1. The Fortieth Session of the Council was held in Rome from 24 June to 3 July 1963, under the chairmanship of Mr. Louis Maire.
2. The agenda of the session, as adopted, is set out in Appendix A.
3. Mr. G.R. Kamat (India) and Mr. Philippe d'Otreppe (Belgium) were appointed First Vice-Chairman and Second Vice-Chairman respectively.
4. A tribute was paid by the Chairman to the late Pope John XXIII, a great man whose breadth of mind and infinite goodness had won the hearts of men the world over and whose passing was universally mourned. A minute's silence was observed in memory of him.
5. The Council noted that the Government of Panama had not sent a representative to the Council and was considered to have resigned pursuant to the terms of Rule XXII-7 of the General Rules of the Organization, i.e.
“A Member of the Council shall be considered to have resigned, if it is in arrears in payments of its financial contributions to the Organization in an amount equal to or exceeding the contributions due from it for the two preceding calendar years..................”.
6. This seat will be filled at the Twelfth Session of the Conference.
7. The Council approved with certain revisions and additions the provisional agenda for the Twelfth Session of the Conference which the Director-General had submitted, and instructed him to circulate it (C 63/1 - first draft) to Member Governments, along with the invitation to the session, in accordance with Rule II. 1 of the General Rules of the Organization.
8. On the basis of a memorandum submitted by the Director-General, the Council drew up proposals for the organization of the session and instructed the Director-General to circulate these proposals to Member Nations (C 63/4).
9. The Council considered the Program of Work and Budget presented by the Director-General for 1964/65 together with its supplements, and congratulated him on the very clear and comprehensive presentation of the document (C 63/3). The Council then heard a statement by the Director-General, presenting and justifying his proposals in the light of the obligations imposed on the Organization, first, by requests for assistance received in ever-increasing numbers, and secondly, by the growing importance attached by governments and public opinion to the activities of the Organization, whose technical standards should not only be maintained but even improved.
10. The Council noted the comments and recommendations of the Program and Finance Committees which had considered the Program of Work and Budget both separately and jointly. The Council expressed appreciation of the contribution these two committees had thus made to its work.
11. Twenty Council members expressed their views on the Program of Work. The majority of the speakers wished to see the Budget increase by less than was proposed and by not more than approximately 15 percent, and to see the increase proceed at a lower rate than the Director-General had suggested. They stated the various reasons that had led them to take this view and generally indicated their support for detailed proposals put forward by the Delegate of the United States of America. The other speakers, however, considered that the Director-General's proposals deserved the support of the members of the Organization and favored their adoption in principle, subject, in the view of some delegations to a few adjustments designed to achieve savings, which might be found possible without impairing the effectiveness of the work program, such as some adjustments suggested by the Finance Committee.
12. In order to avoid interpretations which might in any way distort the views expressed by delegations, and to give the Conference a faithful reflection of the Council debate, the Council decided not to summarize its discussions on the matter in this report but to circulate the verbatim record to all Member Nations.
13. The records of the two Council meetings held on 28 June 1963 would therefore be carefully finalized and reproduced, not in the various languages used by the delegations but in three versions, one in each of the official languages of the Organization. They would be circulated in that form to Member Nations under the heading “Consideration by the Council of the Program of Work and Budget proposed for the 1964–65 biennium (Fortieth Session of the Council, June 1963)”.
14. The records of the Council presented in this manner would constitute a Conference document, which the Council commended especially to the attention of governments.
15. The Council received the Report of the Thirty-Sixth Session of the Committee on Commodity Problems (CCP). In accepting this report, the Council expressed its appreciation of the Committee's work and stressed its value as a contribution towards solutions of international commodity and trade problems. It agreed that the report should be brought to the attention of the Conference.
16. The Council concurred generally in the Committee's evaluation of the world agricultural commodity situation. The following were the salient features:
17. While this assessment showed that essentially there had been little change in the situation over the past year, two aspects gave some grounds for satisfaction, namely the halt in the price decline, and the more intensive efforts that were being made by governments to seek remedies for trade problems through international agreements and consultations. It was pointed out that, while the halt in the price decline was welcome, it was too early to take the view that the downward trend of recent years had been reversed. The Council also welcomed governments' determination to tackle the problems of international trade as evidenced by the intensive international consultations under way or in preparation. It stressed the need for concerted efforts to reduce barriers to trade, to safeguard the terms of trade of countries whose economies were substantially dependent on exports of agricultural products, and to ensure that national and regional policies were so designed as to avoid harmful effects on the economies of other countries.
18. The Council noted that the CCP had undertaken an overall review of FAO commodity study groups and of proposals for consultations for other commodities. This review had been carried out by the Committee in the light of the criteria and procedures for the establishment, supervision, suspension and termination of study groups which it had adopted at its Thirty-Third Session. The purpose of the review was to examine the activities of each existing group in order to take a decision on its future, and to determine the action to be taken on proposals for consultations on other commodities. The Council commended the Committee on this examination, stressing the need for caution in the establishment of new groups.
19. The Council noted that the fifty governments listed in Appendix B of the CCP Report had accepted the Guiding Principles for Agricultural Price Stabilization and Support Policies adopted by the Eleventh Session of the Conference. In reaffirming the usefulness of the Guiding Principles, the Council expressed the hope that other governments would find it possible to adhere to them.
20. Reference was made to the developments taking place in different regions towards the economic integration of groups of countries. The Council, while agreeing that these groupings might offer possibilities of more rapid and better balanced economic growth, again stressed that countries participating in them should keep in mind the needs of other countries and that they should aim at a reduction in barriers to trade and protectionist measures, not only among themselves, but also with respect to other countries, particularly the developing countries.
21. The Council heard an account of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development to be held early in 1964. It noted with appreciation that the Director-General was providing for close co-operation by FAO in the preparatory work, since it believed that FAO, by virtue of its expertise and experience, could make a valuable contribution to the work of the conference. The Council was also informed of the main conclusions of the report of the group of experts appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to consider institutional arrangements for commodity and trade matters. The Council believed that the issues to be considered by the United Nations conference warranted the attention of the FAO Conference at its Twelfth Session and welcomed the Director-General's intention to present a further statement on these matters, on the lines indicated in paragraph 55 of the CCP Report.
22. The Council noted the CCP discussion on the activities of the CCP Consultative Subcommittee on Surplus Disposal (CSD) and agreed with the CCP that the Subcommittee was carrying out a useful task.
23. The CCP had attached to its report a study on Changing Attitudes towards Agricultural Surpluses prepared by an ad hoc group set up by CSD. The report of the ad hoc group expressed the view that recent developments and statements made in intergovernmental fora indicated that attitudes of some countries towards production, utilization and disposal of surpluses were undergoing some changes.
The Council recognized that this report was quite preliminary and had not yet been fully considered by governments. It therefore suggested that the Conference might wish to consider the report and the questions it raised.
24. With regard to the studies proposed by the ad hoc group, the Council noted that the CCP had suggested that some of these might be included in the program of studies which was being considered by the Intergovernmental Committee of the UN/FAO World Food Program.
25. The Council endorsed the action taken by the CCP, including the decision to give further consideration to these matters at its next session in the light of Council and Conference discussions and of the results of the studies available at that time.
26. The Council noted that the CCP had considered the general policy issue of the role which FAO should play in the promotion of consumption of individual commodities. The CCP had agreed with the Director-General that it was not usually desirable for the Organization to participate directly in the operation of promotional schemes, some of which might be competitive as between commodities, or to be associated with advertising compaigns or arrangements which were controversial. The CCP had decided that, apart from its programs for the improvement of nutrition, productivity, and marketing efficiency, the Organization's role should continue to be limited to providing a forum for the exchange of ideas and experience gained in national schemes for the promotion of consumption either in domestic or foreign markets. The Council generally endorsed this decision.
