18. The Council had before it the report of the Ad Hoc Consultation on World Food Security (CL 66/24) which was convened in May 1975, in accordance with a decision of the Sixty-Fourth Council Session with a view to effective implementation of the recommendations on this subject set forth in Resolution XXII of the World Food Conference. The Council also considered in this connection the report of the resumed Thirtieth Session of CCLM (CL 66/5-Sup.1) including a draft Conference resolution on the establishment of a Committee on World Food Security.
19. The Council reaffirmed the vital importance of action at the national and international level to achieve the objectives of world food security. It supported the recommendations made in paragraph 61 of the report of the Ad Hoc Consultation, and agreed that these should be drawn to the attention of the World Food Council together with the relevant sections of the present Report. The Council agreed that the fundamental need was to increase food production in developing countries so as to improve their self reliance, enable them to hold more adequate stocks and avoid undue dependence on food imports. Another factor was the changes in the world economic situation needed to bring about a new and more equitable international economic order. While recognizing that international cooperation was required to offset the effects of crop failure and fluctuations in world food production, the Council agreed that national food policies should be formulated in the light of national circumstances and be consistent with the principle of national sovereignty. This was one of the underlying principles of the International Undertaking on World Food Security, to which 46 States and the EEC as such had now subscribed. The Council requested the Director-General to foster the widest possible participation in the Undertaking.
20. The Council noted that, while negotiations proceeded under the auspices of other organizations, it was important for FAO to maintain the momentum of its activities relating to the undertaking, as specified by the Ad Hoc Consultation 2, these approaches being complementary. It noted, in particular, the strong support expressed at the Ad Hoc Consultation by many developing and developed countries for the practical action programme being organized by FAO to assist developing countries to strengthen their national food stock policies, and to mobilize the external support required for this purpose, and noted that the Ad Hoc Consultation had approved the proposed future orientation of this programme in 1976–77.
21. As regards the proposed establishment of a Committee on World Food Security, the Council noted the conclusions in paragraphs 39 to 53 of the Report of the Ad Hoc Consultation and examined the draft Conference resolution set forth in the Report of the CCLM. The draft resolution provided for an amendment to Article V-6 of the Constitution which consisted in adding the words “and a Committee on World Food Security” to the enumeration of standing committees of the Council contained in that provision. It further provided for the insertion of a new rule in the General Rules of the Organization (GRO), specifying the composition, terms of reference and reporting procedures of the proposed new committee, its relations with the International Wheat Council as well as its links with the Committee on Commodity Problems (CCP).
1 CL 66/2, CL 66/5-Sup.1, CL 66/24, CL 66/PV/10, CL 66/PV/11, CL 66/PV/12, CL 66/PV/19.
2 CL 66/24, para. 57.
22. At the beginning of the deliberations of the Council, the Chairman of the CCP informed the Council that the CCP, which held its last session prior to the World Food Conference, had already anticipated that institutional recommendations would be adopted by that Conference which would have implications for the future work of the CCP and its subsidiary bodies and that the CCP therefore intended to review these matters thoroughly at its next session in October 1975. He expressed the view that it would therefore be desirable for the Council to make a firm recommendation to the Conference only with respect to the proposed amendment to the Constitution, since an advance notice of 120 days prior to the opening of the Conference was required for such proposals, but to postpone final action on the part of the draft resolution setting forth the new Rule on the Committee on World Food Security for which no advance notice was required. He felt that this would facilitate the task of the CCP in reviewing its functions and future activities, as well as those of its subsidiary bodies, in relation to the functions of the proposed World Food Security Committee.
23. In the course of the debate, a proposal was advanced to the effect that, instead of providing for the establishment of a new Committee, it might be preferable to broaden the terms of reference of the CCP to encompass those functions which, according to paragraph 5 of World Food Conference Resolution XXII were to be entrusted to a World Food Security Committee. It was pointed out that the increase in the number of FAO bodies had been a cause of serious concern, and that the question of duplication and overlapping between two Council committees, to which both the Ad Hoc Consultation and the CCLM had drawn attention, would not arise if a single committee was entrusted with functions relating to commodities as well as world food security.
24. A number of members favoured this proposal. They pointed out, inter alia, that the basic objective of the recommendation of the World Food Conference was the creation within FAO of adequate consultative machinery on world food security; the best ways and means of achieving this objective had to be determined by the governing bodies of FAO, in the light of the Organization's constitutional structure. In their view, the most effective way of implementing the recommendation of the World Food Conference would be to reconstitute the CCP as a Committee on Commodity Problems and Food Security and to frame appropriate terms of reference to cover both functions; this would be facilitated by the fact that the CCP and several of its subsidiary bodies were already empowered to carry out some of the functions listed in paragraph 5 of World Food Conference Resolution XXII.
