|ACABQ||Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions|
|ACC||Administrative Committee on Coordination|
|ACST||Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to Development|
|AFD||Administration and Finance Department|
|AgS||Agricultural Services Division|
|AN||Animal Production and Health Division|
|ASD||Area Service Division|
|EA||Economic Analysis Division|
|ECLA||Economic Commission for Latin America|
|ECOSOC||Economic and Social Council|
|ESD||Economic and Social Department|
|Evaluation||Evaluation carried out during the execution of a project or after its completion|
|FFHC||Freedom from Hunger Campaign|
|GATT||General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade|
|IAEA||International Atomic Energy Agency|
|IALD||International Agency Liaison Division|
|IBRD||International Bank for Reconstruction and Development|
|IWP||Indicative World Plan|
|LA||Land and Water Development Division|
|OGAI||Office of General Affairs and Information|
|PAB||Policy Advisory Bureau|
|PFB||Programme Formulation and Budget Division|
|PL||Plant Production and Protection Division|
|PPB||Programme and Policy Board|
|RU||Rural Institutions Division|
|SF||Special Fund (UNDP)|
|SOFA||State of Food and Agriculture|
|UNCTAD||United Nations Conference on Trade and Development|
|UNDP||United Nations Development Programme|
|UNICEF||United Nations Children's Fund|
|UNIDO||United Nations Industrial Development Organization|
|WFP||World Food Programme|
|WHO||World Health Organization|
1. At its Fourteenth Session, the Conference adopted Resolution No. 1/67 of 23 November 1967 concerning the reorganization of FAO and reading as follows:
Recognizing that the world is faced with a growing crisis in its efforts to achieve and maintain a reasonable balance between a rapidly expanding population and the food supply;
Recognizing, also, that substantial improvements must be brought about in agricultural production, processing, distribution and utilization if the needs of the developing countries are to be adequately met;
Recognizing also the necessity for organizations of the United Nations family in the field of economic and social co-operation to adapt their activities, and consequently their structures, to the requirements of co-ordinated and integrated action towards development, and in the case of FAO, also to new programs in particular those which may result from the Indicative World Plan;
Expresses its appreciation to the Review Team and to the Director-General for their report and recommendations (document CL 49/16);
Concurs in the need for organizational improvements in FAO so that it can be better able to meet its increasing responsibilities to the peoples of the world in the field of food and agriculture, particularly in the developing countries, and so that the Organization can continue to give increasingly efficient and practical assistance with qualified personnel having full understanding of the aspirations and the realities of those countries, as well as knowledge and competence in their respective fields;
Decides to move forward with the appointment of full-time Country Representatives, chiefly financed from the UNDP, with overall responsibility for FAO programs within their respective countries;
Requests the Director-General within the approved budget for the biennium 1968/69 to proceed as rapidly as possible to expand the corps of Country Representatives in co-operation with the UNDP and to strengthen their effectiveness and responsibility in developing and carrying out the field programs in their respective countries;
Requests the Council to consult with the Director-General on the organizational adjustments to be made during the biennium 1968/69 and to be proposed for the biennium 1970/71; and for this purpose to appoint an Ad Hoc Committee on Organization to advise the Council in consultation with the Director-General on the implementation of this resolution. This Ad Hoc Committee should be representative of the seven FAO regions, and the members should consist of individuals, who, where possible, normally serve as senior members of the delegations to FAO;
Requests the Director-General in consultation with the Ad Hoc Committee on Organization to take appropriate interim steps during the 1968/69 biennium within the approved level of the budget for that biennium to make organizational adjustments including, if necessary, a modest redeployment of staff:
aimed at a more effective system of communication between the field and Headquarters so that decisions can be made more expeditiously and queries from the field can be handled more quickly,
in order that the operations of FAO in the field may be more efficiently conducted so as to provide more effective programming and managerial attention to country and regional projects and programs sponsored by FAO, including projects financed from UNDP and other sources, and
to consolidate general administrative and support functions, and to improve personnel administration;
Further requests the Director-General to develop in consultation with the Ad Hoc Committee on Organization a detailed reorganization plan for FAO for submission to the 1968 Session of the Council for its consideration;
Authorizes the Council to review and approve a reorganization plan sufficiently detailed to be used as the basis of presentation of the Program of Work and Budget for 1970/71;
Further requests the Director-General to report to the Fifteenth Session of the Conference on the organizational improvements made during the biennium 1968/69 and to present his budget for the biennium 1970/71 based upon the reorganization plan approved by the Council at its 1968 Session.
2. This resolution was adopted after considerable differences of opinion had been expressed by Member Governments on the proposals contained in the Report of the Review Team 1 and on the comments and suggestions of the former Director-General.
3. In accordance with the Resolution the Council appointed Cameroon, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Chile, United Arab Republic, United States of America and Australia to represent the seven FAO regions. These countries designated the following individuals to serve as members of the Ad Hoc Committee on Organization.
|Africa:||Mr. J.B. Yonké|
|Europe:||Mr. Georg Schütz; alternate, Dr. Hans Janssen|
(Federal Republic of Germany)
|Far East:||Mr. J.C. Mathur; alternate Mr. J.S. Mongia|
|Latin America:||Mr. Hernán Santa Cruz|
|Near East:||Mr. Abdel Fattah el Moursi|
(United Arab Republic)
|North America:||Mrs. Dorothy Jacobson; alternate, Mr. P.J. Byrnes|
(United States of America)
|Pacific:||Mr. A.C.B. Maiden; alternate, Mr. R.C. Bolduan|
4. As authorized by the Conference Mr. M. Cépède, Chairman of the Program Committee, Mr. J. Nagle, Chairman of the Finance Committee, and Mr. R. Gibb, Vice Chairman of the Finance Committee (in the absence of Mr. Nagle) participated in the work of the Ad Hoc Committee. Mr. M. Gemayel, Chairman of the Council, was invited by the Director-General to attend the Sessions.
1 CL 49/16.
5. The Ad Hoc Committee held two Sessions in Rome - 8–10 April and 18–22 June 1968. Mr. A.C.B. Maiden was elected Chairman of the Committee.
6. For these Sessions the Director-General had prepared a working document with proposals to serve as a basis for consultation with the Committee.
7. In framing his proposals, the Director-General kept before him, as cardinal points of reference, the report of the Review Team 1, the views thereon which delegations expressed at the 1967 Conference 2, the conclusions reached by the Conference as embodied in Resolution No. 1/67 and in the Report of the Session 3, and he gave careful attention to the comments and suggestions of the former Director-General 1.
8. Furthermore, he took full account of the following guidelines and objectives, which had emerged during the discussions of the Council and Conference 4.
What measures should be adopted to improve FAO's efficiency as a decisive instrument of development;
The way in which the planning activities of FAO already started with the Indicative World Plan could best be geared to the enlarged and more effective operational functions of the Organization, and more particularly how a more precise focus could be given to the Plan and to such functions;
The manner in which FAO's technical competence could be channelled better towards operational activities, thus fulfilling the aspiration of countries as regards assistance for the execution of urgent programs, without impairing flexibility of operations and effective management, and increasing at the same time the opportunities for significant technical advance;
How could FAO's economic activities be strengthened and brought to bear more effectively on FAO's field work, and how could greater consideration be given in such work to the institutional and organizational aspects;
The ways in which a switch could be effected towards a still larger and more effectively conceived number of multidisciplinary projects, and the possibility of operating these projects in a better integrated and more centralized manner;
As a consequence of the above, how could the problem of the regional structure be approached pragmatically, adapting it to the different situation prevailing in the various regions;
How could FAO contribute to a better coordination of international collaboration to accelerate the process of development, assisting in an integrated manner in the solution of the vital aspects of a global development strategy and a better and closer co-operation among the agencies of the United Nations family, and in so doing, take maximum advantage of the opportunities which the ever important bilateral programs and private efforts were continuously presenting;
The extent to which authority can be delegated to departments, divisions, branches, regional and country representatives.
1 CL 49/16.
2 C 67/PV/CW.
3 Fourteenth Session of the Conference, Provisional Report, paras. 39–54.
4 Fourteenth Session of the Conference, Provisional Report, para. 51.
9. As a result of the Ad Hoc Committee's discussions and deliberations agreed positions were reached on most of the matters at issue. The joint views of the Ad Hoc Committee and the Director-General are presented in this report. There were, however, some divergencies of opinion and those of importance are indicated in footnotes.