27. The Council noted that the CCP Consultative Subcommittee on the Economic Aspects of Rice had recommended that the Director-General declare 1965 as an International Rice Year. The stated objectives were to encourage governments and the rice industries to make a concerted effort to promote, where appropriate, production, consumption, marketing and trade, as well as economic and technical research on rice; to focus world attention on the role that rice could play in furthering the aims of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign; and to improve international understanding of the rice economy.
28. The CCP had generally supported the proposal and noted the important role of rice as a staple food and a principle source of foreign exchange earnings in many developing countries. It recognized that implementation under FAO auspices would need to be in line with the above conclusions on promotional programs, but noted that the Subcommittee's proposal embraced broader concepts than a campaign for the promotion of consumption as such. The Committee had therefore generally endorsed the proposal, provided the Council and Conference agreed that it was not in conflict with the principles and policies that the Organization should adopt in such matters, and provided that any expenditures involved for FAO would be within the resources and budget for the Organization.
29. The Council wholeheartedly supported the objectives of this proposal and underlined the urgent need to focus world attention on ways of improving the efficiency of production, distribution and the nutritional use of rice, which is the basic food for more than half the world's population. Several delegations supported the proposed declaration of an International Rice Year and considered that it was fully in line with the principles and policies of the Organization, but others questioned whether this would be the most effective way of achieving the objectives. It was generally agreed that a final conclusion on the proposal could not be reached until there were more specific details of methods of operating and financing such a scheme. Some delegates suggested that any costs to the Organization could be met by voluntary contributions from interested countries.
30. The Council, therefore, requested the Director-General to consult informally with interested governments as to the working arrangements which would be needed to implement the scheme, the costs involved for the Organization, and how these could be financed. This information, together with an appraisal of any special problems which might emerge, should be transmitted to the Conference to assist it in deciding whether the declaration of an International Rice Year was appropriate.
31. The Council noted that, at its Eleventh Session, the Conference had decided that “in the light of the definition as formulated by the Committee on Constitutional and Legal Matters (CCLM) and of the views of the CCP, the Council should approve a definition of the term ‘commodity study group’, without having to refer the matter back to the Conference”. (Report of the Eleventh Session of the Conference, para. 438). In the report of its Thirty-Sixth Session, the CCP expressed the view that, subject to two amendments, the definition formulated by the CCLM met the requirements it had in mind when it decided to undertake a study of this matter. The Council accepted the definition proposed by the CCLM with the two modifications suggested by the CCP. The amended definition reads as follows:
"The term ‘commodity study group’ should apply to groups having the following characteristics:
groups which deal with international economic problems in the fields of production, consumption and trade of a given agricultural commodity - or closely related commodities - as distinct from the technological problems of such commodity or commodities;
groups that are open to all Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization, or non-Member Nations that are Members of the United Nations that consider themselves substantially interested in the production or consumption of, or trade in, the commodity considered, and in which dependent territories may have joint or separate representation as provided for in Article 69 of the Havana Charter;
groups whose functions are to deal with special difficulties which exist or may be expected to arise for a given commodity and which groups can be either of a temporary or standing nature;
groups which in dealing with such special difficulties may consider, where appropriate, the feasibility and desirability of an international commodity agreement".
32. The Council took note of the further progress made in connection with the United Nations Development Decade since its Thirty-Ninth Session (Document CL 40/4) and in particular of FAO's participation in the preparation of the Secretary-General's progress report requested by the Thirty-Fourth Session of the Economic and Social Council: “United Nations Development Decade: Activities of the United Nations and Related Agencies in the Immediate Future”, which was scheduled for discussion at the Thirty-Sixth Session of ECOSOC in July 1963.
33. The Council had already at its Thirty-Ninth Session endorsed the goals and objectives of the United Nations Development Decade. It considered, however, that the main objective of the Decade - a minimum annual rate of growth of aggregate national income of 5 percent at the end of the Decade, as set out in General Assembly Resolution 1710 (XVI) of 19 December 1961 which designated the Decade - was rather low for many of the developing countries, but such countries were free to set their own targets, as provided in the resolution.
34. The Council agreed with the Program Committee that, since the agricultural sector accounted for a major part of the national income in most developing countries, the target of an annual rate of growth of 5 percent in national income at the end of the Decade would be feasible only if a very substantial acceleration were achieved in the rate of expansion of agricultural production in these countries.
35. The Council also agreed with the Program Committee that all the activities of the Organization (including in particular the Freedom from Hunger Campaign, while it continues) would be FAO's contribution to the Development Decade. This would require reorientation or organization of FAO's regular activities along the basic lines already approved by the Conference and the Council to render the greatest possible service to the developing countries as regards the expansion of their food and agricultural economy as an essential part of their overall economic development.
36. The Council, in this context, considered that the priority areas for the concentration of FAO's regular activities over the next few years, as suggested in the FAO chapter of the Secretary-General's Report “Activities of the United Nations and Related Agencies in the Immediate Future” (summarized in document CL 40/4) were appropriate initial steps toward the necessary reorientation of FAO's activities.
37. The Council had before it the first report of the Intergovernmental Committee to the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and to the Council (CL 40/5). In introducing the report, the WFP Executive Director drew attention to further development that had taken place since his report at the Thirty-Ninth Session of the Council. The administrative procedures followed in arriving at project agreements were also briefly explained.
38. Fifty-two countries, of which two thirds were developing countries, had contributed $89.85 million in commodities, services and cash to the Program. Eight official requests for emergency food aid had been or were being implemented, involving the Program in commitments totaling about $4.5 million. Forty-one requests for economic and social development and special food-aid projects had been submitted which, if approved, would require an outlay of $30–35 million. In all, seven projects, involving expenditure of about $9 million, had been approved. The first operational agreement - with the Government of Sudan - had recently been signed.
39. The future of the Program had been considered at a number of recent international meetings, and it was clear that thought would increasingly have to be given to the possibility of continuing and expanding it after the three-year experimental period. The general studies to be prepared by the WFP would constitute an essential element in the background information that would be needed before any firm decision could be taken on that subject. For the time being, therefore, the WFP would do best to continue its experimental work along existing lines with the aim of achieving a balanced selection of well-implemented and evaluated projects for the eventual consideration of members. So far, the general interest in and support for the Program manifested by governments was very satisfactory and augured well for its immediate future.
40. The Council recorded its satisfaction with the work of the WFP during the first six months, in particular with regard to its role in emergency relief action. The primary importance of encouraging self-help through provision of food aid for economic and social development was strongly emphasized.
41. The view was expressed that, bearing in mind the essentially experimental nature of the Program, one of its major tasks was to supplement and collate existing experience concerning the most effective means of assisting countries to recover from emergencies and to execute economic and social development plans.
42. A number of delegations drew attention to the continuing shortfall in contributions, especially the cash component, and urged Member Nations to make serious efforts to achieve the $100 million total with its recommended one third cash component.
43. Several delegations expressed the hope that simplification of the administrative procedures consistent with careful preparation, execution and evaluation of projects, would become possible in due course.
44. The Council adopted the recommendation of the Intergovernmental Committee for Amendment of General Regulation A(4)(c)(iii) contained in document CL 40/29. The revised text is as follows:
“Any ocean transportation (including insurance) contributed to the WFP shall be arranged by the contributing country at the request of the Executive Director, as agreed, but any paid by the WFP shall be arranged by the Executive Director. The Executive Director, however, may request the country contributing the commodities, the recipient country, or any other country to make such arrangements to move them.”
45. In order to become more fully acquainted with the substantive work of the Organization, to keep abreast of developments in the various fields of work, and to lay a base for future planning, the Council decided at its Thirty-Fifth Session to undertake at each of its major sessions a general examination of the work of a few divisions, branches and services.