25. Representatives of the developing countries, while reaffirming their firm commitment to World Food Conference Resolution XXII, considered that the recommendation given to FAO by the World Food Conference and endorsed by UN General Assembly Resolution 3348 (XXIX) was to establish a separate Committee on World Food Security. They further considered that the Council which itself had endorsed the recommendations of World Food Conference Resolution XXII at its Sixty-Fourth Session should not depart from this mandate, especially as world food security was of paramount importance for the international community as a whole and for developing countries in particular. They pointed out that the CCP's work laid emphasis on trade and related commodity matters, whereas food security involved urgent questions affecting man's survival, as well as policy matters relating to the implementation of the International Undertaking. In line with the conclusions reached by the Ad Hoc Consultation on World Food Security, they strongly supported a solution whereby the draft resolution prepared by CCLM should be recommended to the Conference for adoption, leaving it to the CCP to submit such proposals concerning changes in its own functions and working methods as it might consider necessary in order to avoid or reduce the risk of overlapping with the newly created committee. Member Nations would have the opportunity to review the draft terms of reference in detail between June 1975 and the Eighteenth FAO Conference Session for any improvement that might be necessary to make the proposed committee effective.
26. The Council was unanimous in recognizing that final action on the establishment of adequate machinery should be taken by the Conference at its forthcoming session.
27. Having considered both proposals, the Council decided to recommend that the proposed Committee on World Food Security be established as a new standing committee of the Council. The Council further decided, in order to meet the requirement of Article XX-4 of the Constitution, to recommend the following amendment to Article V, paragraph 6, of the FAO Constitution 1:
“6. [To assist the Council in performing] 2 In the performance of its functions, the Council shall be assisted by [appoint] 2 a Programme Committee, a Finance Committee, a Committee on Constitutional and Legal Matters, a Committee on Commodity Problems, a Committee on Fisheries, a Committee on Forestry, [and] a Committee on Agriculture and a Committee on World Food Security…”
28. The Council also decided to postpone until its pre-Conference session final action on that part of the draft resolution setting forth the new Rule on the Committee on World Food Security for which no advance notice was required. This would enable the Council, in proposing the new Rule, to take into account the results of the CCP's review of its functions and future activities, as well as those of its subsidiary bodies, in relation to the functions of the proposed new Committee on World Food Security. In this connexion, the Council agreed that the Chairman of the ad hoc Consultation should be invited to attend the October session of the CCP. The Council requested the Director-General to circulate to all Member Nations, together with the draft amendment to the Constitution, the extract from the present Council report relating to world food security. The Council, conscious of the fact that in taking this decision it had recommended the establishment of a new statutory-body, referred to the recommendation embodied in paragraph 302 below dealing more specifically with the programming of meetings.
29. The Council also agreed that its report on this item should be transmitted to the World Food Council for attention.
1 Deletions in square brackets [ ], additions underlined.
2 These changes are unrelated to the questions discussed in this section of the report. They form part of an amendment to the same provision, recommended by the Council in relation to the procedure for acquiring membership in “open” Council Committees (see paragraph 282 below).
30. The Council considered documents CL 66/9 “International Agricultural Adjustment: Director-General's Proposals” and CL 66/26 “Report of Ad Hoc Working Party on the Proposed Strategy of International Agricultural Adjustment”, presented by the Chairman of the Ad Hoc Working Party. The Council also heard further explanations from the Secretariat as to various aspects of the work.
31. The Council noted that international agricultural adjustment had been a major theme of the 1973 Conference which in Resolution 2/73, had identified the general objectives of adjustment at this level and had requested the Director-General to prepare for presentation to the 1975 Conference a draft strategy for achieving these objectives.
32. Several members emphasized that progressive implementation of the Strategy of International Agricultural Adjustment would contribute toward achieving, and be structured toward attaining, the objectives set forth in the Declaration and Programme of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order adopted by the Sixth Special Session of the UN General Assembly in May 1974.
33. Some members expressed the view that international agricultural adjustment as a project should be reviewed in the light of events subsequent to the Seventeenth Session of the FAO Conference, notably the outcome of the World Food Conference, including the establishment of the World Food Council and the Consultative Group on Food Production and Investment in Developing Countries. These members agreed that work in the Secretariat along the lines of the project was warranted but that it should be related to the needs of the World Food Council which now had an overall coordinating function in food matters. These members voiced concern that there would be duplication if the proposal that the FAO Conference should assess the results of monitoring were to be continued. Most members, however, did not share this view, particularly since the World Food Council was not expected to have a large additional Secretariat but would rather rely on the facilities of existing international bodies, including especially FAO, for basic data and technical and economic analysis. The majority noted that ministerial level consultations in both the FAO Conference and the World Food Council could be complementary rather than duplication.