10. It must be stressed that the organizational structure of FAO proposed in this report does not necessarily connote approval on a permanent basis. Indeed, it was the consensus of the meeting that the Director-General, the Program Committee and the Finance Committee should be requested to give close attention to the units and branches in the various departments in an effort to reduce their number and to recommend the necessary consolidations. The Director-General's assurance that the matter of consolidation would likewise be the subject of continuous internal study was welcomed, as well as his further assurance that the related problem of providing adequate remuneration for specialists of outstanding merit without distorting the organizational structure would not be overlooked.
11. Also special attention was drawn to a number of personnel matters because of their important influence on policy formation and effective functioning of the Organization. Among these were mentioned:
the inadequate representation of developing regions, in the higher positions in FAO Headquarters, and particularly in positions which would ensure their participation in the formulation of the general policies of the Organization;
the need to give priority in the appointment of Headquarters officers to those who have gained experience in developing and developed countries;
employment conditions of experts in the field;
differences in career prospects between Headquarters and field staff;
establishment of Selection Committees for the appointment of staff;
formation of rosters of pre-selected experts and consultants for short-term assignments;
increase in appointments at junior and intermediate professional levels;
provisions for in-service training;
provisions for rotation between field and Headquarters staff.
These personnel matters are not covered in this report but should be examined in depth by the Director-General and the Finance Committee.
12. The Director-General was requested by the Conference to take appropriate interim steps, in consultation with the Ad Hoc Committee, during the 1968/69 biennium within the approved level of the budget for that biennium to make organizational adjustments. The report lists the interim implementation measures that have been jointly agreed upon.
13. For the sake of brevity, the report concentrates on those areas where major structural changes are proposed; elsewhere the organizational structure will follow - with little or no change - the pattern described in detail in the Program of Work and Budget for 1968/69.1
1 C 67/3.
14. The Ad Hoc Committee and the Director-General agree that operations should be strengthened. Stress may be laid on two major points: (a) in lieu of a complete divorce between operational and technical affairs, provision is made for strongly centralized program and project development and formulation, under the leadership of a Development Department, with operational responsibilities placed in Operations Offices within subject-matter departments, thus maintaining the essential close connection between operations and the scientific and technical specialists; (b) provision is made for regional structures adapted to the varying conditions, needs and wishes of the countries that make up the various regions.
15. In accordance with the terms of Resolution No. 1/67, this Report is now submitted to the 1968 Session of the Council for its consideration.
16. For the purpose of the present report, the organizational problems of FAO have been considered as coming under five main groupings: direction, planning and evaluation, formulation, execution, support (Chart I).
The Organization's activities must be carried forward in accordance with the directives laid down by the Conference and Council. The Director-General must associate the Deputy Director-General and the Assistant Director-General, as his immediate advisers, with this function, as well as obtain the concerted view of the Organization's senior directors through periodic Program and Policy Board (PPB) consultations. It follows that the direction function calls for teamwork.
Planning and Evaluation
The function of planning relates to various major areas of the Organization's work:
Functional Planning - An organic part of the planning function is the body of studies, projections, forecasts and current situation reports undertaken by the Organization on a subject-matter basis. These studies inherent to the substantive fields are and should continue to be carried out both by the planning and execution segments of the Organization although as heretofore, they should be primarily concentrated in the Economic and Social Department (ESD). The work of that Department is essential for the evolution of FAO strategy for food and agricultural development at global, regional and country levels, and to provide the background for the development-planning activities of national governments and regional bodies. In order to give sufficient weight to the formulation and updating of the world framework for agricultural development, centered around the Indicative World Plan (IWP), this special function should be undertaken by a small Policy Advisory Bureau (PAB) placed in the office of the Director-General, and working in close collaboration with all segments of the Organization.
Country, Sub-Regional and Regional Planning - Although FAO clearly has a special responsibility for assessing the global framework and assisting in regional and sub-regional coordination and economic integration, the basic unit for agricultural development is the individual country (Fisheries presents complex problems of a different nature). Hence the need for the assembly and analyses of country data and the study of country plans and policies affecting food and agriculture. This activity provides national data, on the one hand, for use in the formulation of the global framework and, on the other, for the formulation and evaluation of field operations on the bilateral and multilateral levels. These functions should be centered in the Economic and Social Department (ESD).
Project Planning and Follow-up - For the appraisal of project proposals it is essential to make full use of the Organization's country data and of its experience and specialized skills, in order to ensure that the proposals will help the countries to attain maximum development in the shortest possible time. Economic appraisal as well as “impact” evaluation should be carried out by a unit wholly independent of the ones responsible for the formulation and operation of projects. Since the main purpose of “impact” evaluation is to measure the effect of the activities under review on the economic and social development within the particular country or countries concerned, this responsibility should also be in ESD.
It is important to ensure that FAO's limited resources of funds and manpower are concentrated on those activities for which FAO is best suited and which are more likely to produce the greatest benefit to member countries.
The proper selection and formulation of programs and projects are an essential prerequisite for their eventual success and impact. This aspect of the work of the Organization must therefore receive the highest priority. Country planning should be directed to the identification and formulation of the specific projects and technical assistance to be operated by FAO in the light of the national plan, the contributions of other UN, governmental and non-governmental organizations, and preinvestment and investment requirements and possibilities. There is moreover a clear need for the follow-up of field projects on the part of the Organization (a) to ensure that the recommendations of the project have been valuable and acted upon, (b) to adapt project findings to subsequent investment activities.
The responsibility for coordinating the Organization's activities in development formulation and appraisal, in international cooperation, and in investment programs should be located in a single place, the Development Department (DD). This Department should have the decisive role in the formulation of programs and projects. It should secure the collaboration of all segments of the Organization and draw upon their technical expertise. It should allocate the execution of field projects to the operating sectors and maintain a watching brief at every stage.
The backbone of the Organization is its Regular Program. FAO is in the unique position to draw information and science within its field together from practically all countries of the world. The collection and analysis and presentation in suitable form of this vast treasure of knowledge must receive high priority so that member countries can make rational decisions in their own development plans. At the same time the Regular Program is essential for the technical backstopping of field projects in the technical economic and social fields. In order to execute this major function and in line with the Review Team's recommendations three separate Departments, in addition to ESD, are required namely: Agriculture Department (AD), Forestry Department (FOD), Fisheries Department (FID).
It was the view of the Review Team that project operations management should be excluded from the technical departments in favour of an operational department. The matter was thoroughly discussed by the Program Committee, the Council and the Conference. Taking into account the different views expressed by Member Governments it is felt that the complete separation of the technical from the operational functions would strongly impede the flow of practical field information - a valuable source of expertise - to the detriment of both the field programs and the technical services at Headquarters. It is therefore proposed to concentrate project management operations at Headquarters through the establishment for the time being of central Operations Offices (see para. 19) in the Fisheries Department, in the Rural Institutions Division (RU) of ESD, and in the Divisions of AD (including Forestry, which in the event of becoming a department should have a central Operations Office). It is the goal to consolidate operations in AD and ESD into central Operations Offices. 1
Proposals are made for improvements which aim at speeding up operations through simplified lines of communication and delegation of authority and responsibility to departments, divisions, country representatives and project managers, with an adequate central controls system.
1 The member representing the Latin American Region supported the view of the Review Team to set up an Operational Department since in his opinion, a separation of project formulation from the operational aspects, while it lightens the work of the technical divisions, militates against project efficacy since the two functions are inseparable and by keeping operations within the divisions, FAO will never become truly operational nor be in a position adequately to serve the needs of countries now seeking an integrated approach to development.
17. This chapter contains a number of observations intended to resolve certain broad management issues, which had also been raised during the Council and Conference discussions.
Delegation of Authority and Responsibility
18. More efficient and speedier action can be obtained through a delegation of authority commensurate with responsibility to departments and divisions - through the medium of staff out-posted or assigned from the central services - and to Country Representatives and Project Managers. Delegation of authority must be accompanied by strict accountability for actions taken. Detailed directives must be developed.
