat should give consideration to integrating it into the Organization's normal Program of Work and Budget for the biennium 1968–69.
18. Bearing in mind the importance of international trade in agricultural products as a vehicle of economic growth for countries at all stages of development, the Council stressed the value of the work of the Commodities Division to both developed and developing countries.
19. The study of world agricultural commodity markets had been one of the prominent activities of FAO since its establishment, and the Commodities Division was the Organization's main research and policy organ in this field. The general aims of the Division were to analyze the factors affecting world market outlets for individual agricultural commodities, to identify international commodity problems and to clarify the issues involved in their solution. The Council endorsed these aims and considered that the work of the Division, carried out mainly through Secretariat studies in depth combined with a program of intergovernmental consultations in commodity groups under the guidance of the Committee on Commodity Problems, had been successful in providing a basis for decisions by governments on national development policy and for the consideration of commodity policies in international forums.
20. The Council endorsed the basic lines of work of the Division which had been developed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis in the commodity problems of interest to Member Governments. The Council agreed with the Program Committee in stressing the importance of maintaining flexibility in the organization of work in order to make the best use of the available manpower in the Division as pressures shifted.
21. The Council agreed that the Division should continue to orient its basic commodity analysis work toward the development aspects of commodity problems. The linking of the work on commodity projections with the preparation of the Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development was an important step in this direction. From the same point of view, the Council stressed the importance of undertaking more basic work on agricultural commodities traded in processed form and on the economic problems of establishing processing industries in developing countries, which would assist them in the solution of their trade problems. Likewise, more analytical work was required on the impact of competition from synthetics and substitutes on the situation of individual agricultural products, with a view to indicating the types of measures that were appropriate in each case.
22. The Council welcomed the close collaboration that had been developed between the Division and other international agencies working in the commodity field, including the autonomous commodity councils and study groups. The Council agreed with the Program Committee that this collaboration was effectively serving the objectives of FAO, and wishes it to be continued and strengthened. In particular, with the establishment of new institutions on trade and development under the aegis of the UN Conference on Trade and Development and in the GATT, the Council felt that the Division could make an effective contribution to intensified international efforts in the commodity field, through close co-operation with these bodies, while avoiding dispersion of effort and overlapping of competence.
23. The Council noted that the demands on the Division for work of a more operational character were increasing. It foresaw and welcomed the strengthening of this trend which involved the linking of commodity policy work, and the competence of the Division in commodity analysis, with economic and agricultural planning. This would gradually involve the Division in establishing more field contacts in developing regions, in deeper analysis of the agricultural commodity aspects of regional integration arrangements in the developing areas, greater participation in the field programs of the Organization, of the World Food Program and of the FAO/IBRD Co-operative Program, and possibly in the organization of regional training courses on agricultural commodity trade. The Council however emphasized that activities along this line should not detract from the role of the Division in the global analysis of agricultural commodity markets and commodity policies. It was considered that such field and regional contacts could in fact usefully inform and orient the commodity analysis work of the Division.
24. The Council considered, in line with the views expressed by the Program Committee, that the work and program of the Director for Special Studies represented an important contribution to the work of FAO and also to FAO's co-operation with UNCTAD and GATT in the fields of international commodity policy, trade and development.
25. In particular, the Council expressed its interest in the work planned for an Analytical Review of International Commodity Arrangements, to be undertaken as part of the Special Studies Program in close collaboration with the individual commodity councils and others mainly concerned, notably UNCTAD. The Council asked the Director-General to arrange for a further report on work planned for the Analytical Review to be presented to the next session of the Conference, as requested by the CCP, for consideration under items 6(b) and 6(c) of the Provisional Agenda of the Conference.
26. The Council considered the Report of the Thirty-Eighth Session of the CCP (CL 44/8), held in Rome from 7–17 June 1965, and commended the work of the Committee which it considered was continuing to play an essential role in the Organization's activities.
27. The World Agricultural Commodity Situation. The Council was concerned to note from the Committee's review of the world agricultural commodity situation and outlook that developments since its last session had been in general unfavorable, particularly for developing countries. Gains in production had generally been very moderate and had taken place mainly in the more economically advanced countries. Similarly, the improvements in trade in agricultural products in 1964 were concentrated mainly on commodities produced in more developed countries. The volume of exports from developing countries showed little significant improvement, which was all the more serious in view of the significant decline in prices over the year. Thus, it appeared that these factors which had been a source of concern for a number of years appeared to be reasserting themselves, and many of the countries which depended substantially on their exports of agricultural products were experiencing a further setback in their export earnings. It was pointed out that this adverse trend in the terms of trade might have serious repercussions on the development plans of the developing countries. Moreover, there appeared to be little foreseeable prospect of a significant improvement in world commodity markets. The Council considered that these were disturbing conclusions and underlined the need for continuing efforts by governments and the international organizations concerned toward securing better conditions in international trade, including better access to international markets and the promotion of economic development.
28. The Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development. 1 The Council took note of the Committee's discussions on the Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development and endorsed the general conclusions reached. It considered that the preparation of this Indicative Plan was an important new phase in the evolution of the Organization's work which, by providing a framework of consistent agricultural development objectives with associated policy recommendations, could be of great value both to Member Governments in the preparation of their national plans and to FAO in the formulation of its Regular Program and field activities.
29. The Committee recognized that many difficulties would be met in the elaboration of the Indicative Plan, due to the lack of adequate statistical data and the many other difficulties inherent in making projections, particularly with respect to the setting of trade and investment targets. It therefore stressed the need to develop the most practicable methods as the work proceeded.
30. The targets selected should reflect a more dynamic rate of economic progress, especially in developing regions, and take account of the character of world production and trade patterns, of the structural problems of agriculture and of the close links between agriculture and general economic development. Full account should be taken in the preparation of the Indicative Plan of the national plans of member countries. Finally, stress was laid on the importance of maintaining flexibility in the elaboration of the Plan and on the need for continuous refinement and revision.