34. With respect to the policy guidelines, the majority of the Council agreed that the subject matter of all of these came within the area of FAO's competence and was therefore of concern to FAO. The close links between the Strategy of International Agricultural Adjustment and the International Undertaking for World Food Security were emphasized; it was suggested that world food security was perhaps the ultimate operational objective of international agricultural adjustment.
35. Several members pointed out that trade in agricultural commodities, the subject of Guidelines 6, 7 and 8, was primarily the concern of international organizations other than FAO and emphasized the need for effective coordination in order to avoid duplication, particularly with respect to the monitoring and other follow-up activities described in the Director-General's proposals.
36. Some members were of the opinion that the indicative goal contained in Guideline 1 of an average annual rate of increase in food production in developing countries during the next decade rising at least to match the growth in demand for food in those countries, which was estimated to increase at 3.4 percent, should be deleted since it did not correspond with a policy goal contained in the UN Strategy of DD2. Several members expressed the view that the indicative goal contained in Guideline 9 for the period 1975–80 of transfers of resources and technology for increasing agricultural production in developing countries should also be deleted since it did not reflect adequate analysis of actual needs for this purpose. Other members, however, thought that because they would be useful for the proposed monitoring operations these quantified indicative goals should be retained, even in a provisional form, until further analysis enabled more definitive quantification to be made.
1 CL 66/9, CL 66/26, CL 66/PV/11, CL 66/PV/12, CL 66/PV/19.
37. The Council noted that increased food production to balance projected increases in demand for food would not provide the additional supplies needed to fulfil nutritional requirements for those segments of populations lacking effective purchasing power; in short, the additional supplies needed to eradicate hunger. The importance of progress towards appropriate levels of self-sufficiency in food grains and other basic foods as an element in national economic development and in the maintenance of political independence of developing countries was also stressed.
38. It was emphasized that the adequacy of the proposed monitoring operations would depend largely on the availability and quality of the data with respect to the selected indicators and consequently that the availability and quality of data would need to be progressively improved. Several members endorsed the view that the monitoring operations should, at least initially, be based on a limited number of carefully selected key indicators.
39. The Council agreed that international agricultural adjustment was an important area of work for FAO and that the proposed strategy as outlined in document CL 66/9 and the revision of the policy guidelines in document CL 66/26 represented good progress towards translating Conference Resolution 2/73 into an operational programme. It was understood that the major purpose of this activity was to provide member countries with a global framework which would facilitate their efforts to harmonize national policies and actions in the light of a consensus as to the desirable major changes in world agriculture. It was agreed that constant observation and comprehensive monitoring leading to periodic reviews of progress in international agricultural adjustment were essential elements of the strategy. It was further agreed that FAO should continue its efforts to evolve this strategy, taking fully into account relevant resolutions adopted by the World Food Conference and soliciting assistance as appropriate from other intergovernmental organizations. It was noted that the Director-General would revise his preliminary proposals for a Strategy of International Agricultural Adjustment, in the light of the report of the Ad Hoc Working Party and the comments of the Council for consideration by the Eighteenth FAO Conference Session in November 1975 after submission to the CCP in October 1975 and to the Council again in November 1975.
40. The majority of the Council agreed that the biennial FAO Conference would provide an appropriate occasion for assessment at ministerial level of the progress of international agricultural adjustment. The Council endorsed the view of the Ad Hoc Working Party that an additional FAO Standing Committee was not needed to guide the evolution and implementation of the Director-General's proposed Strategy of International Agricultural Adjustment. While a view was expressed that this responsibility should rest with the Conference and Council, most members envisaged this responsibility being assigned to one of the existing Committees with an appropriate revision of its terms of reference.
41. The Council reviewed the Report of the first session of the Ad Hoc Committee on Food and Nutrition Policies and expressed agreement with the recommendations included in the document. The Council stressed that nutrition constituted a fundamental sector of FAO's activities.
42. The Council recognized that nutrition objectives must be integrated into agricultural and national development plans and that high priority should be given by governments and FAO to the implementation of intersectoral food and nutrition planning aiming at improving the nutrition situation through action bearing on food production, processing distribution and consumption, with due emphasis on local food resources.
43. The Council approved the suggestions of the Ad Hoc Committee regarding the improvement of the Nutrition Planning Scheme and recommended that the Secretariat proceed without delay with further development and implementation of the Scheme in cooperation with the UN agencies concerned. While some members thought that for the present, fuller use should be made of existing resources, others felt that the allocations of resources provided in the Programme of Work and Budget 1976–77 should reflect the high priority given by the Seventeenth FAO Conference Session, the World Food Conference and the FAO Council to assisting countries in food and nutrition planning.