19. By concentrating the load of management of UNDP/SF and other projects in specialized operations offices of a size consistent with effectiveness, the Regular Program activities should receive the necessary attention and concurrently the field operations would benefit from unified departmental and divisional leadership and expertise. The Operations Offices should:
separate purely technical functions from techno-managerial operations;
allow for closer integration of the various technical disciplines of departments and divisions at the field operations level;
increase the efficiency of operations by providing for expeditious clearances and operational decision-making within the Offices, on such questions as recruitment and appointment of experts, selection and procurement of equipment up to a prescribed level, and approval of budgetary commitments for agreed purposes;
provide for more effective service to the Project Manager;
allow for better co-ordination of the field work at the country level.
20. On the basis of present conditions, seven Operations Offices should be established for the time being as follows (see para. 16(d): one each in the four divisions of AD, one in RU of ESD, one centrally in FO and one centrally in FID. Projects will be allocated by DD to the department or division best suited to manage them on a subject-matter basis.
Administrative Units in Departments and Divisions
21. In order to accelerate the decision-making process, administrative services should be directly available to the Departments or Divisions, to the maximum extent possible. For the Administrative Units the following measures are proposed: (i) the outposting or assignment of staff under the control of the central services, to provide direct assistance and guidance to department heads and division directors; (ii) within policy directives to be established by the ADG's of the Administration and Finance Department (AFD) and of DD, an adequate delegation of authority to allow for immediate decision-making and problem-solving. Exceptions to such directives will require the approval of the central services, which will also be made responsible for ensuring continuous conformance with the approved rules and procedures. The head of the Administrative Unit will therefore have dual responsibility - to the head of his department or division on day-to-day matters, and to the central authorities on policies, rules and procedures. The functions of the Unit include initiating, expediting and approving the administrative actions at Headquarters with particular regard to budgetary certification, recruitment and employment, preparation and award of contracts and requisitioning of equipment.
Lines of Communication
22. In order to ensure the technical soundness and efficiency of the work on the projects, close technical contacts must be maintained between the field and Headquarters. Consequently procedures should be laid down to provide for the flow of communication, in either direction, to run directly between the field staff and the responsible units at Headquarters. The key persons in the field in this respect will be the Country Representatives and the Project Managers; in Headquarters the key persons are in DD and in the Operations Offices. In Headquarters lines of communication should be considerably shortened as a result of assigning responsibility for specific functions to specific segments of the Organization. Directives should be issued to clarify and facilitate the process of decision-making and to keep clearances to a minimum.
Project Reporting System
23. The reporting system has to do with almost every part of the Organization. It should be so designed that it keeps all interested sectors fully informed of the progress of projects, indicates the areas where there are shortcomings, and serves as a starting point from which both interim and final reports can be developed. Steps have already been taken to study and introduce the working of such a system.
24. Reports from the field represent the culmination of project work. Therefore it is necessary to have an adequate and continuous reporting system and the reports need to be prepared with extreme care. The initial part of the preparation of the report should be done in the Operations Offices by Reports Officers out-posted from the Area Service Division (ASD) of DD which will exercise a “watching brief” over the progress of field projects.
II DEPARTMENTAL AND
25. The departmental and divisional structure required to ensure the proper planning and development orientation of FAO activities (see Chart II below) should comprise the following organizational segments:
26. These segments should be headed by officers with the rank of Assistant Director-General (ADG) - except for PAB and OGAI which should be headed by Directors.
27. Chart III (at the end of this chapter) illustrates the detailed Organization Structure to the Branch level. The Organizational Structure for 1968/69 (included in the Program of Work and Budget) is appended to this report for convenience of reference.
Role of ADG's
28. The ADG's should be regarded primarily as extensions or arms of the Director-General's office. They should contribute substantially to the policy-making process, and to ensuring that policies are implemented. In this process they should exercise general oversight over the work of the divisions under them, ensure co-ordination among those divisions, and be the main instruments for the achievement of interdepartmental co-ordination, particularly at the policy level.
29. A small Policy Advisory Bureau (PAB) should report directly to the Director-General. It would for the time being guide the activities under IWP 1 which should provide a more precise focus for the most important problems and opportunities of agricultural development. The PAB should play a leading role as a general advisory body to the Director-General on important trends and aspects of world agriculture, based on intelligence information obtained on a country-by-country basis through all segments of the Organization. Its primary functions would be to consider and recommend strategies for world-wide and regional action by FAO and collaborate with the United Nations and the specialized agencies in joint planning including planning for Development Decade II.
30. To perform these functions, there would be a staff consisting of a few highlevel officials covering economic, social and general agricultural fields. Departments or divisions should participate actively in the work of PAB and assign a staff member for continuous liaison.
1 Some members felt that the activities under the IWP upon completion of its first stage should be located in the Economic Analysis Division and separate from the functions of PAB, to avoid the risk of duplicating planning work in the Organization.
31. In order to carry out the basic functions (Chapter II) the Economic and Social Department should comprise the following divisions: 1
Economic Analysis (EA)
Commodities and Trade (CO)
Rural Institutions (RU)
32. The position of the Director of Special Studies in the Office of the ADG in the present Department of Economic and Social Affairs is no longer necessary. Such studies should be carried out in the divisions of ESD.
Economic Analysis Division
33. This division should, at the request of DD, have as one of its main responsibilities the economic analysis and pre-project appraisal of proposed field projects in order to determine their economic feasibility and priority position in the countries' development plans. To carry out this task its five regional units should have access to all available sources of information regarding individual countries in the respective regions. These branches should provide the economic expertise in the collection, analysis and synthesis of country information under the guidance of PAB within the framework of the IWP. Further the branches should provide advice to the Member Nations in formulating their development plans and should supervise the FAO economic planning experts.
34. In addition, a separate branch of the Division should be responsible for postproject and follow-up evaluation and for ad hoc evaluation during project implementation, as a regular practice. It would be desirable to contemplate in future the strengthening of these activities and to raise the status of the present unit to a service.
35. The Division should continue to carry responsibility for the preparation of SOFA and current situation reports and training in fields such as agricultural planning.
Commodities and Trade Division
36. In order to emphasize the increasing importance of commodity analysis for furthering trade among countries, the present Commodities Division should be renamed “Commodities and Trade Division.” It is expected that this Division will continue to work closely with UNCTAD, GATT and other agencies concerned with this field.
37. This Division will continue its present functions, including general oversight of statistical matters of interest to the Organization as a whole, as well as clearance of all statistical questionnaires originating in the Organization.
1 One member expressed the view that ESD should comprise Commodity and Trade Division, a new division for Marketing, Storage and Processing, Rural Institutions and Services Division and a Division of Nutrition and Home Economics (see also footnote 4, para. 42)
38. The importance of the social and economic role that nutritional questions should play in an Organization like FAO in the preparation of its global strategy, in its advice and assistance to countries in planning, and in the appraisal of its field projects is self-evident. Food consumption and home economics studies are basic to food demand projections requiring close collaboration with the Statistics, Rural Institutions, and Economic Analysis and Commodities and Trade Divisions. Accordingly the Nutrition Division (NU) 1 should be transferred to the main planning department (ESD). Specific activities dealing with food technology of plant and animal food processing industries should be moved from NU to the Agriculture Department, fish processing should remain in the Fisheries Department, but questions relating to the development of such new food products as proteins from non-conventional sources should remain in NU.
Rural Institutions Division
39. The Rural Institutions Division should remain in ESD in order to take educational, institutional and organizational factors more effectively into account than in the past in the evolution of global, regional and country agricultural development strategy. The organization of development institutions, research, education and extension 2 services should continue to be chief responsibilities of this Division, including agricultural information services at present in the Information Division.
40. It is universally recognized that the land tenure structure, coupled with the social structure, plays a crucial role in the development of agriculture. The various aspects of land tenure and the development of human resources, including the adequate integration of farmers in community and national affairs should form an important part of the work of this Division.
41. The Conference asked the Director-General to consider in the reorganization plan how such aspects could be given greater emphasis in FAO's field work. To strengthen the work of the Division to deputy directors should be located in the office of the Division Director, the one responsible for agricultural education, extension and institutions, the other for land reform, co-operatives, credit, rural sociology and marketing. The Marketing Branch should be transferred from EA to this Division since its activity forms an integral part of the important area of rural development. For the same reason it is proposed that work in rural sociology and general community development be expanded and that a section be created for this activity.