31. Some Members of the Council, however, felt that the objective of the Indicative World Plan should be to indicate the targets for food and agricultural production necessary for the achievement of freedom from hunger in the shortest possible time. The Plan should, therefore, indicate the action necessary for the achievement of this objective under the present state of and possible advances in scientific and technological progress, taking into account the available human and natural resources. Thus the purpose of the World Food Congress (which asked for the Plan) and of the FAO Conference (which recommended the Plan) could be met.
32. It would, therefore, be necessary to take account of national plans and policies only with a view to recommending how those plans and policies could be modified so as to facilitate the achievement of the targets to be set by the Plan. The governments would then consider, or negotiate in international forum, the action, national or international, necessary for the achievement of the targets.
33. It was essential, in the view of the Council, to ensure the full participation and co-operation of governments at all stages of the work, and the Council was glad to note that it was the Director-General's intention to seek such participation and co-operation. Full use would be made of FAO's intergovernmental machinery, especially the CCP, its study groups and the regular regional conferences; in addition, special sub-regional meetings to review drafts of sub–regional sections of the Indicative Plan would be organized. Since all segments of the Organization would be involved in the elaboration of the Indicative Plan, it was appropriate that the Council, and ultimately the Conference, should provide general supervision. The CCP was well qualified to assist the Council and Conference in the development of the Plan in view of its special concern with trade problems and its experience in work on projections.
1 See Section of this report on the Draft Program of Work and Budget, para. 117.
34. Food Aid and Surplus Utilization. The CCP had suggested that the Council, when considering the future of the World Food Program, might wish to indicate the aspects on which its advice might be useful. Particular reference had been made to the study which was being undertaken by the World Food Program on a proposal made by the Government of Argentina for the conversion of the WFP into a World Food Fund. The Council noted that the study on this proposal would be reviewed by the Intergovernmental Committee of the WFP at its Eighth Session, to be held in the first half of October 1965. However, some delegates considered that the proposal under study had implications extending considerably beyond the immediate responsibilities of the IGC, and that consideration of the proposal by the CCP therefore seemed desirable. Moreover, it appeared unlikely that the Council itself would be able to consider the report adequately at its brief pre-Conference session, nor could its conclusions be circulated to governments in time for the latter to be able to prepare their positions on them for consideration at the coming session of the Conference. In the light of this, the Council felt that it would be useful if the CCP would give attention to the report on the proposal of Argentina at the session which it had tentatively scheduled for mid-October 1965.
35. The Rice Regulation of the European Economic Community. The Council noted the view expressed by the CCP Consultative Sub-Committee on the Economic Aspects of Rice that the Rice Regulation of the European Economic Community might have adverse effects on the economies of some rice-exporting countries. A spokesman for the EEC in the Council pointed out that the Regulation had been adopted only in September 1964, and that it was therefore too early to evaluate its effects. Some delegates drew the attention of the Council to the provisions of the Convention between the EEC and the Associated Countries.
36. Proposed Market Survey of Chemical Uses of Coconut Oil. The Council noted that the CCP, after consideration of a request formulated by the FAO Group on Coconut and Coconut Products, had requested the Director-General to take all possible steps, within his proposed Program of Work and Budget for 1966–67, to undertake a market survey of chemical uses of coconut oil. Such a survey, which it was recognized would be of considerable interest to a number of countries producing or importing copra and coconut oil, would involve an expenditure of approximately $50,000; if limited to a survey of the United States market alone, the cost would be only $25,000 – $30,000. While some interested countries had indicated that they would be prepared to make special contributions to an FAO Trust Fund to enable such a survey to be undertaken, the Committee had considered that a project of this kind fell appropriately within FAO's regular activities and requested that it should be financed under the FAO Regular Program and given high priority. The Director-General indicated to the Council that the project could only be accommodated in the Program of Work for the coming biennium through an addition to his budgetary proposals for 1966–67. He felt therefore that consideration should be given once more to the creation of a Trust Fund, by interested governments, with a limited contribution from the Organization's funds for consultant and contractual services. He felt that the objections voiced by some delegates to such a fund were not valid. The Council agreed with this approach.
37. Action on Individual Commodities. The Council took note of the decisions made by the Committee on certain commodities. These included the establishment of a Study Group on Bananas, the widening of the terms of reference of the Group on Coconut and Coconut Products and its renaming as the Study Group on Oilseeds, Oils and Fats, the indefinite extension of the mandate of the Group on Citrus Fruit, and a request to the Director-General to convene another ad hoc conference on tea in about eighteen months' time.
38. The Council continued its consideration of these matters in the light of the Report of the Thirty-Eighth Session of the Committee on Commodity Problems. It endorsed the conclusions of the Committee (CL 44/8, paragraphs 94 – 102), which, it noted, were preliminary pending further consideration in the light of action taken by the UN bodies concerned with trade and development.
39. The Council felt that the impact of the decisions already taken by UNCTAD on the substantive work of FAO on commodities could not yet be precisely defined. The activities of the CCP and its subsidiary bodies, including the commodity study groups, constituted a key element in the Organization's total program and made essential contributions to the deliberations of the Council and Conference. Thus, the basic work of the CCP should continue and be strengthened where necessary, with increasing emphasis on commodity problems in relation to economic development and on further studies on measures to deal with those problems, including measures leading to international commodity agreements and other approaches to international stabilization.
40. The Council considered that there was no need for a reconsideration of the terms of reference of the Committee at the present stage. However, some redirection of the CCP's activities, or some amendment to its terms of reference, might be required later in the light of future developments.
41. The activities of UNCTAD were expected to strengthen the work of all intergovernmental bodies dealing with commodity matters, including the CCP. The Council considered that there was complementarity between CCP and UNCTAD bodies, and that the CCP and its subsidiary bodies could contribute effectively to the policy making tasks of UNCTAD and of its Committee on Commodities. The Council felt that the delineation of the respective roles of the UNCTAD Committee on Commodities and the CCP could be reached only after some time but, in the meantime, everything should be done to develop full co-operation between the intergovernmental bodies of the UNCTAD and FAO and their Secretariats.