46. At this session the Council had before it papers submitted by the Director-General summarizing the development of the work of the Animal Production and Health Division, Plant Production and Protection Division, Land and Water Development Division, and the Atomic Energy Branch. It also had the benefit of the comments of the Program Committee on them (CL 40/2).
47. The Council decided that at its 1964 Session it would review the work of the Fisheries Division, the Forestry and Forest Products Division, and the Nutrition Division.
48. In this review of program activities account was taken of the extensive amount of productive and satisfactory collaboration between FAO and other specialized agencies. At the same time, however, the Council drew attention to and expressed concern regarding several instances of overlapping and duplication of work between FAO and other agencies.
49. The Council recommended that the Conference and more specifically its Technical Committees should formulate the firm position of FAO regarding the division of labor between FAO and other agencies and specify FAO's terms of reference within the limits of the functions set out in Article I of the Constitution in support of the Director-General's efforts in seeking a clearer differentiation of function between the various agencies in discussions to be undertaken with the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination (ACC) and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
50. The Council further recommended that each country should give co-ordinated instructions to its delegations to the various United Nations bodies, the specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency to ensure a coherent approach and similar expression of views on the same subject matters discussed in those organizations.
51. The Council examined the objectives and programs of the Division in detail, and appreciated the fact that the primary aim is to increase the supplies of proteins of high biological value. This was of particular importance in relation both to the Freedom from Hunger Campaign and the World Food Program. Reference was made to the discussions on the subject which took place at the World Food Congress in Washington in June 1963, and to the support evidenced at the Congress for the Organization's work in the field of animal production and health.
52. The Council noted that the work was such that there was considerable overlap of interests in the Animal Production, Animal Health and Dairy branches, and that a substantial measure of co-operation between these units had been established. Similar co-operation existed in particular fields with other divisions, e.g., Plant Production and Protection Division and Land and Water Development Division, and, where there were common interests, with other international organizations such as WHO and l'Office International des Epizooties. This varied co-operation necessitated precise co-ordination of programs to ensure maximum efficiency.
53. With regard to research, it was understood that FAO's rôle was to stimulate and co-ordinate, and to assist governments in its development, rather than to carry out research programs. The varied lines of fundamental research must be kept under continuing review although the Division was more concerned with applied than with basic research, the former being of especial importance to the developing countries, particularly in the association of research with education and extension activities. The Division's primary task in all such activities is to provide the necessary assistance and guidance to member countries and to ensure that there is no duplication of effort.
54. The Council considered the question of the impact and influence of technical assistance on the Regular Program. The fact of the increase in all aspects of the Division's work was appreciated but a warning was sounded as to the need to avoid inflation both of staff and of work. The Council was informed of the growing demands for assistance in all fields and considered that, in the face of these, a rational balance of subject-matter and the establishment of specific priorities in accordance with needs were essential. The technical competence of the Division in such matters as providing assistance to governments in the control of epizootic disease, for example African horse sickness and SAT 1 foot-and-mouth disease in the Near East, had led to a notable increase in operational programs requested by governments. The dangers inherent in overloading the Division with field programs were appreciated.
55. In considering the relative importance of different aspects of the Division's work, the Council accepted the interrelationship and interdependence of improved nutrition, improvement through breeding, and animal health control. It was considered, however, that there were special circumstances in certain regions that necessitated priority of attention to the control of disease before any major advances were possible in related fields of animal husbandry. This applied particularly to the control and eradication of the great epizootics such as rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease. However, even in such areas the full benefits of disease control could not be realized without collateral improvements in feeding, management and breeding. The Council expressed appreciation of the emergency assistance that the Division had been able to provide in recent years, particularly during the current epizootic of SAT 1 foot-and-mouth disease in the Near East, and of the substantial support given both by governments and the European Economic Community (EEC). It was noted that the greater part of such assistance was being successfully co-ordinated by the Division, and that this disease had been controlled in Greece. The serious threat to the livestock industry in Europe had been substantially reduced in recent months, and there was a possibility that it could be eliminated completely.
56. The Council agreed that the Division's extensive use of expert panels was a useful means of achieving technical support for research and other projects at the lowest possible expense to the Organization. It was appreciated, however, that the greater part of the work of these panels is conducted through regular correspondence and that the number of meetings required was being kept to a minimum. The general question of the use of expert panels is dealt with more specifically in paras. 91 to 95 below.
57. Approval was expressed for the Division's policies regarding the improvement of indigenous breeds of livestock. It was noted that in many cases the importation of exotic breeds, when it is haphazard, defeats its own aims. Emphasis should be placed on the up-grading of local stock and the importation of foreign breeds should only be considered in the light of environmental conditions and primarily with the aim of improving the local stock by judicious cross-breeding. The Council stressed the need for the elimination of nonproductive animals as a vital aspect of productivity increases, and again emphasized the importance of improved pastures and nutrition in relation to disease control in livestock
58. The Council expressed satisfaction with the achievements of the Division and noted with approval the main lines of the program of work, which appeared to be well-balanced. In particular, the proposed concentration of activities on well-selected fields of work was considered to be sound policy.
59. The Council welcomed the setting up of working teams of selected officers from different branches to take care of specific problems of common concern. This was a good way of ensuring more effective co-ordination of activities and the best coverage of the particular problems.
60. The Council noted with satisfaction the increased attention it was proposed to give to the production of protective foods, and the emphasis placed on fruit, vegetables and pulses. In this connection, it supported the proposal to establish a Fruit and Vegetable Crops Branch. The Council also noted with approval the strengthening of activities with a view to higher protein production: plant protein through the introduction and improvement of protein-rich crops; and animal protein through pasture and fodder crops management and improvement. The close collaboration established with the Animal Production and Health Division in this latter connection was appreciated.
61. The Council stressed the need to expand the activities in the field of plant protection and supported the idea of an integrated approach to this problem. It also supported the proposals for intensifying international co-operation in such fields as plant quarantine, grain storage and pest and disease control through the proper use of pesticides and biological control.
62. The Council recognized that the expansion of activities in such fields as ecology as a basis for agricultural development, plant introduction, fruits and vegetables, pulses, pasture and fodder crops, and plant protection, had considerable justification. The Director-General felt that this would require additional support.
63. The Council expressed appreciation of the wide sweep of activities carried out by the Division and commented on a number of them and on development trends. It noted the rapid expansion over the preceding two or three years which had altered the balance and emphasis of the Division's activities. The change was seen particularly in the rapid increase in the field program, especially under the United Nations Special Fund for Economic Development (UNSF), in relation to the Regular Program, an emphasis which reflected the pressing demands from the developing countries for preinvestment projects. It was fully understood however that, while the FAO's responsibility lay in meeting the demands for assistance from Member Nations as far as was possible, the longer-term objectives of the Regular Program were equally important, not only in their traditional aspects, but also as technical back-stopping and guidance for the expanding field program. Hence, the field program in no way invalidated the objectives of the Regular Program but rather enhanced their importance. The Director-General considered that commensurate expansion in staff and funds was the only way of redressing the balance.
64. In discussing the important divisional responsibilities in land-use planning, the Council viewed with satisfaction the close attention paid to team work and co-ordination. The Division had a large measure of responsibility in the integration of the technical factors involved in the proper exploitation of natural resources: these include survey, appraisal and development of land and water resources, various aids to production and the processing and storage of agricultural products and the economic evaluation of land use and farming systems and land and water development schemes. The proper functioning of the Division required not only close co-ordination between its components, but also close liaison with other divisions and agencies. The measures proposed for fostering the team approach were strongly supported.