42. This Department must become a focal point for the Organization's field programs, having authority to allocate field projects to departments or divisions for implementation, and in general exercising so effective a control that efficiency in field operations may be assured. It has been conceived as a variant on, rather than a substitute for, the vertical breakdown of an operational department as recommended by the Review Team 3. It should comprise the following units 4:
1 One member considered that while Food Consumption and Planning Branch should remain with the Nutrition Division, the other branches, namely Food Science and Technology, Applied Nutrition and Home Economics should appropriately be placed in DD. (See also footnote 4 of para. 42).
2 One member felt that agricultural education and extension should be taken out of Rural Institutions Division and put as a block into DD together with fishery and forestry education. (See also footnote 4 of para. 42).
3 Two members expressed the view that DD should be responsible for the operation of multi-disciplinary projects.
4 One member considered that the following units should also be located in DD: NU consisting of Food Science and Technology, Applied Nutrition and Home Economics; RU incorporating Agricultural Education and Extension and Audio-Visual Unit, in addition to FID and FOD Education; in addition, IALD should be transferred either to the Deputy Director-General's Office or to OGAI. Another member proposed the following composition for DD: ST, EA (including Development Planning), ASD, FAO/IBRD Cooperative Program and FAO/Industry Cooperative Program combined, and PFB. (See also footnote 1, para. 31).
Area Service Division (ASD)
Investment Centre (IC)
FAO/Industry Cooperative Program (IP)
International Agency Liaison Division (IALD)
Program Formulation and Budget Division (PFB)
43. The ADG in charge of DD should be responsible for assisting the Director-General in servicing the Regional Representatives. The latter should report to the Director-General on major policy matters, and to the ADG (DD) on program development and execution.
Area Service Division
44. The Area Service Division (ASD) would consider the value of a project in relation to its appreciation of the requirements of the country, of the other agencies, bilateral and multilateral, involved in assisting the country, of its knowledge of the receptivity of the country to external assistance in general - and FAO assistance in particular - and of its “absorptive capacity”, and finally of the institutional arrangements involved in the implementation of the project. It would consult, through the Investment Centre, the FAO/IBRD Cooperative Program and, as appropriate, the area banks as well as other sources of investment on the investment potential of pre-investment project requests. It must work in collaboration with ESD on the economic aspects, and with appropriate technical departments and divisions as regards the technical feasibility of the project. ASD would thus be responsible, in collaboration with these other segments of the Organization, for the final formulation of projects, including, where desirable, the organization of missions for this purpose.
45. The specific duties of the Area Service Division with respect to project matters may be summarized as follows:
Project formulation and appraisal, in consultation with the economic and technical units concerned, including the organization of necessary survey missions;
Maintaining a “watching brief” on the execution and management of projects, and collaborating in any necessary in-depth evaluation during implementation;
Direction and servicing of Country Representatives, including followup activities during and after project implementation;
The organization of regional conferences, in close consultation with the Regional Representatives;
Liaison with UNDP, UNICEF, FFHC, WFP and Trust Funds;
Supervision of the system of reporting on field projects.
46. Reference has been made in paragraphs 16(b)(c), 29, 33 above to the use of country data, plans and FAO strategy for appraising, formulating and evaluating field projects. Because of the nature of these duties, which must give due weight to economic and technical aspects, to country policy, and sometimes to inter-agency considerations, they can best be discharged by officers of broad experience, able to deal with every type of project - Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries - but with a special knowledge of certain geographical areas. These officers must at all times work in close collaboration with the technical and economic departments.
47. In this Division four area services 1 should be created, each covering the same countries as the corresponding area branch in EA, and in addition a service to deal with the countries in Europe, North America and Oceania. Furthermore, a field program coordination service would be required for policy and program control on UNDP matters and in addition for liaison work on project formulation with WFP, UNICEF, FFHC and other organizations.
48. It is recognized that there is considerable scope for increasing the participation of the Organization in stimulating investments in the agricultural sector of developing countries. This is so important that the necessary budgetary provisions should be made to provide the expertise for identifying and appraising investment opportunities of importance to developing countries.
49. Investment activities by the IBRD and the regional banks call for specific expertise and require a common approach which goes beyond mere coordination. The suggestions from the different area banks may at times overlap or duplicate each other. It is necessary that these suggestions, as well as UNDP and other FAO field projects should be examined in the light of criteria which reflect a common FAO approach to the problem of investment. With the establishment of the FAO/IBRD Cooperative Program the Organization has already evolved an approach towards the identification, preparation and appraisal of projects from a “bankability” angle; a panel of consultants has been established in addition to permanent staff working on the program. Although the team of the FAO/IBRD Cooperative Program work exclusively for the World Bank, the consultants, who have by now acquired considerable experience in the analysis and appraisal of projects, could work for the area banks as well, and in fact could now be given more continuous assignments covering several programs.
50. For this reason an Investment Centre - whose function would be to assist Member Governments in finding sources of investment - should be established within DD. The activities of the Centre should cover the Cooperative Program with the IBRD, the area banks, the private banks, and WFP investment aspects. The Centre and DD should endeavour to assist countries in finding any source of finance whether multilateral, bilateral or private.
51. The FAO/Industry Cooperative Program should not be included in the Investment Centre since it is of a different character from that of the FAO/IBRD Cooperative Program. It is understood, however, that all relevant investment activities of the Organization should be coordinated within DD so that every opportunity for investment and aid can be effectively exploited.
FAO/Industry Cooperative Program
52. As regards private investment, FAO's main link is the FAO/Industry Cooperative Program, under FFHC, through which large companies are finding investment opportunities arising from FAO's work. The FAO/Industry Cooperative Program would be best located in DD because of its existing links with pre-investment and investment operations, and because of the need to strengthen those links in order to promote a much larger flow of private investment towards agriculture and agricultural processing in the developing countries.
1 The term “service” has been used in the reorganization proposals to identify levels of responsibility of clearly defined organizational segments usually located within ‘divisions’ and which lie between those of branches and divisions. Generally, the grade levels are: D-2 (or D-1) for Division Directors; D-1 for Service Chiefs; P-5 for Branch Chiefs. The distinction between Service Chiefs and Division Directors is that Service Chiefs report to Division Directors and Division Directors report to Department heads.
International Agency Liaison Division
53. This new Division would bring together in one central point many activities related to UN and inter-agency work which are now dispersed in various parts of the Organization. It should be responsible for systematically following the legislative actions of other UN agencies and for calling the attention of the Director-General or other appropriate officials to any resolutions or decisions of interest to FAO. The head of the Division may be assigned for policy liaison with WFP and as the Director-General's representative on the Preparatory Committee of ACC.
54. One of the main functions of this Division is to meet the manifold requests of coordinating bodies in the UN system (ECOSOC, ACC, ACST, ACABQ, etc.) with respect to coordination and cooperation. These requests can only be met effectively by enlisting an integrated effort within FAO, so that an organization-wide policy is presented.
55. The head of this Division will also be responsible for assisting in the coordination of FAO's work with that of non-United Nations international organizations, especially those of a regional character.
56. Within this Division there will also be located the FAO/WHO Program dealing with Codex Alimentarius, because of its inter-agency and Organization-wide functions.
Program Formulation and Budget Division
57. The Regular Program must be so formulated that, in the process of serving the general purposes of the Organization, it should, as far as possible, provide the widest technical base for the field programs, which gradually are becoming the major activity of the Organization. Budgetary control is linked with program formulation, and both functions should be placed in the same department under the Program Formulation and Budget Division (PFB).
58. It is proposed that PFB should provide a direct supervisory link between departments and divisions and the central budget authority by assigning to budget officers the responsibility for specific sectors of the Organization. Thus, in accordance with the concept of delegation of authority, those sectors would be made clearly responsible, and be held strictly accountable, for certifying actual and planned future commitments and for remaining within their budgetary authorizations, and they would be subject to such financial controls as may be necessary to meet FAO objectives or the requirements of the organizations supplying the funds.
59. The actual determination of budget allotments, revisions and earmarkings, which is the responsibility of PFB, should be separated from the subsequent detailed control and recording of actual commitments and expenditures against approved allotments. This control and recording should in future be the responsibility of AFD and the certifying officers in the various units of the Organization.