42. Co-operation between the two institutions had already begun with the contribution made by FAO to the preparation and servicing of the First Session of the UN Conference on Trade and Development. The Council expressed its desire to see this co-operation strengthened with a view to avoiding duplication of effort and to maintaining the services supplied by FAO to its Member Nations on agricultural commodity matters. The Council welcomed the consultations which had been initiated between the Director-General and the Secretary-General of UNCTAD for the purpose of developing co-operation between the two institutions. The Council felt that certain aspects of the relations between the two bodies required policy decisions by governments, but consultations between the Director-General and the Secretary-General could facilitate these policy decisions. As suggested by the CCP, the Council requested the Director-General “to present to the First Session of the UNCTAD Committee on Commodities a statement informing that Committee of the established range of activities and the program of work of the CCP and its subsidiary bodies, and stating that he would be prepared, when it was appropriate, to make specific suggestions about the ways in which FAO, including the CCP and its machinery, could help to further the objectives of UNCTAD.”
43. The Council noted the CCP proposal to hold a brief session in October, preceding the Forty-Fifth Session of the Council, to consider matters relating to its future work in the light of further developments.
44. The Council discussed the action proposed as a result of Resolution 8/63 adopted by the Twelfth Session of the Conference, and which refers to the pressing need for more adequate supplies of proteins and to the exceptional possibilities offered by oceans and inland waters for meeting this need. In its Resolution the Conference noted the increased attention given by national and international bodies to the exploitation of the resources of such waters, emphasized the need to avoid wasteful duplication in international fishery work, stressed the constitutional responsibility of FAO in this field, pointed out the limited attention which had been given to this responsibility in the past, and requested the Director-General to prepare proposals that would allow FAO in future years to assume the status of a leading intergovernmental body in the field of fisheries. It also requested the Council to consider the status of the Fisheries Division in order to determine how the fisheries activities could be given full recognition in the Organization and among other international bodies.
45. The Council had before it the Director-General's detailed proposals prepared in response to this Resolution (document C 65/3, Chapter VI B, and Supplement 1, and document CL 44/11, Rev.1), as well as the Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Conference Resolution 8/63 (Fisheries Development) established by the Council at its Forty-Third Session (document CL 44/10), together with the comments of the Program and Finance Committees (paragraphs 3 – 7 and 121 – 128 of document CL 44/3).
46. The two main proposals made by the Director-General in response to Conference Resolution 8/63 were: (i) a substantial strengthening of the fishery activities of FAO through a gradual increase in staff and resources over the next six years, and the transformation of the Fisheries Division into a Department at the beginning of the 1966–67 biennium, and (ii) the establishment of a permanent committee on fisheries of selected Member Nations to deal with international collaboration in fisheries and advise the Conference and Council, as well as the Director-General, on the formulation, implementation and co-ordination of policy and on the Organization's programs and activities in the field of fisheries. The establishment of such a committee had already been endorsed by the Council at its Forty-Third Session, and this decision was unanimously reaffirmed.
47. The Council discussed the alternative constitutional means by which such a committee could be established. While several Members were of the opinion that eventually the committee should be established by a Convention adopted under Article XIV of the Constitution, they agreed that the procedures required for this purpose were too time-consuming but that if a committee were set up under Article VI or by amendment of Article V, that committee itself could, if desired, take steps toward the eventual establishment of a committee under Article XIV. The Council recommended that the maximum number of members of the committee should be 30. On the respective merits of proceeding under Article V or VI, it recognized that in many respects there would be little difference between bodies established under either of the two Articles and that the main question was whether establishment as a statutory body under Article V would give the committee a status more helpful to the important functions proposed for it by the preceding sessions of the Conference and Council. While some Members of the Council would have favored the establishment of the committee under Article VI of the Constitution, a majority preferred an amendment of Article V as proposed in the following draft resolution, which the Council submitted to the Conference for adoption:
DRAFT RESOLUTION FOR THE CONFERENCE
Committee on Fisheries
Noting that one of the major proposals prepared by the Director-General in response to Resolution 8/63 adopted at the Twelfth Session of the Conference is for the establishment of a permanent Committee on Fisheries within the framework of FAO,
Agreeing with the view expressed by the Council at its Forty-Third Session that the desired ends in international collaboration in fisheries might best be achieved through the establishment of a permanent Committee on Fisheries, consisting of selected Member Nations to deal with these matters and to advise the Conference and Council as well as the Director-General on the formulation, implementation and co-ordination of policy and on the Organization's programs and activities in this field,
Agreeing further with the recommendation made by the Council at its Forty-Fourth Session that in view of the considerations set out in the Director-General's proposals and the comments made at the Ad Hoc Committee on Conference Resolution 8/63 established by the Council at its Forty-Third Session, a Committee on Fisheries should be established by amending Article V of the Constitution, and the composition and terms of reference of such Committee to be governed by a Rule to be added to the General Rules of the Organization,
Also agreeing with the further recommendation by the Forty-Fourth Session of the Council that non-Member Nations should be eligible for membership in the subsidiary bodies of the Committee on Fisheries in the same way as they are for membership in Commodity Study Groups,
Adopts the following amendment to Article V.6 of the Constitution (words underlined to be added):
“6. To assist the Council in performing its functions, the Council shall appoint a Program Committee, a Finance Committee, a Committee on Commodity Problems, a Committee on Fisheries and a Committee on Constitutional and Legal Matters. These committees shall report to the Council and their composition and terms of reference shall be governed by rules adopted by the Conference.”