65. Along with soils' data, climatological, hydrological, topographic, plant ecological and other environmental factors were being considered in this context, in close co-operation especially with the Plant Production and Protection Division following its pioneering work in agro-climatology in the international field. The importance of studying these subjects with a view to transferring knowledge from one part of the world to another with similar environments deserved much greater recognition than it had received. The world soils resources project was designed to make a basic contribution to this field, essential to the task of rendering effective technical assistance.
66. The Director-General mentioned the need for stronger representation at the regional level. Such strengthening would help to reduce pressure on headquarters staff and permit closer analysis and appraisal of specific development problems. The Council approved of the team approach to land and water development problems whereby the services of regionally based specialists in small well-balanced teams could be made available to member countries. It was accepted, therefore, that, while there was still place for the individual expert, there was also need to organize such teams where possible on a country or regional basis and even with representation of more than one division. Such co-ordination of disciplines would greatly assist member countries in appraising their land and water resources and in formulating plans for their development and economically more efficient utilization.
67. The Council discussed the relationship between FAO and other United Nations agencies with special reference to the Division's work. It noted with concern that the situation regarding the co-ordination and differentiation of function between FAO and other agencies was not satisfactory and attention was drawn to the encroachment by other members of the United Nations family upon FAO's fields of competence. In particular, discussion centred on the Decade of Scientific Hydrology sponsored by Unesco which is a sphere of activity in which FAO clearly has a dominant role. It was also noted with concern that for some time FAO's, responsibilities in hydrology and related subjects had not been recognized in the selection of executing agencies for UNSF projects. The need was discussed for seconding a liaison officer to the United Nations Water Development Center in New York, at least for part of each year, so as to ensure that FAO's interest was recognized. It was held that, while this might be necessary as an expedient approach to the current unsatisfactory situation, the long-term solution lay elsewhere. Without a clear differentiation of function and formulation of terms of reference, there would be overlap and friction which would tend to obstruct the smooth liaison and co-ordination between United Nations agencies necessary for efficient service to member countries. The Council stressed that this issue of interagency relationship involved more or less all the FAO divisions, and in commending the efforts of the Director-General to promote co-ordination between the United Nations agencies, emphasized the need for continuing vigilance.
68. The Council noted that in FAO some activities appeared to be on the borderline between disciplines, and attention was drawn to seeming duplication between Divisions. It was accepted that these difficulties were often more apparent than real, and the large measure of understanding achieved between the Divisions was recognized this was seen, for example, in the relations between those responsible for the major categories of land-use planning - agriculture, grazing lands and forests - in which the Land and Water Development Division is responsible for the overall economic evaluation of these major land uses based on the technical appraisals provided by the respective Divisions, especially the Forestry and Forest Products and Plant Production and Protection Divisions. There were less clear-cut but reasonably effective working relations with the Economic Analysis, the Rural Institutions and Services, and the Nutrition Divisions.
69. Several delegates questioned the usefulness of a world soil map of so small a scale as 1:5,000,000. The Division Director explained that soil correlation underlay the process of developing regional soil maps at a scale of 1:2,000,000 on which the world soil map would eventually be based. He expressed the view that this is an effective way of arriving at a unified method of classifying soils and of appraising their use capabilities: semi-detailed soils surveys were already under way in which the unified classification methods agreed by the leading soils scientists of the various countries involved were being used. The Council recognized that the transfer of knowledge from one region to another called for an understanding of the practical problems involved and detailed knowledge of the environment in which soils are an important component, that relatively small scale maps could be of preliminary use for selecting areas of major promise for detailed preinvestment studies, and also that they had an educational value.
70. The Council, like the Program Committee, recognized the importance of the program for the diffusion and exchange of information and for training on the impact of atomic energy in agriculture that had been developed by the Branch in co-operation with FAO Divisions and with other international agencies. The program is concerned with the applications of radioisotopes, radiation and power derived from atomic energy sources for research and the development of land, water, plant and animal resources. It also includes the protection of food and agricultural interests from the potential adverse effects of radioactive contamination arising from the increasing use of atomic energy.
71. The Branch provided a good example of co-ordination within the Organization; and considerable progress had been made with respect to co-ordination and co-operation with other international organizations. While noting that continuing efforts were being made in various ways to strengthen inter agency co-operation and co-ordination, the Council nevertheless expressed concern that, in spite of the relationship agreements with other agencies in this field, there evidently still was a need for a clearer delineation and recognition of functions and an understanding of what the respective roles of the agencies should be. In this connection, due recognition should be given to the fact that FAO was established as the principal member of the United Nations family to serve governments on a comprehensive and long-term basis in developing their food and agricultural resources, and that it consequently had a major interest in the content and co-ordination of activities in the overall international program in this field.
72. The Council, while recognizing the major role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the basic aspects of atomic energy, emphasized that FAO had a definite responsibility for atomic energy as a research tool and a technique related specifically to food and agricultural applications as outlined above. Atomic energy techniques applicable to agriculture could not be considered in isolation but must be studied in close relation to general agricultural research and development programs for which FAO is responsible at the international level. Working arrangements should therefore be developed to ensure the necessary co-operation between the two agencies in all projects relating to the use and application of atomic energy in food and agriculture and/or provide for an appropriate delineation of functions based on the above criteria.
73. The manner in which the program had been developed was endorsed and the need for its further extension to the developing regions was recognized. FAO has an important role to play in assisting the developing countries to establish sound programs for the application of atomic energy to food and agriculture, by the provision of technical assistance requested through EPTA and UNSF, training and the organization of technical meetings, some of which should be increasingly convened on a regional basis. The Director-General felt that additional funds and staff would be needed if FAO was to be in a position to provide the assistance that was being requested by the agricultural services of developing countries and to co-operate effectively in the expanding activities of international agencies with related interests.
74. In introducing the progress report on the Freedom from Hunger Campaign (CL 40/13 Rev.1 and Supl. 1), the Campaign Co-ordinator drew attention to the following significant developments since the Thirty-Ninth Council Session.
75. National FFHC committees had increased by 14 to 62, all but one of the new committees having been formed in developing countries. Over one third of FAO's member countries, however, still had none; and many that did exist needed strengthening, although it was hoped that the World Food Congress resolution on the subject would have a salutary effect.
76. There had been considerable enlargement of support in recent months from other agencies of the United Nations family, to the imagination and initiative of a number of which many important Freedom from Hunger (FFH) Week events were attributable.
77. The unprecedented impact of the FFH Week had greatly increased the scope and depth of the Campaign, and conclusively proved the value of simultaneous worldwide action.
78. The Manifesto on Man's Right to Freedom from Hunger drawn up by the Special Assembly of world personalities in Rome just prior to the FFH Week, had proved a significant challenge to the public conscience; and it was hoped that even more extensive use would be made of it, particularly on the occasion of the 15th anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights in December 1963.
79. The period had witnessed the issue of FFHC postage stamps by almost all the 146 postal administrations. At least 122 of them were making contributions to the Campaign to the benefit of FFHC projects. Although there had been difficulties in one or two countries, the issue of these stamps had been an overwhelming success in universalizing awareness of the Campaign.
80. The volume of FFHC projects had continued to expand, the value of requests now exceeding $25,000,000. Only $7,000,000 worth had been adopted by non governmental groups and the growing rapidity with which new schemes were being submitted made the lack of finance a problem for immediate attention. Also FAO's efforts to have central Campaign costs shared by nongovernmental organizations had met with disappointing results and this had greatly reduced the effectiveness of FAO in supplying material and services.