60. A structural innovation is recommended, namely an Agriculture Department, comprising the following five divisions:
Land and Water Development Division (LA)
Plant Production and Protection Division (PL)
Animal Production and Health Division (AN)
Joint FAO/IAEA Division (located in Vienna)
Agricultural Services Division (AgS)
The basic functions of the first four Divisions would continue as heretofore.
61. The fifth division, the Agricultural Services Division (AgS), should bring together as an effective unit some important aspects of the Organization's work in the field of agriculture, which, so far, were dispersed over different segments of the Organization and for that reason were given insufficient weight and consideration in the formulation and implementation of programs and projects. While macro-economic work is being carried out in the present Department of Economic and Social Affairs, insufficient attention has been given, in FAO's work, to the micro-economic aspects which are so important in area development, irrigation development and pilot farm development schemes and in improving standards of living of rural communities. There is in this respect a real need for a more effective exchange of thinking between agricultural technicians and economists. 1 Similarly, the responsibility for assisting countries with the development of food and agricultural products processing industries has been dispersed over various segments of the Organization and they should be brought together in a strong unit.
62. It is further recognized that success in new production ventures is more readily achieved where production economists, food and agricultural industries technologists and agricultural engineers work together as a team. The more advanced analytical and advisory institutions are adapting their staffing structures accordingly.
63. An Agricultural Services Division should therefore be established which would provide the supporting services in these areas to the other divisions in the Agriculture Department. It should therefore consist of the following services: 2
Production Economics and Farm Management Service (from LA)
Agricultural Engineering Service (from LA)
Food and Agricultural Industries Service (from NU and LA)
Operations Office (including multi-disciplinary projects)
64. Since the proposed structure of the Division excludes the sub-sectoral focus of the other divisions of the Agriculture Department, and in consideration of the principle of separating the planning and formulation from the operations function, AgS would also be the logical unit to carry responsibility for the operation of multi-disciplinary field projects. 3
65. Because of the nature of the activities of this division there should be close cooperation with the Rural Institutions Division.
1 One member, notwithstanding the urgent need for close cooperation between technicians and economists, expressed the opinion that processing must not necessarily be placed in AD. There are, however, reasons to combine processing, marketing and storage in one division.
2 One member felt that in order to conserve the proper balance between AgS and RU, the activities in the latter division were of equal importance and would therefore warrant the status of Services (see paras. 39–41).
3 In the view of one member this would diminish the importance of those projects since they would be the responsibility of a unit unable to provide either the economic or technical backing and would ignore the fact that some of these projects may be related to Forestry or Fishery - tasks which come under the responsibility of other departments. They should properly be placed in DD, where the projects would be better operated and it would be possible to test the efficiency of the merger of activities of formulation and execution of such projects, since they essentially involve a coordination function. Another member also felt that they should be operated in DD, because of the essentially coordinating function.
66. In accordance with the view of the Review Team, the present Forestry and Forest Industries Division should be raised to the level of a department in the 1970/71 biennium. 1 This change has become necessary if FAO is to assist the developing countries to benefit from the exceptional developmental impact which this sector presents. Because of the fundamental shifts which are today taking place in the world forest and timber economy, forest products exports from the developing countries have quadrupled over the last decade. Given adequate planning in the countries, this figure could quadruple again over the next decade and a half, and continue to increase thereafter. No other agricultural sector presents more favourable opportunities to the developing countries to build up their exports of manufactured and semi-manufactured goods. It is no accident that over recent years FAO's field operations have grown fastest in the forest and forest industries sector.
67. At the same time, in the industrialized countries, rapidly changing technology is compelling a radical rethinking of forest policies and forest management practices, with a much closer integration of forest production with forest industry and trade. It is to FAO that national forest administrations now turn for guidance based on digested international experience.
68. Elevation to a department in accordance with the Review Team's recommendation, of which the Fourteenth Session of the Conference was apprised, gives recognition to the role forestry can play in promoting industrial and agricultural development in, and expanding exports from, the developing countries. It reflects the need revealed by FAO's experience to cast national forest policies and goals within an international frame of reference. If the potential of this sector is to be realized, and the world's future wood needs satisfied, FAO must press for the adoption of development-oriented programs. It should be able to do this more effectively through the new Forestry Department.
69. This Department should consist of the following two Divisions, whose functions would reflect the most urgent priorities clearly set out by the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Sessions of the Conference, due care being taken to ensure a properly consolidated infra-structure:
Forest Resources Division
Forest Industries and Trade Division
In addition, the Department should have a central Operations Office.
Forest Resources Division
70. This Division should be primarily concerned with how and where to grow, protect and harvest economically the rising volumes of wood that the world is going to require always keeping in mind the need for forest protection and the relationship of forestry to soil and water conservation measures. Emphasis in relation to bringing natural forests into use should be on the special problems of heterogeneous tropical forests. The dynamic possibilities of man-made forests should also be stressed, together with the hazards they present. Institutional and management problems of forestry, education and training, wildlife management and use, and the extension and systemization of research should be other principal lines of work.
1 One member felt that a new department of Natural Resources and Forestry should be created combining the proposed two Forestry divisions with the Land and Water Development Division.
Forest Industries and Trade Division
71. At a time when FAO's relations with the United Nations Regional Economic Commissions, UNCTAD and UNIDO are assuming greater importance, this Division's work - which would include responsibility for Forestry, Economics and Statistics - should aim at securing an expansion of viable forest industries with due regard to markets, raw materials and economic trends. It should promote the balancing of demand and manufacturing on a world-wide basis, in the light of changing pattern of trade flows, seeking the close support of private industries.
72. The development of the Fisheries Department should be continued within the longterm guidelines established by the Thirteenth Session of the FAO Conference at the time it authorized the creation of the Department and the Committee on Fisheries. These actions were taken in response to the goal expressed at the Twelfth Conference - to make FAO “the leading intergovernmental Organization in the field of fisheries.”
73. The Fisheries Department, like the proposed Forestry Department, is a vertically integrated unit containing within its structure nearly all of the disciplines, including economics and statistics, required for its task of assisting fisheries development. However, due attention must be directed towards providing for an adequately consolidating infra-structure. It has also evolved and established an Operations Office which concentrates the management of all fisheries field projects at the departmental level with appropriate links to supporting technical divisions and branches.
74. The present structure of two divisions and the Operations Office at departmental level would continue through this biennium. However, the six-year development plan put before the Thirteenth Conference contemplated that the appropriate structure would eventually be “… several, possibly four, divisions.” depending upon budgetary considerations from biennium to biennium. The recommendation of the Fisheries Committee is for the creation of three 1 rather than four divisions and it is agreed that this should be examined in the preparation of the Program of Work and Budget for the 1970/71 biennium.
75. The Administration and Finance Department should comprise the following divisions:
Personal Division (PD)
Finance Division (FD)
Management Services Division (MD)
Administrative Services Division (AdS)
76. Functions related to personnel administration should be brought together in a Personnel Division. The Office of Social Security, the Office of Health and Medical Services, the Staff Development and Training Section, the Fellowships and Training Branch, and the Establishments Section should all be integrated within that Division. This would also provide for the consolidation of the programs for junior professional trainees, associate experts, fellowships and volunteers.
1 One member was of the opinion that in any case two consolidated divisions would be sufficient.
77. Improved and centrally coordinated recruitment services should be provided with the full participation of divisions. Accordingly, the following arrangements would come into effect:
The setting up of a Recruitment and Establishments Branch within the Personnel Division adequately staffed both in number and quality;
The outposting or assigning of Recruitment Officers to serve one division, or more than one division (depending on the volume of recruitment), such officers to be responsible and report to the Chief, Recruitment and Establishments Branch;
The delegation of authority to the Recruitment Officers to take decisions in accordance with criteria to be laid down on such matters as determination of salaries and allowances, and the conclusion of special services agreements;
The institution of a system for the prompt drawing up of adequate descriptions of post requirements and qualifications;
The introduction of regular reccuitment status reports including all vacancies and showing target dates and actual progress, these reports to form a basis for follow-up actions, internal as well as external, such as medical clearances and clearances by recipient and releasing governments;
The establishment of Selection Committees as recommended by the Review Team.
78. No structural change is proposed for this Division and also no change in responsibilities is contemplated.
Management Services Division
79. The responsibility for management surveys, for the development and integration of computer systems applications, and for promulgation of the Organization's official procedures should be assigned to this Division.