Amends the General Rules of the Organization by adding after Rule XXIX a new Rule, the text of which shall read as follows:
Committee on Fisheries
1. The Committee on Fisheries provided for in paragraph 6 of Article V of the Constitution shall be composed of not more than thirty Member Nations elected by the Council for a period of two years at the session of the Council immediately following the regular session of the Conference. In selecting the members of the Committee the Council shall give due consideration to the desirability of ensuring adequate representation both of nations with special interests in fisheries and of nations having interests in different parts of the oceans and inland waters. The Council shall, as well, give due consideration to continuity of experience in matters dealt with by the Committee. The members of the Committee shall be eligible for re-election. The Committee shall elect its own Chairman from among its members.
2. Nomination of any Member Nation for election to the Committee shall be submitted in writing by one or more Member Nations to the Secretary-General of the Conference or Council by a deadline to be determined by the Chairman of the Council in time to be circulated on the morning of the day set for the election. A Member Nation may nominate itself. Member Nations nominated shall signify their willingness to serve on the Committee if elected.
3. The provisions on voting arrangements of Rule XII of these Rules shall apply mutatis mutandis to the election of members of the Committee.
4. The Committee shall determine the date and place of its sessions. Normally the Committee shall hold two sessions during each biennium, to be convened by the Director-General in consultation with the Chairman of the Committee. One of these sessions shall be convened sufficiently in advance of the session of the Council held approximately midway between the regular sessions of the Conference, in order that the report of the Committee may be circulated to the Members of the Council, in accordance with the provisions of Rule XXV.7 (a) of these Rules.
5. If required, the Committee may hold additional sessions on the call of its chairman or the Director-General or on request submitted in writing to the Director-General by a majority of the members of the Committee.
6. The Committee shall:
review the program of work of the Organization in the field of fisheries and offer advice on them;
advise the Conference and Council, as well as the Director-General, in respect of the resources, staff and organization required to execute these programs;
conduct periodic general reviews of fishery problems of an international character and appraise such problems and their possible solutions with a view to concerted action by nations, by FAO and by other intergovernmental bodies;
similarly review specific matters relating to fisheries referred to the Committee by the Conference, Council or the Director-General, or placed before it by a Member Nation, and make recommendations as may be appropriate;
consider the desirability of preparing and submitting to Member Nations an international convention under Article XIV of the Constitution to ensure effective international co-operation and consultation in fisheries on a world scale.
7. The reports of the Committee shall be presented to the Council. In addition the Director-General shall bring to the attention of the Conference, through the Council and its appropriate subsidiary committees, any recommendation adopted by the Committee on Fisheries which has policy implications or which affects the program or finances of the Organization. Such policy, program and financial implications shall be acted upon by the appropriate governing body of the Organization.
8. The Director-General or his representative shall participate in all meetings of the Committee and may be accompanied by such officers of the staff of the Organization as he may designate.
9. The Committee may adopt and amend its own rules of procedure, which shall be consistent with the Constitution and the General Rules of the Organization.
10. The Committee may, when necessary, establish sub-committees, subsidiary working parties or study groups subject to the necessary funds being available in the relevant chapter of the approved budget of the Organization, and may include in the membership of such sub-committees, subsidiary working parties or study groups Member Nations that are not members of the Committee and Associate Members. The Council may admit to membership of sub-committees, subsidiary working parties and study groups established by the Committee nations which, while not Member Nations or Associate Members of the Organization, are members of the United Nations. Former Member Nations of the Organization that have withdrawn leaving arrears of contributions shall not be admitted to membership until such time as they have paid up all such arrears, or the Conference has approved an arrangement for the settlement thereof, or unless the Council in special circumstances decides otherwise with respect to such admission.
11. The subsidiary bodies referred to in the preceding paragraph may adopt or amend their own rules of procedure, which shall be approved by the Committee on Fisheries and shall be consistent with the rules of the Committee.
12. Members of the Committee should, as far as possible, be represented by their most senior officers responsible for fisheries, so as to enable the Committee to deal adequately with its task.
48. In accordance with Article XX of the FAO Constitution, proposals for the amendment of the Constitution may be made by the Council. Furthermore, no proposal for the amendment of the Constitution shall be included in the agenda of any session of the Conference unless notice thereof has been dispatched by the Director-General to Member Nations and Associate Members at least 120 days before the opening of the session at which the amendment is to be considered. Therefore in order that the Conference be in a position to take such action, the Council formally proposed that Article V.6 of the Constitution be amended as shown in the above draft resolution, and requested the Director-General to give Member and Associate Member Nations notice of the proposed amendment, as required under Article XX of the FAO Constitution. The Council also requested the Committee on Constitutional and Legal Matters to review the text of the draft resolution and to report on it to the next session of the Council.
49. The Council stressed that the functions of the Committee on Fisheries, in reviewing the programs of work of the Organization in the field of fisheries and in advising the Conference and Council, and the Director-General in regard to their execution, should not prejudice in any way the responsibilities of the Program and Finance Committees, and that care should be taken to bring to the attention of the latter at the appropriate time the relevant conclusions reached by the Committee on Fisheries so that these conclusions could be considered in the general context of the Program of Work and Budget of the Organization.
50. The Council supported the Director-General's proposals for a strengthening of the staff in the field of fisheries and the organization of a Department of Fisheries within FAO in 1966–67. Some delegates felt that FAO should move cautiously at this moment, in view of the possibility that a general survey of the structure of the Organization might be undertaken. The majority, however, considered that the international problems in fisheries were much too urgent to allow delay.
51. Several Members referred to the comments by the Program Committee on the difficulties that were likely to be encountered in recruiting staff of the highest quality to fill the new posts to be established in the field of fisheries. In determining the pace of the expansion the Director-General would have to bear in mind the scarcity of highly qualified candidates for the posts to be established. The Council noted that the Director-General proposed to spread recruitment over the biennium in order to reduce these difficulties, and that with the co-operation of Member Nations he was confident that suitable persons of high caliber could be found to take up the new posts. It was also noted that the phased recruitment would have effect on the budget of the next following biennium.