81. Many delegates reported on the progress made in their own countries. For example, some 900 local FFHC Committees had been established in the United Kingdom and were doing valuable work in focusing attention on the problems of the underdeveloped countries: 176 projects had been approved and some $12 to $13 millions worth of projects initiated. Under the Food for Peace program, which was associated with the Campaign, the United States of America hoped to increase assistance in food, feed and fiber from some $1.5 billion in 1962 to some $2 billions in 1963; and the U.S. Peace Corps, which already had 5,000 volunteers working in 40 countries, hoped to raise the number to 8,000 by mid-August 1963. It was also stated that by the end of 1963 over 100 Peace Corps volunteers would be working alongside FAO field experts. Several delegations reported considerable impact of the Campaign in their countries especially during the FFH Week. Some delegations expressed the view that as far as possible national FFHC committees in the donor countries, should normally undertake work in the developing countries only through the co-ordination of the appropriate FFHC committees in developing countries where such existed, and that FAO should facilitate meetings between the committees of both developed and developing countries. Several delegations expressed the reluctance of their committees to finance anything but field projects, and they suggested that central Campaign costs would be properly treated as an item in the total FAO budget. (See para 123).
82. The Council emphasized the fact that the essential purpose of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign was to awaken the conscience of the people and, through arousing public opinion, to assist governments and organizations to undertake as soon as possible the necessary measure to solve the problem of hunger. The Council also recognized that over the two preceding years steps had been taken to develop the requisite Campaign machinery and methods, and that the Campaign had now acquired a rhythm of sustained action at both national and international levels. The hope was that FAO would be able to ensure that the momentum achieved in advancing toward the objectives of the Campaign would be maintained. The Campaign must be accompanied by definite projects which would be part of the action phase. In addition to conferring immediate benefits, such projects would have the effect of further promoting public interest and increased participation by citizen's organizations and of confirming the impression that governments were themselves ready to take adequate measures as soon as possible to solve the problem of hunger. The general view was that the Organization would have to continue to play the leading role in any international program for the elimination of hunger.
83. The Director-General, in presenting a preliminary report on the Congress, recalled that it had been authorized in order to provide an opportunity at the mid-point of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign to assess the work done and to indicate the direction of future work. It had been convened, not to draw up a “master plan” to eradicate hunger, but to provide the participants who were attending in their personal capacity, with a forum for a free exchange of ideas: 1,330 persons registered, of whom a considerable number were from the developing countries.
84. The success of the Congress was due as much to the selection of the speakers from all parts of the world as to the high quality of the discussions. It was also due to the inaugural address of the late President of the United States, who pointed out that for the first time in history man knew how to eradicate hunger, that what was needed was the will to do it and that world opinion must be concentrated upon international effort to eliminate hunger as the primary task of the present generation. President Kennedy's address could well lay the foundation of the future work of the Organization.
85. Among the major subjects discussed were the relation between population and resources in the light of the Third World Food Survey; the prospects of new sources of food and energy which might create a new production breakthrough; the strategy of development which indicated the need for a balance between agriculture and industry, according to the circumstances of each country; the importance of planning to achieve this balance; the need for a world-wide institute for agricultural development planning; the great scope for increasing yields in areas already under cultivation through the use of fertilizers; the desirability of an international pool of fertilizers and other requisites for increased production supported by private industry and governments.
86. The Congress agreed that much could be achieved by the developing countries themselves through a reorientation of their education systems, price stabilization oriented towards the rural producer rather than the urban consumer, government use of farmers' cooperatives on the Japanese model, and the strengthening of agricultural services, particularly national credit services supported by an international agricultural credit fund.
87. At the international level, the Congress stressed the vital role of trade and exports in the economy of developing countries. A suggestion was made for a world plan to balance export supplies against import demands based on future trends. The Congress recognized that aid, or “investment in mutual well-being”, should be linked to national development plans and resource surveys. It also felt that a 5 percent annual rate of growth of national income was insufficient to meet the aspirations of the developing nations.
88. In conclusion, the Congress adopted a declaration urging specific action by the developing and developed nations and the world community, the participants pledging themselves to take up the challenge of eliminating hunger and malnutrition as the primary task of the age, and giving wholehearted support to the FFHC until its goal was achieved. The Congress also recommended the establishment of FFHC committees in all countries on a continuing basis, and the holding of a World Food Congress periodically to assess the situation.
89. The Director-General stated his intention to circulate to member governments within a matter of days a summary of the main conclusions and recommendations of the Congress, and to follow this up by October with his comments and proposals in time for consideration by the Twelfth Session of the Conference. The Director-General would also arrange for the reports of the Congress commissions and important addresses delivered before the Congress to be published and transmitted to all members of the organizations of the United Nations family, to FFHC committees and to all nongovernemntal organizations supporting the Campaign.
90. Several representatives on the Council who had attended the Congress agreed that the Commission discussions had been of a very high level and that immense value had come from the free exchange of views expressed at this peoples' assembly. It was suggested that one immediate result might be the adoption at future FAO meetings of a more active attitude by nongovernmental organizations.
91. Members of the Council agreed that the Congress had successfully achieved its main purpose of bringing world public opinion face to face with the most important problem of the times. In congratulating the Director-General and his staff on the success of the Congress, Council members expressed the hope that it would now lead to more concentrated action on the part of the national groups participating in the world attack on hunger.
92. In 1961 the Conference requested the Council to examine the situation with regard to panels of experts and advisory committees consisting of individuals appointed in a personal capacity and established under paras. 2 and 4 of Article VI of the Constitution. (Report of the Eleventh Session of the Conference para. 107). The Council referred the matter to the Program Committee and, after this committee had considered a preliminary study submitted by the Director-General, at its Sixth Session, the Council had agreed with the Program Committee that the subject should be examined in greater detail.
93. The Council thus had before it at this session a further and more comprehensive report by the Director-General (CL40/15) as well as comments, conclusions and recommendations of the Program Committee following its study of that document at its Seventh Session (CL 40/2, paras. 209 – 216).
94. The Council took note of the study submitted by the Director-General. It also noted that, while the Program Committee had reported in some detail, it considered that the study as a whole had still to be completed following further action that it recommended be taken by the Director-General.
95. The Council approved the preliminary conclusions and recommendations put forward by the Program Committee. It accordingly requested the Director-General to give effect to the recommendation concerning nomenclature in para. 209 of CL 40/2; to submit draft amendments to the General Rules of the Organization for consideration by the Program Committee as recommended in para. 212 of the document; and to review the internal machinery for supervising arrangements for meetings with particular reference to meetings of advisory committees, working parties and panels, and to strengthen the machinery where necessary; and to report to the Program Committee at its Eighth Session, as recommended in para. 216 of the Program Committee's Report.
96. The Council particularly supported the recommendation that the number of meetings of experts should be kept to an absolute minimum, consistent with efficiency and by reliance on correspondence with experts to an increasing degree. It was also decided that pending the further action now being requested by the Council of the Director-General and the Program Committee, the importance of the problem of the use of advisory groups and panels of experts should be brought to the attention of the Conference and particularly of its Technical Committees, through transmittal of CL 40/15 and the Program Committee's report on the subject, so that any proposed establishment of such committees, working parties or panels should be closely scrutinized in the light thereof and the views that the technical committees might wish to express on the subject in general might be available to the Director-General and the Program Committee for their further consideration of the matter.
97. The Council considered document CL 40/16, “The long-term implications of the reorientation of FAO's work”, prepared by the Director-General in compliance with the request of the Thirty-Ninth Session of the Council for a concrete program, together with its budgetary implications and proposals for possible sources of financing.
98. The Council was informed that a considerable part of the proposals on reorientation of activities had been implemented in 1962–63 or included in the draft Program of Work and Budget for 1964–65.