80. This Division will be responsible for developing the detailed management rearrangements arising out of both the reorganization and the introduction of computerization. Basic statistics collected by all parts of the Organization should be computerized so that they can be available for research and analysis, through computer processing, to all interested sectors.
81. This Division's efforts should be directed towards systematically increasing the Organization's efficiency. To this end, it will serve as a means of introducing modern business management practices and techniques, and its work should be planned to include the undertaking of a major study of each of the Organization's segments in turn. The recommendations resulting from these objective and independent studies and the action taken thereon will be reviewed by the Director-General.
Administrative Services Division
82. As in the case of personnel functions, a number of common service functions, at present dispersed, should be brought together in a single division.
83. With the increasing workload that is entailed by sub-contracting to outside firms in connection with field programs, contractual activities are assuming a growing importance. Fuller use should be made of services which can be obtained through contractual arrangements with consulting engineers and other commercial firms. The possible advantages of such arrangements should be studied at the planning stage. A Contracts Branch has already been set up to deal with these functions and should be located in this Division.
84. This Division should also maintain close relations with the budget and audit services and with the divisional certifying officers. It is intended that it should handle the centralization of all insurance activities of FAO, now dealt with in various parts of AFD.
85. Administrative officers in the field and the administrative units at Headquarters need a focal point where non-routine problems and exceptions to established procedures can be referred for immediate action, and which will ensure that outposted units conform to agreed rules and procedures.
86. In addition, the “general services” functions - common services and housekeeping operations- should be located in this Division.
87. The Office of General Affairs and Information headed by a Director reporting directly to the Director-General, should comprise the following organizational segments: 1
Information Division (IN)
Freedom from Hunger Campaign (FFHC)
Conference, Council and Protocol Affairs Division (CA)
Publications Division (PU)
Documentation, Legislation and Library Division (DLL)
88. The Legal Counsel, who was located in the Department of Public Relations and Legal Affairs, should be transferred to the Office of the Director-General. For legal advisory services required in day-to-day operations a legal officer should be outposted to the Administration and Finance Department.
98. No structural change is proposed for this Division and also no change in structural responsibilities is contemplated, except that agricultural information services should become the responsibility of the Rural Institutions Division in ESD.
Freedom from Hunger Campaign (FFHC)
90. The 1965 Session of the Conference (Resolution 6/65) instructed the Director-General to present to the Fifteenth Session his plans and recommendations on the future of the Campaign, and these will be submitted to the 1968 Session of the Council. FFHC project formulation should be transferred to the Development Department, the responsibility for project execution should be with the Operations Offices in the departments concerned, and its public relations functions should be closely related to information and publications, and to conference and council affairs.
Conference, Council and Protocol Affairs Division
91. The Liaison and Protocol and the Conference Operations functions should be brought together in a Conference, Council and Protocol Affairs Division.
92. No change is proposed in the Publications Division's functions, except that the Documentation Centre functions should be grouped with those of Legislation and Library.
1 The representative of the Finance Committee expressed the view that OGAI and AFD should be consolidated into a single Administration Department.
Documentation, Legislation and Library Division
93. The functions of the Documentation Centre are closely related to those of the Library. Accordingly, they should be brought together. No change is proposed in the functions or structure of either of them. The functions of the Legislation Branch are to collect and make comparative analyses on legislation with regard to land reform, forestry, water and other subjects, and to provide direct assistance to Member Governments in developing relevant legislation. This function is similar to that being performed by the Documentation Centre and is in harmony with modern library practice. For this reason the three activities should be grouped together in a division. 1
1 One member felt that the Legislation activities could not fall within those of a Documentation and Library Division.
94. The Review Team observed that “although it is at the country level that most of FAO's activities take place, there still remains an essential need for preserving - indeed for making more effective, the regional approach. One aspect complements the other. To achieve this objective, sufficient authority must be vested in both.”
95. The Ad Hoc Committee and the Director-General, while not accepting the Review Team's recommendation that the existing regional structure should be merged into four Regional Departments at Headquarters, still recognized the validity of some of the criticisms of certain aspects of the present Regional Offices. Corrective measures are needed rather than changes that may fail to meet the best interests of the developing countries themselves.
96. It is recognized that the main function of the regional services is to assist in developing the work in the field as well as the program of the Organization as a whole, by contributing with a better knowledge of the social, economic and political realities of the region. There is no doubt that the Organization must function within the framework of a broad development strategy which will take into account the global, regional and country needs. The Regional Representative should not be regarded as a person merely performing a number of representational functions, but rather as an officer of sufficient status and calibre to be an effective instrument in helping to shape the agricultural policy of the developing regions. More specifically, the closest cooperation between FAO and the Regional Economic Commissions is the sine qua non for successful international action at the regional level, because the Regional Economic Commissions of the United Nations have been given broad responsibilities for economic and social development, and it is largely within this same area that FAO carries out its specialized functions. This was recognized by FAO when establishing joint divisions with the Regional Economic Commissions. But the scope of the program of work of the Divisions jointly agreed to, is limited to the economic and social rather than technical aspects of food and agricultural problems for which FAO has global responsibility.
97. The situation is further complicated by the fact that governmental bodies, such as the sessions of the Regional Economic Commissions and the FAO Regional Conference, meeting separately, sometimes take decisions likely to cause overlapping or confusion. Until these basic difficulties are resolved, a coordinated approach in UN affairs cannot be achieved merely by shifting regional action to Headquarters.
98. Several arrangements are possible. The Director-General and the Ad Hoc Committee recognize that if regional arrangements, including not only structure but location of Regional Offices, are to be effective, they must have the consent of the majority of the countries of the regions concerned.
99. One approach would be for FAO to join forces with the UN Regional Economic Commissions with a clear recognition of each other's functions and to develop closer working relations than hitherto. This would result in operational efficiency and allround economy. Under this approach the posts of Executive Secretaries of the Regional Economic Commissions would be combined with those of FAO Regional Representatives. The Executive Secretary would thus become the FAO Regional Representative. He would have a dual capacity, for in addition to his responsibility to the Secretary-General of the UN with respect to the work of the Regional Economic Commissions, he would be responsible to the Director-General of FAO in his capacity as FAO Regional Representative.
100. There are significant differences between the various regions which may make such an arrangement impracticable at present in some regions. Although integration might be the ultimate goal, it would appear to be feasible at present only in the case of one or two regions; there this approach could be tried out. The Director-General should explore with the Secretary-General of the UN and the countries concerned the procedures to give effect to this approach.
101. It was recognized that this approach was not desirable at present in the Latin America region and that the Director-General would fill the vacancy of the Regional Representative in this region as soon as possible. 1
102. Under this arrangement, FAO would supply a Deputy Regional Representative who would also act as Director of the Joint Agriculture Division. The new Agriculture Division would absorb the existing Joint Regional Economic Commission/FAO Agriculture Divisions and its director would also be in charge of all FAO personnel situated at the seat of the Regional Economic Commission.
103. Another approach would be to retain the existing Regional Offices. In that case, Regional Offices and Regional Economic Commissions should, wherever possible, be situated at the same site, in order to encourage and facilitate the maximum of collaboration. 2 To achieve this goal existing problems should be carefully studied, particularly in Africa. This arrangement would not be feasible at present for the Near East region where there is no Regional Economic Commission. That office should, therefore, be maintained at its present site. Sub-Regional Offices should be replaced by offices of Country Representatives, or of Group-Country Representatives which where considered necessary by the Director-General, could be supported by out-posted divisional officers. (It was noted that the officers now in charge of the Sub-Regional Offices also acted as Country Representatives.) Furthermore, Country Representatives should be appointed in those countries where Regional Representatives are located in order to make sure that the Regional Representative's time is not diverted from his own essential functions.