52. A number of observers from Member Nations not on the Council also expressed their support for the Director-General's proposals. Representatives of Unesco speaking also for the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, described the program and methods of work of their organizations in fields related to fisheries, and expressed the hope that the excellent collaboration already developed with FAO would be further enhanced with the strengthening of the latter's work in fisheries.
53. In relation to existing international bodies, FAO should assist, and to some extent influence, their work but in no way supersede it. A number of examples were given of problems requiring international attention where FAO could fulfill a useful function in drawing attention to the problems, providing objective information necessary for their solution, and bringing together representatives of the countries principally concerned.
54. The Council, while recognizing the many important problems arising from the common exploitation of the fishery resources of the oceans to whose solution FAO must contribute, appreciated the work FAO was already doing in inland fisheries and emphasized the need for giving still fuller attention to the development of these fisheries. It noted with approval the Director-General's intention to strengthen FAO's work in this field also.
55. The Council emphasized that attention should be focused on assisting in the effective and rational utilization of fishery resources, particularly for the benefit of the people in the less developed countries. In acting as a catalyst and guide and as a center of information as well as by providing a forum for discussion, FAO should have this principal purpose in mind. Several delegates from developing countries gave examples of the importance of fisheries to their economic development and to the nutrition of their people.
56. Second Session of the Working Party for Rational Utilization of the Tuna Resources in the Atlantic Ocean. The Council, at the recommendation of the Working Party for Rational Utilization of the Tuna Resources in the Atlantic Ocean, authorized the Director-General to invite those Member Nations that have coasts on the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas, as well as the Republic of Korea, to be represented by observers at the Second Session of the Working Party if they so request.
57. The Vice-Chairman of the Fifth Session of the FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee introduced the report of that session which was held in New York, 31 March – 2 April 1965 (CL 44/12). He also drew the Council's attention to the Committee's decision to discuss the future of the Committee at its next session, which, it had been suggested, might be held in approximately two years.
58. The representative of UNICEF stressed that the Committee's Fifth Session had been particularly useful to both Agencies in guiding their joint work, and informed the Council that the UNICEF Executive Board, at its current session in New York, had approved the report of that session. He therefore hoped the Council would also endorse the document placed before it.
59. A number of delegates expressed their appreciation of the important work being done jointly by the two Agencies. It was pointed out that the Committee had recommended that the Secretariats of FAO and UNICEF revise the working paper on “Criteria for the Support of Food Production Activities” along certain lines suggested, and that the revised document be considered at the next session of the Joint Policy Committee.
60. The Council approved the Report of the Committee, endorsed its recommendations and expressed the hope that the Committee would continue to devote its attention to policy matters with the objective of facilitating the co-ordination of the work of the two Agencies.
61. The Council considered document CL 44/9, and recalled that the principles governing FAO membership on the Joint Policy Committee had been determined by the Council at its Twenty-Eighth Session in 1957, and that at its Fortieth Session the Council had authorized the Committee to continue with its present FAO membership until the end of 1967.
62. The Council noted that the UNICEF Membership on the Committee had changed from one session to another, thus allowing a larger number of UNICEF Member Governments to take part in its deliberations.
63. The Council considered the question of altering the FAO membership of the Committee either by introducing a rotation of members or by increasing the membership. In view of the fact that the continuation of the Committee after 1967 would have to be considered at a later date by both the FAO Council and the UNICEF Executive Board, it was decided that the FAO membership continue in its present form until after the next session of the Committee, which would probably be held in early 1967. The Council further decided that the question of membership of the Committee and its continuation after 1967 should be reconsidered by the Council toward the end of 1966 or at its spring session in 1967.
64. The Council was informed of the conclusions of the Program Committee and approved the two types of award now being made, i.e., André Mayer Research Fellowships for candidates highly qualified in research and whose proposed programs were in direct relationship to the activities of the Organization, and André Mayer Research Training Fellowships for well-qualified candidates from developing countries who were engaged in research in fields of direct interest to the development of agriculture but who lacked facilities to learn more advanced methods of research.
65. The Council was satisfied that selection of André Mayer fellows was carried out with due care, and that selection constituted an executive decision which could only be taken by the Director-General.
66. It was agreed that a catalogue of subjects should be prepared to encourage candidates to work in research projects of current interest to FAO and to world agricultural production. The work of the ECOSOC Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to Development, in which FAO participates, will be borne in mind in this connection. Governments may also be requested to suggest topics for such projects. A concentrated approach to specific problems needing solution would give the best results in terms of increasing production. The list of subjects would not however be restrictive, candidates being free to present other suitable projects in fields of interest to FAO.
67. It was further agreed that as there were inevitably, in view of the small number of awards which could be made, excellent candidates who would not be successful, these should be given a full explanation of the situation and whenever possible be orientated toward other multilateral or bilateral programs or institutions offering possibilities of fellowship awards.
68. In view of the difficulty in many countries of publishing and disseminating reports on research, the Council wished consideration to be given to the possibility of including in the Organization's Publications program provision for the printing of a few of the best reports of André Mayer fellows. Summaries of their work would be issued every two years in the Report on the André Mayer Fellowships Program.
69. The Council had before it the Report of the Working Party on the Agricultural Census Fund (Document CL 44/14) appointed by its Forty-Third Session in accordance with Resolution 20/63 of the Twelth Session of the Conference, and took note of paragraph 30 of the Joint Report of the Program and Finance Committees (Document CL 44/3).
70. The Council stressed the importance of agricultural censuses not only for the countries taking them but also for the world as a whole. The results of the censuses would be of particular value for the Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development.
71. The Council noted that the recommendations of the Working Party were unanimous, and welcomed the constructive plan recommended by the Working Party of co-ordinating the assistance for agricultural censuses available from bilateral and multilateral sources including EPTA and the UN Special Fund.