99. Among the proposals already implemented were (a) country studies on the more effective programing of technical assistance carried out in a number of countries (Colombia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Syria and Thailand); (b) establishment under the Regular Program Technical Assistance of a task force of three planning economists to meet short-term requests, mainly in Africa; (c) a five-months' Training Course on Agricultural Development Planning being held in 1963, for which invitations to participate were issued to 57 less-developed countries of Africa, Asia and the Near East; (d) an agricultural planning economist posted in the Near East, an officer to supplement the staff on agricultural planning at the Latin American Institute for Economic and Social Planning and another to assist in drawing up the program for the African Institute for Economic Development and Planning.
100. There were also experts on development planning working under EPTA and UNSF projects, and a mission had been in Nigeria since October 1962 to advise the government on the formulation of long-term policy guidelines and on projects under its current six-year plan. A similar mission to Indonesia was expected to go into operation shortly.
101. The 1964–65 Program of Work reflected the philosophy put forward in the paper on reorientation, particularly in the emphasis on development planning, which constituted the first major theme explained in the Director-General's introduction. Several of the main lines of activity arose out of this theme.
102. The Council took note of the Director-General's proposals for a limited future program of survey and appraisal of resources in Africa south of the Sahara, on the very satisfactory basis of broad ecological regions, to be financed from outside funds. For budgetary reasons, however, it could not be included in the Program of Work and Budget for 1964–65. The Council noted the Director-General's view that a co-ordinated FAO program assessing on an ecological basis the basic factors which must enter into the formulation of long-term strategy of agricultural development, would be of immense help to the countries of Africa, and therefore approved in principle the Director-General's proposals and expressed the wish that they be undertaken, provided external finances were available and the collaboration of the African countries affected was forthcoming.
103. At its Thirty-Ninth Session the Council decided to defer a decision on the place and date of the Sixth World Forestry Congress in order to give a further opportunity to governments to respond to the Director-General's communication inviting offers to act as host.
104. Subsequently, the Director-General received from the governments of Lebanon and Romania more details about the congress facilities that could be offered in respect to their earlier invitations. The Government of Spain also formally confirmed the invitation already extended by its representative on the occasion of the Fifth World Forestry Congress.
105. The Council was informed of this situation and that the Government of Romania had recently had to withdraw its invitation because its services were fully committed over the next two years. The delegate of Lebanon then indicated that his government had decided also to withdraw its invitation, because it was convinced of the merits of the prior claim of Spain as regards date.
106. Consequently, the Council gratefully accepted the offer of the Government of Spain to organize the Sixth World Forestry Congress on the understanding that participation would be invited from all countries members of FAO and the United Nations. High appreciation was expressed to the governments of Romania and Lebanon for their earlier generous offers.
107. The Council noted that the Congress might appropriately be held in late 1965 or early 1966, that the Government of Spain fully intended to maintain the high standards of previous congresses, that it was prepared to engage foreign personnel deemed necessary to prepare and conduct the Congress and would attempt to arrange some of the Congress tours in other countries of the Mediterranean area. It further noted that FAO's appraisal of future world wood resources and requirements and Mediterranean forestry were intended to be prominent items on the agenda of the Congress.
108. The Council received with interest an announcement by the delegate of Chile that his country hoped to be able to act as host to the Seventh World Forestry Congress.
109. The Council had before it a report from the Director-General (CL 40/12) drawing attention to the concern being felt at the rapid growth of tuna fishing in the Atlantic in the absence of co-ordinated action to study the resources and the effect of fishing upon them. As none of the existing regional bodies was able adequately to study the Atlantic tuna fishery as a whole, it had been suggested by the 16th Session of the Commission for Technical Co-operation in Africa (CCTA) that an international commission to promote research on the Atlantic tuna resources be formed; and this proposal had been supported by the World Scientific Meeting on the Biology of Tunas held under the auspices of FAO. In the light of that suggestion and others received informally, the Director-General had concluded that there was a general desire for action to be taken for the conservation and rational exploitation of the tuna resources of the Atlantic and that appropriate action ought to be taken. He felt, however, that a decision on the calling of a conference of plenipotentiaries, as suggested by the CCTA, should not be taken until an attempt had been made by those immediately concerned to reach agreement on certain preliminary questions. The Director-General accordingly submitted for the consideration of the Council the suggestion that it establish a preparatory working party of selected Member Nations under Article VI.2 of the Constitution to study the need for action in this regard and to make recommendations.
110. The Council accepted the Director-General's suggestion and adopted the following resolution incorporating both the Director-General's proposals and modifications put forward by various delegations:
Resolution No. 1/40
WORKING PARTY FOR RATIONAL UTILIZATION OF TUNA RESOURCES IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN
that tuna fishing in the Atlantic is growing rapidly, while no co-ordinated action is being taken to study its effect upon the resources, so that there is no possibility of considering the need for action to conserve these resources and to exploit them rationally,
that because of the far-ranging nature of the tuna stocks and the substantial participation of distant countries in the fishery, none of the existing regional bodies is able adequately to study the Atlantic tuna fishery as a whole,
that the 16th Session of the Commission for Technical Co-operation in Africa (CCTA), the World Scientific Meeting on the Biology of Tunas, the FAO Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research and others have all expressed concern and a general desire for action for the conservation and rational exploitation of the tuna resources of the Atlantic,
that before taking a decision on the necessary action such as the calling of a conference of plenipotentiaries, as suggested by CCTA, it would be well for those immediately concerned to attempt to reach agreement on certain preliminary questions,
Recognizing the general desire for action to be taken for the conservation and rational utilization of tuna resources in the Atlantic Ocean,
Hereby establishes under para. 2 of Article VI of the Constitution of the Organization a working party to be known as the Working Party on Rational Utilization of Tuna Resources in the Atlantic Ocean, the statutes of which shall be as follows:
The purpose (and terms of reference) of the working party shall be to study, in consultation with appropriate and interested commissions and other international bodies, the need for action to conserve the tuna resources of the Atlantic Ocean while ensuring that they are exploited rationally and to make recommendations in regard to such action.
2. Terms of reference
The terms of reference shall cover in particular recommendations concerning:
areas and tuna resources requiring urgent attention, including information which should be assembled concerning the resources and their exploitation;
nature and scope of investigations which should be carried out; the execution of such investigations by research organizations existing or to be created; and the financing of such investigations;
the kind of organization or organizations to discharge research, regulatory or other functions which might be established to further the conservation and rational exploitation of tuna resources;
the precise objectives of any such organizations to be established;
the relationship of any such organizations to FAO, to existing regional fishery commissions and councils and to each other;
further action to be taken, including the possible convening of a conference of plenipotentiaries.
Membership in the working party shall consist of the following selected Member Nations of FAO: Brazil, France, Japan, Nigeria, Portugal, Senegal, Spain, Turkey and the United States.
4. Officers and representation
The Working Party shall elect a chairman and two vice-chairmen from among the representatives to the working party who shall remain in office until the election of a new chairman and vice-chairmen. Delegations of Member Nations of the working party should, as far as possible, include both experts and administrators, so as to enable the working party to deal adequately with its terms of reference.
The site and date of the first session of the working party shall be determined by the Director-General of the Organization. The site and date of the subsequent sessions hall be determined by the chairman of the working party in consultation with the Director-General subject to the relevant provisions of the General Rules of the Organization.
Attendance by nations that are not members of the working party shall be governed by the relevant provisions of the Statement of Principles Relating to the Granting of Observer Status to Nations adopted by the Conference.
Participation of international organizations in the work of the working party and the relations between the working party and such organizations shall be governed by the relevant provisions of the Constitution and the General Rules of the Organization, as well as by the rules on relations with international organizations adopted by the Conference or Council of the Organization. All such relations shall be dealt with by the Director-General of the Organization.
The secretary of the working party shall be appointed by the Director-General of the Organization from the staff of the Organization.
The working party shall transmit its reports and recommendations to the Director-General.