104. Still another approach was the one recommended by several delegations at the Conference, particularly by delegations from Latin America, in the sense that at least in that region the Regional Office should be maintained in its present form and even strengthened, and that it would furthermore be desirable to create Task Forces at the disposal of Member Governments for concrete specific short-term assignments, such as for example the identification and preparation of pre-investment and Special Fund projects. 3
1 The representative of the Finance Committee drew attention to the fact that this post was currently at the D-2 level.
2 In connection with the location of Regional Offices at the sites of the Regional Economic Commissions, one member stated that, in determining the venue of these Commissions, agricultural considerations are not usually taken into full account. He also stated that the proximity of the Regional Office to the site of the Regional Economic Commission should not be the only criterion by which the site of the FAO Regional Offices should be determined as there are other essential considerations such as the agricultural conditions of the region, the role played by agriculture in the economy of the host country and the level it has attained in agricultural research and development. Moreover, the venue of the UN Regional Economic Commissions themselves is liable to change. He further stated that, whatever new policy is followed in this respect, it should not affect the status of already established Regional Offices.
3 Fourteenth Session of the Conference, Review of the Organization's General Structure, paras. 43–44.
105. The majority of the Committee believed that the Director-General should continue to explore the possibility of trying the first approach in one or more regions where it would be acceptable to Member Governments and that in the other regions the second approach should be followed. Under either of these two approaches it should be possible to service Member Nations effectively with a limited number of regional staff, although the number would vary according to the approach chosen. The permanent staff should consist of professional officers servicing standing regional bodies and a small nucleus of staff representing some major divisions. The number of officers may vary from region to region depending on the circumstances and the needs of the regions. Care should be taken to ensure that the staffing of the Regional Offices does not duplicate the Headquarters pattern.1
106. The functions of the outposted divisional officers should include the following:
To participate in Task Forces for the identification, preparation and evaluation of projects and programs (including Bank missions), or carry out these functions individually on instructions of the Division Director concerned or of the Regional Representative. The Task Forces should be small and mobile units, for which staff in the Regional Offices could serve as a nucleus increased as circumstances required by staff from Headquarters and by consultants.
To provide first-hand information to their directors on development trends and problems in the countries of the region.
To assist Country Representatives in developing programs and solving problems in the respective countries.
107. The rank of the Regional Representative could be either ADG or D-2: the Director-General would have to use his discretion depending on the circumstances of the particular region and the attributes of the person. 2 The duties and the responsibilities of the Regional Representatives should include the following:
To act as the Director-General's representative in the Region on broad policy matters, and as the link between FAO and various regional bodies; and in this capacity to exercise broad representation functions vis-à-vis Member Governments and regional bodies.
When requested by the Director-General, to act as his representative at Regional FAO Conferences and meetings and represent the Organization at meetings held by other international or regional organizations or bodies;
To exercise general supervision, on behalf of the Director-General, over the Joint Regional Economic Commission/FAO Agriculture Division;
To act as the Director-General's representative in liaison on co-operative action with the Executive Secretary of the Regional Economic Commission on matters going beyond the scope of the Joint Regional Economic Commission/ FAO Agriculture Division;
When instructed by the Director-General, to lead missions and Task Forces to countries of the region;
To follow and report on the work of the Country Representatives, and to assist them where appropriate;
To advise on problems of relationships with Member Governments in the region, and to report thereon to Headquarters;
To assist in the formulation of regional policy and advise on the need for regional projects and group-country projects;
To act as Chief Liaison Officer with the Area Banks;
In general, to work in close association with DD, and with PAB, especially with regard to the work of IWP.
1 The member representing the Latin America region, having in mind the recommendation of the Conference to seek a pragmatic solution for the different regional offices, stated that he could not approve these proposals concerning the organization of the Latin America Regional Offices. In fact, the abolition of the Latin America SubRegional Offices and the marked reduction of regional staff to one officer per major division or department, i.e., to less than half, would amount to:
a drastic departure from the resolutions of the last Regional Conference for Latin America, which recommended the strengthening of the Latin-American Regional Office and not merely the maintenance of zone offices but also the creation of an additional office for the Caribbean; and, further, the establishment of Task Forces for concrete, specific, short-term assignments such as pre-investment projects;
going against the spirit of the recommendations of the Conference, in particular the proposals made by some delegations of the developing countries - those of Latin America included - to the effect that the strengthening of FAO's field operations, within the approved level of the budget, should be brought about through the transfer of Headquarters staff to individual countries and/or regions and not by dismantling the regional office system in favor of appointment of Country Representatives; and
depriving the Regional Offices of the possibility of helping to provide - to the degree that they were able to do in the past - direct and effective assistance to Member Nations in matters of extreme importance - especially in fields such as forestry, fisheries, nutrition, rural institutions, including land reform and agricultural development planning - or joint operations of several regional officers.
2 One member suggested that Regional Representatives should be appointed by the Director-General upon the nomination of the Regional Conference for fixed-term periods preferably coinciding with that of the Director-General. In his opinion this system will better ensure the agreement of Member Nations concerned on the Regional Representative accredited to them. Other members supported the concept of fixed-term periods for Regional Representatives coinciding with the term of the Director-General.
108. The Regional Representative should report on major policy matters directly to the Director-General. On all other matters his point of contact at Headquarters should be the ADG of DD.
109. The existing names of the FAO Regional Offices should be maintained with the exception of that of North America, where the title of the office should be altered to “FAO Liaison Office for North America,” since its functions are largely of a liaison and administrative nature.
110. The Fourteenth Session of the Conference agreed that the “Ad Hoc Committee on Organization should carefully examine the reorganization of Regional Conferences within the framework of measures proposed for reorganization of the regional structure.”
111. The important role of these conferences, is to identify felt needs of the region to be taken into account in preparing the Program of Work and Budget for the immediately ensuing biennium, in accordance with Rule XXIV - 2(g). Although this is stated to be their major role in paragraph 630 of the Fourteenth Conference Report, it would only be possible if the timing of the Regional Conferences were advanced to the early part of the non-Conference year, before the Director-General had begun to prepare his draft Program of Work. It would mean, in effect, that the cycle of Regional Conferences would have to take place within two to six months of the close of the FAO Conference - an arrangement that seems quite impracticable. Furthermore the Director-General's general plans and priorities are outlined in the early months of the biennium for consultation directly with governments. Two simultaneous systems would be likely to conflict.
112. Regional Conferences should, however, play a major role in the development of FAO's Program on a medium-term basis. With the completion of IWP and the adoption of a global and regional development strategy, the general lines of the Program of Work can be envisaged for a longer period than a biennium. In that case it should be possible to involve the Regional Conferences more actively in the planning of the medium-term program.
113. Although the Regional Conferences do not have a constitutional status, they do have a distinct influence on FAO affairs. Their main functions may be so defined: (i) to indicate areas of need and highlight conditions in the region that should be taken into account in preparing the Program of Work and Budget; (ii) to indicate what the countries of the region can do for themselves in solving their problems and what external help is needed; (iii) to serve as a medium through which the major policy objectives of the Organization can be aired and interpreted according to the needs of the region; and (iv) to give an opportunity for countries to hold consultations at a high level.
114. Regional Conferences should be able to make recommendations to governments, to the Director-General, to the Regional Economic Commissions and to the Council. It would be desirable that the recommendations submitted to the Council should be concise, few in number and deal solely with the most important priority matters affecting the region in question. The Director-General should analyze these recommendations and indicate to the Council the extent to which he had been able to take them into account in framing his Program of Work and Budget proposals; and where he had not been able to do so, to specify the reasons. This would enable the Council to be apprised of the recommendations emanating from Regional Conferences.
115. The FAO Regional Conference could be held either jointly with, or separately from, the Sessions of the Regional Economic Commission. Considering the importance of agriculture in the regions however, it is preferable that they should be held separately. Should circumstances warrant that they be held jointly, an important sector of the joint agenda should be devoted to agriculture and related fields for which joint preparations should be made by the two Organizations, with the assistance of the Joint Regional Economic Commission/FAO Agricultural Division.
116. In the event that the Regional Conference is held separately from the Session of the Regional Economic Commission, there should be mutual consultation on the drawing up of the agenda of both Sessions, as is now done with ECLA. Appropriate staff of the one body would participate in the meeting of the other. It would be desirable that decisions and recommendations reached at FAO Regional Conferences should provide the policy guidance for the sessions of Regional Economic Commissions and should not call for reconsideration. In any case the reports of Regional Conferences are important instruments for the work of the Regional Representatives.