72. The Council also noted that the Director-General had already taken steps to assess the census needs of the developing countries. Short-term experts were being made available to assist countries in the formulation of the initial census plans. The Council felt that all possible resources should be mobilized for promoting full participation of FAO's Member Nations in the 1970 World Census of Agriculture. Availability of aid in the form of equipment, such as computers, should also be considered.
73. The Council took note of the suggestion that food aid should be investigated as a possible source of assistance in census-taking, and approved the recommendations of the Working Party for transmission to the Thirteenth Session of the Conference.
74. The Council took note of recent progress and development of the Organization's activities under EPTA and UNSF. Under the UNSF Program activities had continued to increase steeply. A total of 210 projects had now been assigned to FAO for execution with a total value of over $400 million. Further efforts were made to improve project planning and preparation, to reduce delays in project initiation and to increase the effectiveness of project implementation and follow-up. Annual Review Meetings at FAO Headquarters with senior officers of the Special Fund continued to provide a forum for discussing and developing new policies and procedures and for taking speedy action in solving problems in the field. As regards the EPTA Program, the Council noted that the uncertainties which had existed earlier in the year had been overcome and that operations were proceeding in accordance with the approved Program. Governments had taken advantage in increasing numbers of the possibility of obtaining operational staff under this Program.
75. The Council also took note of the Progress Report prepared by the Director-General in accordance with Conference Resolution 29/63 on FAO's work under these two programs. The Council considered that while the report does not seek to provide an exhaustive description and analysis of the Organization's field programs, it highlighted the growing size and complexity of the work financed from two important extra budgetary sources which was expected to amount to over two thirds of the Organization's total expenditure in the forthcoming biennium. The Council emphasized that the size and importance of these two programs had developed to such an extent that more special attention by the Council and Conference should be paid to them than had been the case heretofore.
76. In this connection the Council recalled its earlier views on the need for carrying out a systematic evaluation of the impact of the Organization's field programs on the economic and social development of recipient countries and its decision that such an evaluation should be delayed until after the results of similar efforts, planned by the Economic and Social Council and the Secretary-General of the United Nations, had become available. The Council was informed that arrangements for undertaking pilot evaluation projects under the ECOSOC resolution were proceeding and that teams of two or three specialists had already been formed to assist the governments of two countries in the evaluation of the UN Technical Co-operation Programs. After further consideration the Council felt that there were basically three areas of review and evaluation which would have to be undertaken in order to make field programs of Technical Co-operation as effective as possible, i.e.,
There was a need to identify certain important aspects of agricultural development which would require special attention by governments to be included in their own development plans with possible requests for technical aid. Such aspects had been reviewed in the past, and should continue to be, on a more intensive scale in the future, by FAO regional conferences and Commissions I and II of the FAO Conference. The recommendations arising out of these discussions were usually directed to governments who could use them as guides in their own developmental work.
There is a need for constant evaluation of the impact and technical effectiveness of technical co-operation programs which can only be carried out by the governments concerned. The Council felt that governments should be encouraged to accept this responsibility, if necessary assisted by specially selected experts as was now being undertaken on a pilot basis by the United Nations. In addition, however, the Council felt that the Technical Committees of the Conference in discussing the Organization's divisional programs should pay special attention to the technical aspects of the EPTA and UNSF projects under execution by the Organization.
The third area of evaluation was one of review of broad policy questions relating to the management and procedures governing the EPTA and UNSF. The Council felt that it was particularly to this third aspect of evaluation that the Conference may wish to direct its attention on a continuing basis in order to do more justice to the importance of the programs under discussion and in order to guide the Director-General in his endeavors to execute these programs in the most effective manner. The Council therefore suggests that Commission II of the Conference decide to establish an ad hoc working party to make a start with this review. For the first occasion at which such an ad hoc working group was set up, the agenda should probably be limited and only include the following:
The characteristics of EPTA and UNSF programs and their complementary roles in agricultural development in cases where FAO is the executive agency.
a review of procedures followed in preparing and implementing UNSF-supported projects.
the Organization's role in the field with regard to agricultural education and training;
consideration of scope and nature of future reviews of FAO's field programs of Technical Co-operation activities under EPTA and the Special Fund by Council and Conference.
77. The Council felt that the question of a fuller review of FAO's activities in the field both by the Technical Committees and by the proposed ad hoc committee is of such importance that governments should study these matters carefully prior to the forthcoming Conference Session with a view to being prepared for fruitful discussions. The Council also expressed the hope that governments would be able to include in their delegations to the Conference persons with experience of technical co-operation programs.
78. Reimbursement of Headquarters costs. The Council noted that the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions of the United Nations (ACABQ), which was requested to review the problem of Overhead Costs of the Expanded Program of Technical Assistance and of the United Nations Special Fund, has completed its review and recommended (document A/5842 of 4 January 1965) that:
Reimbursement of overhead costs by EPTA be, for 1965, at the rate of 13 percent of the project costs in the approved program, including contingencies for the preceding biennium and thereafter at the rate of 14 percent of such costs, and that the rates of reimbursement should continue to be applied with flexibility to smaller organizations;
Commencing with the June 1965 program, reimbursement of overhead costs by the Special Fund be at the rate of 11 percent of the total project costs.
79. The recommendations of the Advisory Committee were based on the findings that:
The original formula, insofar as it related only to additional costs which were “clearly identifiable”, was no longer appropriate as a result of the integration of the overall activities undertaken by the Organization;
Notwithstanding the validity of the basic principles that the Organizations should continue to provide from within their regular budget for a substantial portion of the overhead costs of the extra-budgetary programs, the Organizations had nevertheless made a case for some upward adjustments of the level of the overhead costs reimbursed to them by the extra-budgetary funds.
80. The Council also noted that the Director-General, appreciating the Advisory Committee's recognition that the Executing Agencies had made a case for an increase in Overhead Costs, had made further proposals to the Governing Council of the Special Fund for retroactive adjustments of the Overhead Costs based on the fact that the proposals of the Advisory Committee did not go far enough, inasmuch as no provision was made for both sufficient financial support for the efficient and timely execution of Special Fund projects and reimbursement to the Executing Agencies of actually identifiable additional increased costs unforeseen at the time of the award of Agency Costs.