The Director-General shall bring to the attention of the Conference through the Council any recommendations which may have policy implications or which may affect the program or finances of the Organization. Pending such formal action, the Director-General will circulate the working party's reports and recommendations to all members of the working party and to all Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization as well as to interested international organizations. Bearing in mind that some recommendations may eventually require Conference approval, the Council requests that the working party make every effort to formulate recommendations as soon as possible and in sufficient time for presentation to the Council so that they may be brought to the attention of the Thirteenth Session of the FAO Conference, if necessary.
9. Subsidiary bodies
The working party may establish such subsidiary bodies as it deems necessary for the accomplishment of its task, subject to the availability of the necessary funds in the relevant chapter of the approved budget of the Organization. The determination of such availability shall be made by the Director-General. Before taking any decision involving expenditure in connection with the establishment of subsidiary bodies, the working party must have before it a report from the Director-General on the administrative and financial implications thereof.
10. Rules of procedure
Should the working party decide that it is necessary for the conduct of its business, it may adopt and amend its own rules of procedure, which shall be in conformity with the Constitution and the General Rules of the Organization and with the statement of principles governing commissions and committees adopted by the Conference. The rules of procedure and amendments thereto shall come into force upon approval by the Director-General, subject to confirmation by the Council.
The working party shall be terminated at such time as its final recommendations have been transmitted to Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization.
111. The Council approved the report of the Tenth Session of the European Commission for the Control of Foot and Mouth Disease.
112. The Director-General requested the Council to consider the desirability of establishing a fund to deal promptly with sudden outbreaks of epizootic diseases. The Council appreciated the importance of ensuring that action can be taken as quickly as possible in such cases, and it was arranged that the Director-General would prepare specific proposals for consideration by the Finance Committee prior to the Twelfth Session of the Conference.
113. The Council agreed that this subject should appear on the provisional agenda for the Twelfth Session of the Conference.
114. The Chairman of the Fourth Session of the FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee introduced the report of that session which was held at Rome from 29 October to 1 November 1962 (CL 40/23).
115. The Chairman of the Program Committee also highlighted the views of his committee as set forth in CL 40/2.
116. Attention was drawn to paras. 349 to 355 of the report of the Eleventh Session of the Conference and to CL/40/Inf/7 Suppl. 1.
117. The Conference, in the abovementioned report, provided the Director-General with guidance on certain issues, in that “It recognized that in principle, FAO is responsible for the technical guidance essential to the jointly-assisted projects, including the provision of project personnel within FAO's fields of competence, and that the Executive Board of UNICEF allocated funds to projects for material aid including the training of national personnel …”. The remaining issue was how to meet the field project costs of experts' services and fellowships for FAO/UNICEF-assisted projects of member countries.
118. Reference was also made to the Conference view recorded in that Conference report that FAO Member Governments should determine their position with respect to the provision of funds to the Organization for the employment of not only the essential headquarters staff but also the technical field personnel necessary for the operation of FAO/UNICEF assisted projects.
119. The Council noted the Report of the Fourth Session of the FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee (CL 40/23) and expressed its appreciation of the concise and analytical presentation in that report. It considered that, in line with the suggestions of the FAO Conference and the FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee, Member Governments should make a special effort to clarify their position both in FAO and in UNICEF with respect to the provision of funds to the Organization for the support of FAO's activities conducted jointly with UNICEF, so that the necessary decisions could more readily be taken by the Twelfth Session of the Conference. The Council also requested the Director-General to continue consultations with UNICEF aimed at avoiding instances of duplication or overlapping of technical or other responsibilities, and to achieve further improvements in the joint planning of projects and activities.
120. In view of the volume and nature of future joint activities and questions of interrelationship between FAO and UNICEF, the FAO/UNICEF Joint Policy Committee was authorized by the Council to continue with its present FAO membership until the end of 1967.
121. The Council had before it a report on the Special Program of Education and Training in Africa submitted by the Director-General at the request of the Program Committee. The report indicated the arrangements made and action taken so far and outlined the plans proposed for the continuation of the Program in the ensuing biennium. The Council expressed its interest in the Program and took note of the arrangements made and the action taken to date.
122. The Council noted from the Report of the Seventh Session of the Program Committee (CL 40/2), that the program management difficulties under the Expanded Program of Technical Assistance in 1963 had become more serious than was expected at the time of its Thirty Ninth Session. In addition to the imbalance between the 1963 and 1964 programs to which reference is made in paragraph 130 of the Report of the Thirty Ninth Session of the Council, the Organization at the very end of 1962 unexpectedly had to postpone until 1963 a planned commitment in one of the currencies requiring special management. This deferment, further accentuated the imbalance between the 1963 and 1964 programs. The Council noted that, as a consequence, the Organization had to postpone a number of program activities from 1963 to 1964. It also noted that the Organization had proposed to the Technical Assistance Board (TAB) that TAB currency management procedures should be on a biennial basis coinciding with biennial programming and not on an annual basis, and that this matter would be discussed at the 57th Session of TAB.
123. The Council was informed of the main contents of the Interim Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of Ten established under ECOSOC Resolutions 851 (XXXII) and 900 (XXXIV). This report was submitted to the 1963 summer sessions of the Technical Assistance Committee (TAC) and of ECOSOC. It contained no recommendations but outlined a number of important suggestions of individual members regarding closer co-ordination and integration of the EPTA and UNSF programs. While these suggestions had varying measures of support, there seemed to be rather wide support for integration in one form or another of TAC with UNSF Governing Council and of TAB with the UNSF Consultative Board. In this connection the Director-General expressed the hope that, if changes were made with regard to TAB, the result would be that the Board would retain its executive and decision-making functions. He felt that the TAB had functioned effectively and facilitated joint action of all agencies participating in the Expanded Program.
124. The Council also noted that one of the suggestions in the Interim Report was that, if EPTA and UNSF were merged, the agencies concerned might take over some of the smaller short-term EPTA projects. The Director-General mentioned in this connection that any such transfer of projects to the agencies would have to be accompanied by the transfer of the necessary corresponding financial resources, for the Organization's Regular Program budget contained no provision for this purpose.
125. The Council agreed that the issues raised in the Interim Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of Ten were of great importance and required careful study by governments. The Council therefore requested the Director-General to report fully on this matter to the Twelfth Session of the Conference.
126. The Council had before it the Report of the Seventh Session of the Program Committee (CL 40/2, Section VIII) which, at the request of the Thirty-Ninth Session of the Council, had examined the proposal of the Sixth FAO Regional Conference for the Near East for the establishment of a Near East Commission on Agricultural Planning. In the light of the views expressed by the Committee, the establishment of the Commission was approved.
127. The Council considered that the statutes of commissions and committees established in future under Article VI of the FAO Constitution should contain a clause to the effect that any activities of such commissions or committees shall be subject to the availability of necessary funds in the relevant chapter of the approved budget of the Organization. In this connection, special reference was made to Regulation XIII of the Financial Regulations of the Organization.
128. The Council adopted the following resolution:
Resolution No. 2/40
NEAR EAST COMMISSION ON AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Having considered Recommendation No. 1 of the Sixth FAO Regional Conference for the Near East held at Tel Amara, Lebanon, from 30 July to 8 August 1962, by which the Regional Conference requested the Director-General to submit a proposal to the FAO Council at its next session for the establishment of a Near East Commission on Agricultural Planning,
Recognizing the growing reliance of the countries of the Near East region on the careful planning of their agricultural development within the framework of general plans for economic and social development, and that these countries are facing broadly similar problems in their agricultural planning and would therefore profit by the regular exchange of information and experience in this field, and
Appreciating the need for some standing machinery whereby the problems encountered in the region's agricultural planning could be regularly reviewed and studied, and believing that such machinery would also contribute to co-operation and co-ordination of activities in the field of agricultural planning in the region,
Hereby establishes, under Article VI. 1 of the Constitution of the Organization, a Regional Commission to be known as the Near East Commission on Agricultural Planning, the statues of which shall be as follows:
Membership of the Commission
1. Membership in the Commission is open to all Member Nations and Associated Members of the Food and Agriculture Organization whose territories are situated wholly or partly in the region concerned as defined by the Organization or who are responsible for the international relations of the non-self-governing territories in the region. Membership shall comprise such eligible nations as have notified the Director-General of the Organization of their desire to be considere as members.