117. If the idea of merging the offices of Regional Representatives and Executive Secretaries of the Regional Economic Commissions cannot be implemented, the Joint Regional Economic Commissions/FAO Agriculture Divisions should be primarily concerned with the agricultural development sector of the regional social and economic programs of the UN Regional Economic Commissions. Accordingly, the staff assigned to the Joint Divisions should in the first instance be agricultural economists and planners. Joint technical work of a non-socio-economic ad hoc nature should be undertaken by staff assigned for that specific purpose and, as necessary, by FAO missions.
118. The Program of Work of the Joint Divisions should be formulated in consultation between the Regional Representative and the Executive Secretary with the assistance of ESD and DD. The FAO appointed Director of the Joint Division should be responsible to the Regional Representative. There is however, still a need for clarifying and defining relationships of the Director of the Joint Division (including other FAO staff) with the Executive Secretary. Similarly the question of the relationships with other regional bodies involving outposted subject-matter officers should be resolved.
119. The Country Representative is the senior representative of the Director-General in the country and Chief of the FAO Mission. In his capacity as Chief of Mission he is responsible for its internal coherence, its good relations with appropriate ministries of the Government and with other technical assistance missions in FAO's field of reference operating in the country. His functions should include:
Keeping FAO Headquarters informed of the over-all position in the agricultural sector and any other major developments in his country of assignment, notably in providing information from time to time which would assist in the planning and formulating programs for promoting the agricultural development of the country;
Responsibility to Headquarters and to the UNDP Resident Representative for carefully appraising new requests for assistance in the agriculture sector in its widest sense, including the relationship of such requests to national development targets and priorities, the adequacy of local support, its timing, its likely economic impact and its probability of success.
Assisting the UNDP Resident Representative, in the negotiation of the agricultural part of the new Technical Assistance Programs, and in close association with him, negotiating Plans of Operation and such amendments to programs and projects as are required;
Responsibility to Headquarters and the UNDP Resident Representative for maintaining a watching brief for all FAO-assisted projects operating in the country, as distinguished from technical supervision and direct administration. This involves an assessment not only of the project but of the general performance and conduct of the staff. In association with the UNDP Resident Representative he does all he can to encourage the fulfilment of government counterpart obligations;
Keeping under review the adequacy of the administrative servicing of projects and experts. Day-to-day local administrative servicing will normally be the responsibility of the UNDP Office and such administrative officers as may be assigned to particular field projects or an administrative officer assigned to the staff of the FAO Country Representative;
Responsibility for assisting in the evaluation of all FAO programs in the country, irrespective of their source of finance, in cooperation with the UNDP Resident Representative and such special missions as may be sent to the country for that purpose. This includes a systematic follow-up of the recommendations of completed projects.
120. It is of course a principal function of the Country Representative to maintain at all times the closest cooperation with the UNDP Resident Representative, in line with the principles established by ACC.
121. The Fourteenth Session of the Conference unanimously agreed on the need for increasing the number of Country Representatives, in accordance with the Review Team's recommendation. The problem that remains for solution is how to defray the cost.
122. With the proposed reorganization of the regional structure it is conceivable that some of the posts of regional out-posted officers should become available for increasing the number of Country Representatives with the intention eventually of appointing a full-time Country Representative in countries having a large volume of FAO field operations as well as in a group of countries which justify such appointments.
123. Possibilities also exist of appointing more officers under the FAO/UNDP Agreement; however, experience has shown that Country Representatives appointed through the use of either FAO or UNDP resources should have a common objective and should recognize their responsibility to FAO as well as to the UNDP Resident Representative in the country. Such an arrangement, entailing a dual responsibility, works most effectively when there is some sort of cost-sharing arrangement. It would be desirable to take up with the UNDP the possibility of arriving at some such cost-sharing arrangement, under which the Country Representatives would be regarded as officers of FAO, although their salary would be partly reimbursed by UNDP for services rendered to the Resident Representative in connection with the coordination of field activities.
124. Country Representatives should have a direct line of communication with Headquarters. They should therefore report to the heads of the regional services in ASD. They should receive copies of communications to and from Project Managers and Headquarters, and likewise copies to and from Headquarters on policy or important issues regarding their respective countries should be sent to the Regional Representatives.
125. The authority of the Project Manager in the field should be strengthened and reinforced. Headquarters procedures and letters of instructions to Project Managers and field officers should be revised to take into account the following principles:
The Project Manager is responsible and directs the staff and all project operations in the field. On certain aspects he collaborates with and relies on the FAO Country Representative. He receives instructions from, and is responsible to, the head of departmental or divisional operations, but normally corresponds with the Project Operations Officer to whom responsibility for action at Headquarters is delegated by the head of departmental or divisional operations. He shares with the latter responsibility for implementing policy and for the proper operation of the project. He also participates in planning the programs and in the staffing of the project.
The technical project staff in the field are members of an appropriate Branch or other unit of one of the Divisions. However, they are assigned by their Division Directors to work under the direction of the Project Manager and any instructions given to them in the course of their assignment are issued by the Project Manager. In order to ensure the technical soundness and efficiency of the work of the project, close technical contacts must be maintained between the staff members and their Headquarters units. They communicate on technical matters through the Project Manager with their units. The Project Manager is free to attach his comments for transmittal to the head of departmental or divisional operations. In turn members of the technical units at Headquarters correspond through the head of Departmental or Divisional Operations Units with the field staff, a copy going to the Project Manager.
126. Under Conference Resolution 1/67 the Director-General, in consultation with the Ad Hoc Committee on Organization, was requested to take appropriate interim steps during the 1968/69 biennium, within the approved level of the budget for that biennium, to make organizational adjustments, including a modest redeployment of staff. It was agreed that the following constitute interim measures within the concept of this resolution to be implemented at a time to be determined by the Director-General during the 1968/69 biennium.
|1.||Setting up of a Policy Advisory Bureau||29 – 30|
|2.||Abolition of post of Director of Special Studies (ESD)||32|
|3.||Reassignment of functions and strengthening of the area branches and of the Evaluation Branch in EA||33 – 35|
|4.||Renaming of Commodities Division as Commodities and Trade Division||36|
|5.||Transfer of NU (as modified) to ESD||38|
|6.||Transfer of Marketing Branch from EA to RU||39 – 41|
|7.||Setting up of a Development Department (formerly Program + Budgetary Service) comprising an Area Service Division, an Investment Centre, the FAO/Industry Cooperative Program, an International Agency Liaison Division, and the Program Formulation and Budget Division||42 – 59|
|8.||Setting up of an Agriculture Department (formerly Technical Department) comprising an Agricultural Services Division, AN, LA (as modified), PL, and FO||60 – 65|
|9.||Setting up of Operations Offices for the time being in AgS, AN, LA, PL, FO of AD; in RU of ESD; and in FI Department||19 – 20|
|10.||Consolidation of general administrative and support functions in a Personnel Division, a Management Services Division, and an Administrative Services Division in the Administration and Finance Department||75 – 86|
|11.||Setting up of an Office of General Affairs and Information (formerly Department of Public Relations and Legal Affairs) comprising the Information Division, Publications Division, FFHC, a Conference Council and Protocol Affairs Division, and a Documentation, Legislation and Library Division.||87 – 93|
|12.||Exploring in one or two regions the possibility of combining the functions of Regional Representative and Executive Secretary of Regional Economic Commissions.||95 – 109|
|13.||Consultation with UNDP on the possibility of amending the current system of UNDP-financed Senior Agricultural Advisers by providing on a broader scale for the appointment of FAO Country Representatives on a cost sharing basis.||123|
|14.||Initiation of improved personnel and administrative measures, to be reviewed by the Finance Committee, as mentioned in the Introduction to this Report.||11|
|15.||Development of directives on delegation of authority, including development of a standard pattern for support services required by departments, divisions, operations offices and administrative units.||18|
|16.||Development of directives for simplified lines of communication with particular reference to Regional Representatives, Country Representatives and Project Managers on the one hand, and between these and Headquarters on the other.||22|
|17.||Development of a project reporting system so designed that it keeps all interested sectors fully informed of the progress of projects and serves as a starting point for interim and final reports.||23–24|
127. It was further understood that the Director-General would defer the appointments of Country Representatives funded from posts of out-posted subject-matter officers, or through replacements of Sub-Regional Offices, until the issue is reviewed by the 1968 Session of the Council. The Director-General would use his discretion as to whether to fill urgent vacancies.