81. The Director-General had recommended that the new rate of Agency Costs, if fixed at 11 percent as proposed by ACABQ, be applied to all unexpended project provisions as of 1 July 1965. The Director-General had also proposed that in future major unforeseen identifiable expenditures arising at the Headquarters of the Executing Agencies after the award of Agency Costs should be reimbursed.
82. The Governing Council of the Special Fund, at its June 1965 session in New York, considered the Report of the ACABQ and the Director-General's proposal. It approved the Managing Director's recommendation to authorize reimbursement at the rate of 11 percent of total project costs commencing with the June 1965 program, and application of this rate to those projects already approved by the Governing Council in the past for which Plans of Operation had not yet been signed.
83. The Council noted that the effect of these decisions was that, as against the proposals of the Director-General which would have yielded a supplementary allocation of Agency Costs in excess of $2,000,000, the supplementary reimbursement now amounted only to $831,000. While this provided for some relief, it still left the Organization in a very difficult situation, as this figure was to be spread for the duration of the projects.
84. The Council reiterated its view that a more realistic financial support needed to be obtained from the extra-budgetary sources which sponsored the growing field programs, in order to ensure adequate central management and servicing and avoid the danger that the quality and effectiveness of the Regular Program be impaired to the detriment of both the Regular Program and the field programs. It agreed with the Director-General that the issue should be pursued further as opportunity arose with the Economic and Social Council and with the proposed new governing body of the operational programs (should the merger of these programs be approved by the forthcoming session of the UN General Assembly).
85. The Council appealed to Member Governments also represented in ECOSOC or in the Governing Bodies of the Operational Programs, to lend the necessary support corresponding to their views as expressed in FAO.
86. The Council was informed of some of the discussions on inter-agency co-operation matters that had taken place at the ACC and between agencies since the Forty-Third Session of the FAO Council. Its attention was drawn, among other things, to the latest developments concerning the UN Advisory Committee on Science and Technology, the UN Development Decade, proposed arrangements for co-operation between the UNCTAD and the agencies, industrial development matters and institutional arrangements for co-operation between regional planning institutes and the specialized agencies.
87. The problems concerning the use of a uniform layout for the preparation and presentation of agency budgets were referred to, as well as ACC's suggestions as to how the agencies could best assist ECOSOC in this matter.
88. Reference was made to a report by the UN Secretary General to ECOSOC in which he had come to the conclusion that a “World Campaign against Hunger, Disease and Ignorance” along the lines originally envisaged in response to the relevant General Assembly resolution would not be successful. The Secretary General had not thought it appropriate therefore to put forward “possible plans for organizing and executing a world campaign.”
89. Finally, the Council noted that through the ACC, members of the UN system had been informed of the Young World Mobilization Appeal, and their full participation was sought for its successful execution.
90. Study of International Guarantees for Agrarian Reform Bonds. The delegate of Peru referred to the recommendation of the Eighth Latin American Regional Conference on Food and Agriculture, Viña del Mar, Chile, 13–29 March 1965, which called on the Director-General to study, as soon as possible, and as part of the general problem of financing agrarian reform, the question of international guarantees for agrarian debt bonds issued by countries undertaking agrarian reform (CL 44/LIM/2). He requested, with the approval of other delegations, that this study be concluded prior to the Thirteenth Session of the Conference, and that its conclusions be reviewed by the latter.
91. The Council took note of the statement made by the Assistant Director-General to the effect that among several resolutions on agrarian reform approved by the Eighth Latin American Regional Conference on Food and Agriculture, the one referred to by the above delegate requested an integrated study of agrarian reform financing in Latin American countries, including the question of agrarian bonds; this study was to be undertaken jointly with the Inter-American Development Bank, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, ECLA and the Alliance for Progress Committee (CIAP). The Director-General had already written to the executive heads of these organizations informing them of the recommendations of the Eighth Latin American Regional Conference, and asking them to join in this study. No answer had, however, yet been received from these organizations. Meanwhile, FAO had already considered the outlines and scope of the study and its experts in the region had initiated work on the matter. The study would be very complex, and should be conducted in depth. It would, therefore, be very difficult to prepare a final report for the Thirteenth Session of the Conference in November 1965. However, the Council also pointed out that a progress report could be prepared by that time.
92. The Council was informed by the Chairman of the Program Committee that the latter, at its Ninth Session in June 1965, had not been able to discuss the report prepared by the Director-General on the review of the FFHC Field Action Program requested by the Council's Committee-of-the-Whole in June/July 1964. The Program Committee had noted, however, that FAO's role in FFHC action projects was that of determining the technical validity of the projects, and that this essential service would be needed whether projects were administered by FAO or directly by donors. Since the Council had not set any specific time for the review, it agreed with the proposal of the Program Committee, as set out in para. 169 of document CL 44/3, that the Committee should return to this subject at a later session when it would have more time available. A suggestion was made in the Council that, under the Campaign, the possibility of forming a pool for agricultural inputs also be explored.
93. Ceremony Commemorating Fifth Anniversary of the Inauguration of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign. The Council commemorated the fifth anniversary of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign, and expressed its appreciation of the efforts made by Member Governments, private groups and people of the Member Nations, as well as by the United Nations, Specialized Agencies and non-governmental organizations, in alerting public opinion to the problem of world hunger, and the critical importance of increased agricultural productivity and accelerated rural development for raising incomes and living standards. It supported the FFHC Young World Mobilization Appeal which, from FAO's Twentieth Anniversary in October 1965 onward, seeks to enlist young people's energy and enthusiasm in a vigorous and sustained effort to reach the goal of a world free from hunger and want.