Terms of reference of the Commission
2. The terms of reference of the Commission shall be to review and exchange (both by means of regular meetings and by correspondence) information and experience on agricultural plans and planning and on the problems encountered in the formulation, execution, following up and evaluation of such plans in the countries of the region and to make recommendations to Members of the Commission on means of improving their agricultural plans and to the FAO Conference on the assistance which could be provided for this purpose, with due regard to the different stages of development reached by the various countries of the region;
The terms of reference shall cover in particular:
The provision of guidance to Members and to the FAO Conference regarding training programs and facilities required for improving agricultural planning, and of assistance to Members in arranging national training centers;
the investigation of specific problems of agricultural planning, either through the establishment of working parties or other subsidiary bodies, or through special research studies carried out by FAO or by government or nongovernment institutions;
assistance to Members in obtaining the services of suitably qualified experts in agricultural planning.
3. Any Member Nation of the Organization and any Associate Member that is not a member of the Commission but has a special interest in the work of the Commission, may, upon request communicated to the Director-General of the Organization, attend as observer, sessions of the Commission, and of its subsidiary bodies and ad hoc meetings.
4. Nations which while not Member Nations or Associate Members of the Organization are Members of the United Nations, may, upon their request, and with the approval of the Council of the Organization granted upon the recommendation of the Commission, be invited to attend the Sessions of the Commission in an observer capacity, in accordance with the provisions relating to the granting of observer status to nations adopted by the Conference of the Organization.
5. Participation of international organizations in the work of the Commission and the relations between the Commission and such organizations shall be governed by the relevant provisions of the Constitution and the General Rules of the Organization as well as by the rules on relations with international organizations adopted by the Conference or Council of the Organization. All such relations shall be dealt with by the Director-General of the Organization.
Reports and recommendations
6. The Commission shall report and make recommendations to the Conference through the Director-General of the Organization, it being understood that copies of its reports, including any conclusions and recommendations, will be circulated to interested Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization and international organizations for their information as soon as they become available.
7. The Commission may establish such subsidiary bodies as it deems necessary for the accomplishment of its task, subject to the availability of the necessary funds in the relevant chapter of the approved budget of the Organization; the determination of such availability shall be made by the Director-General. Before taking any decision involving expenditure in connection with the establishment of subsidiary bodies, the Commission must have before it a report from the Director-General on the administrative and financial implications thereof.
Rules of procedure
8. The Commission may adopt and amend its own rules of procedure which shall be in conformity with the Constitution and the General Rules of the Organization and with the statement of principles governing commissions and committees adopted by the Conference. The rules of procedure and amendments thereto shall come into force upon approval by the Director-General subject to confirmation by the Council.
129. At its Thirty-Fifth Session in June 1961, the Council had requested the Director-General to undertake a study on “the impact of field programs on the Regular Program …, ” including “… an assessment of the time spent by the Headquarters staff and other unidentifiable costs in connection with the formulation, evaluation and management of field projects.”
130. The report prepared by the Director-General (CL 39/30) was reviewed by the Council at its Thirty-Ninth Session in October 1962, which approvingly noted “… that the Director-General would maintain a continuing study and appraisal of the situation as a means of facilitating future consideration of the legislative, technical, administrative, management, and budgetary factors involved …”
131. The Director-General presented the results of the latest (March 1963) survey conducted in pursuance of the Council's instructions in CL 40/26 Rev. 1, together with the findings of the Joint Session of the Program and Finance Committees which reviewed the results of the survey at their April/May 1963 sessions (CL 40/2). The Committees stressed that they were once again impressed with the relatively great discrepancy between the financial contribution received from extrabudgetary resources and the time and effort expended by Headquarters and Regional Office staff on behalf of these programs.
132. The Council noted with concern that the various reviews of the impact problem had not so far achieved satisfactory results in terms of more realistic financial support from the sponsoring bodies, but recognized the value of these studies insofar as they continue to focus attention on the problem.
133. The Council also viewed with increasing concern the fact that resources which FAO's Member Governments were asked to provide for Regular Program activities were in fact being substantially diverted to the central management and servicing of the field programs.
134. On the other hand the Council noted with satisfaction the benefits accruing to the Organization from participation in these programs but expressed the view that, in requesting FAO to conduct major portions of their operational programs, the sponsoring bodies should recognize that they should bear a more adequate share of the corresponding management cost. The Council realized that the problems to a large extent came within the purview of Member Nations insofar as they participate in shaping policies of the governing bodies of the special programs and of the executing agencies and strongly recommended that in consequence Member Nations should co-ordinate the views of their representatives to the appropriate governing bodies of the programs or agencies involved.
135. The Council fully endorsed the findings of the Program and Finance Committees that the Director-General should continue his efforts to achieve at least a more realistic costing base for computing the subvention to the Regular Program budget from EPTA currently amounting to 12 percent of field project allocations. Moreover, the percentage was presently based on a previous biennium disregarding the increases in the program which had since occurred.
136. Specifically on the issue of agency costs allocated to the Organization from the United Nations Special Fund for Economic Development for the technical and administrative supervision of the projects for which the Organization acts as executing agency, the Council recalled that the Managing Director of the Special Fund had informed his Governing Council and the agencies that he intended to engage an independent consultant to visit the executing agencies and prepare a report on the most equitable basis for reimbursement.
137. The Finance Committee at its 9th Session (April/May 1963) expressed the hope that the findings of the consultant would result in an increase in the level of reimbursement that would enable the Organization to carry out the functions expected of it in the execution of UNSF projects.
138. The consultant had in the meantime visited FAO and the other executing agencies and submitted his report. The report was not made available to the Director-General.
139. In his statement to the recent (June 1963) session of the Governing Council, the Managing Director of the Special Fund reported that the Agencies, in varying degree, were utilizing facilities for work on approved Special Fund projects which were financed from their Regular Program budgets and that the consultant agreed that in many cases these contributions to the work of the Special Fund were made at the expense of the regular programs of the agencies.
140. Nevertheless, the Managing Director felt that experience had not shown that the current reimbursement formula was inadequate and recommended the retention of that formula (3 percent and 11 percent) until a further review of the problem by the Governing Council, which would be based on the experience gained in project implementation through 31 December 1965.
141. The Council expressed concern at the lack of progress in arriving at an equitable solution of the problem, despite the measures taken to make available factual and objective information, including the periodic comprehensive studies carried out by the Director-General and the recent investigation by the consultant of the Special Fund. The Council recalled that, as stated in the Report of its Thirty-Ninth Session, it had agreed fully with the Program and Finance Committees and the Director-General that the appropriate approach for the solution of the problem of the impact of outside programs on the Regular Program was: “… to obtain more realistic financial support, to ensure adequate central management and servicing, from the extrabudgetary sources which sponsor the growing field programs.”
142. The Council fully endorsed the recommendations of the Finance and Program Committees that the Director-General should continue his efforts with the Special Fund for a more realistic formula that would provide adequate overall support and urgently rectify the undercharge resulting from the present insufficient amount received by the Organization in agency costs. In this regard it particularly emphasized its recommendation that Member Nations should co-ordinate the views of their representatives when participating in the shaping of policies of UNSF and of the executing agencies.