94. Accordingly, the Council adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 1/44
Considering that on 1 July 1965 the Freedom from Hunger Campaign under FAO's leadership and general co-ordination completes its initial five year phase,
Acknowledging the Campaign's considerable achievements since 1960 both in alerting public opinion in the advanced countries to the problem of world hunger, and in making developing countries conscious of the critical importance of increased agricultural productivity and accelerated rural development for raising incomes and living standards,
Noting with appreciation the valuable support for and participation in the Campaign by governments, organizations of the UN family, and in particular of people's and non-governmental organizations,
Expressing, nevertheless, concern that world food production is not rising rapidly enough to secure freedom from hunger for all men even though the world's resources and existing knowledge make this goal physically possible, and that the task of securing adequate nutrition for all people is therefore an urgent and continuing task,
Urges that Governments of States Member Nations of FAO, of the United Nations, the Specialized Agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and nongovernmental organizations, private groups and people everywhere, intensify their actions in the struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and in particular give all appropriate support to the Freedom from Hunger Campaign, and
Recommends that Member Governments give full support to the FFHC Young World Mobilization Appeal which, from FAO's Twentieth Anniversary in October 1965 onward, seeks to enlist young people's energy and enthusiasm in a vigorous and sustained effort to reach the goal of a world free from hunger and want.
95. Amendment to the Preamble of the Constitution. The Council noted that a Draft Covenant on Human Rights to be adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations recognized formally humanity's fundamental right to freedom from hunger.
96. While the FAO Constitution, which sets out the purposes, functions and responsibilities of the Organization states clearly that this is the ultimate aim of all the work of the Organization, the Council considered that the Preamble of the FAO Constitution could not on such a problem be any less specific than the proposed Covenant on Human Rights.
97. The Council, therefore, felt that reference to humanity's right to freedom from hunger should be reflected in the Preamble of the FAO Constitution.
98. Consequently, the Council, acting in accordance with the provisions of Article XX of the Constitution, proposed that the Conference at its Thirteenth Session amend the Preamble of the Constitution by adding the words underlined in the text given below, and requested the Director-General to give the necessary notice of this proposed amendment to all Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization.
“The Nations accepting this Constitution, being determined to promote common welfare by furthering separate and collective action on their part for the purposes of:
99. The formal declaration of 1966 as the International Rice Year was made on 1 July 1965 by the Director-General, who announced that all the related activities and events would be placed under the aegis of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign. The Council concurred with the hope that this declaration would encourage governments and peoples to make a concerted effort to promote, as appropriate, the production, consumption, and trade in rice, the staple food of one half of the world's population, and more generally that it would focus the world's attention on the problems of rice and the role which it must play in freeing the world from hunger.
100. The Council noted that active preparations were being made for the International Rice Year. Many governments had informed the Director-General of their plans. While these covered a wide range of activities, a distinctive feature common to all was an emphasis on measures to improve the link between the research worker and the farmer. Several countries intended to grant fellowships in rice research to candidates from developing countries, and the Government of Thailand had generously offered to donate a prize for an International Rice Research Competition in 1966.
101. In its supporting program, the Organization would lay special stress in 1966 on its regular program of activities on rice in field projects, publications and meetings, and the Director-General had offered the assistance of the Secretariat in the preparation of national projects. There had already been a number of specific requests from governments for FAO advice and technical assistance in the International Rice Year, and every effort was being made to respond to these.
(a) Article XI Reports
102. The Council took note of the comment by the Program Committee on the reports to be submitted under Article XI of the Constitution and decided to place this item on the Provisional Agenda of the Thirteenth Session of the Conference.
103. The Director-General was requested to submit a report on the subject to the Conference in the light of developments since 1961.
(b) Methods of Work of the Council - Program Activities
104. At its Thirty-Fifth Session the Council considered its functions and methods of work and decided that, in order to become more fully acquainted with the substantive work of the Organization, it would undertake at each session a general examination of the work of a few divisions, branches or services, and laid down the order of rotation to be followed. At its Forty-Third Session the Council reaffirmed these arrangements.
105. In undertaking these reviews, the Council was assisted by the Program Committee which had undertaken reviews of the same organizational units and reported thereon to the Council.
106. At its Ninth Session, the Program Committee had noted that the first full cycle of reviews would be completed at the Council's Forty-Fourth Session and suggested that the Council might wish to consider:
if it was to be repeated, whether the Council had any alternative suggestion as to the timing and method of review, especially if the reviews could be made in non-Conference years only.
107. The Council recognized the value of the reviews undertaken and felt that they should be continued. However, with regard to the timing and method of review, the Council felt that for the six years 1966–1971 the reviews should be undertaken only in non-Conference years, and should include the Program and Budgetary Service as well as the substantive divisions and the elements of the Department of Public Relations and Legal Affairs as set out below.
108. The Council accordingly decided to amend paragraph 149 of the report of its Forty-Third Session to read as follows:
"(c) Relationship of Council to Program Activities
149. In order to become more fully acquainted with the substantive work of the Organization, to keep abreast of developments in the various fields of work, and to lay a base for future planning, the Council shall, at its major sessions in years when no regular Conference Session takes place, undertake a general examination of the work of the Departments of the Organization in the following order of rotation:
Program and Budgetary Service
Legislative Research Branch
Animal Production and Health
Plant Production and Protection
Land and Water Development
Forestry and Forest Products
Atomic Energy in Agriculture
Rural Institutions and Services
(c) Program Committee Sessions
109. The Council noted that the Program Committee agenda in a Conference year was overburdened and that at its sessions in both Conference and non-Conference years the Program Committee was required to consider such important items as reports on and problems arising out of the EPTA, UN Special Fund and other field programs, problems of organization and staff, inter-agency matters, etc. Lastly, the Committee had also to sit with the Finance Committee at joint meetings in accordance with Rule XXVIII of the General Rules.
110. The Council therefore concurred with the suggestion made by the Program Committee that if necessary the Program Committee could hold two sessions during the non-Conference year, or a total of three sessions in the biennium instead of two.