1 CL 66/7 Rev.1, CL 66/PV/12, CL 66/PV/13, CL 66/PV/19.
44. The Council then agreed:
to adopt the provisional terms of reference proposed by the Ad Hoc Committee;
to convene a second session of the Ad Hoc Committee possibly in Spring 1976;
to open the Ad Hoc Committee to all FAO Member Nations;
to maintain the Ad Hoc status of the Committee for the time being and to consider in due time its integration into other existing bodies of the Council, if necessary.
45. The Council noted the report of the Third Session of the Committee on Agriculture (COAG) (Rome, 15–24 April 1975).
46. The Council considered the four matters to which COAG had drawn its attention, namely the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1976–77, the amendments to the Committee's terms of reference, the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, and the timing and frequency of COAG's sessions.
47. The Council agreed that in considering the Summary Programme of Work and Budget, the Committee should continue to focus on the general lines of work and the broad aspects of agricultural development rather than on a comprehensive review of the various specific activities.
48. The Council noted the endorsement by the Committee of the priority areas proposed for expansion in the technical and economic programmes with top priority given to programmes leading to increased food production in developing countries and emphasis on projects oriented towards action at the field level.
49. The Council welcomed the considerable attention given by COAG to criteria that would facilitate the sharpening of the priorities. It endorsed these criteria and guidelines and suggested that they be applied by the Director-General in preparing the biennial programmes of work of the Organization in areas falling within the competence of the Committee.
50. The Council noted the views expressed by many members in support for programme proposals, such as land and water development, animal health, improvement in crops and rangelands, plant protection, fertilizer use development, rural industries, education and training, and integrated rural development.
51. The Council noted the Committee's considerable measure of support for the principle of a problem-oriented approach to a part of FAO's work. It agreed with COAG's view that the application of this approach should be continued gradually and with caution, in view of its implications for the management, organizational structure and presentation of the Programme of Work and Budget.
1 CL 66/3, CL 66/PV/13, CL 66/PV/14, CL 66/PV/19.
52. The Council noted that under item 17.2 of its agenda, it had endorsed the amendments to Rule XXXII - 5 GRO 2 drafted by the Thirtieth CCLM Session (May 1975) to the effect that the Committee's terms of reference be expanded to enable it to:
advise the Council on the overall medium and longer-term of work of the Organization in the field of food and agriculture, and
review, with similar emphasis, the biennial programmes of work of the Organization and their implementation in areas falling within the competence of the Committee.
2 See para. 269 below.
53. Regarding the proposed World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development 1 the majority of members agreed in principle to the holding of the Conference. The Council decided that the Director-General should report to its next session on progress concerning preparatory work for holding the Conference.
54. The Council agreed with the recommendation by the Committee that its sessions should normally be held once during each biennium but take place in Conference rather than non-Conference years, as reflected in the amendment to Rule XXXII-3 GRO endorsed under item 17.2. The Council requested that its exact dates should ensure the availability in time of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget and should also allow submission of the Committee's report to the Spring Sessions of the Programme and Finance Committees for their review.
55. In this connexion, the Council recommended that the timing of the sessions of all statutory bodies should be reviewed further in order to avoid overlapping.
56. The Council noted the list of topics recommended by the Committee for inclusion in future sessions. It emphasized that the number of selected development problems to be dealt with in any particular session should not exceed two and that careful selection was, therefore, necessary.
57. The Council recommended that studies be made of the Committee's proposals for improving its methods of work, in particular the suggestions for enhancing the involvement of technical experts in the work of the Committee, to make it an increasingly effective instrument for dealing with the problems of the agricultural sector.
58. The Council reconfirmed that COAG's major attention should be on the technical, social and economic issues with discussion aimed at considering in-depth the various aspects relating to world agricultural development and FAO's role relative to them. Accordingly, COAG documents should be so drafted as to permit discussion in accordance with the Committee's mandate.
59. The Council noted the report of the Second Session of the Commission on Fertilizers (Rome, 3–6 June 1975).
60. The Council noted the analysis presented by the Commission of the current world fertilizer situation and the authoritative analysis of the longer-term outlook which had been requested by World Food Conference Resolution III. In spite of the easing of supplies and prices, however, as reported by the Commission, some members warned against complacency in view of the continuing delicate balance between supply and demand. Particular concern was expressed over the financial problems still faced by the most seriously affected (MSA) countries in obtaining adequate supplies at reasonable prices. Some members pointed out the adverse effect high prices had and would continue to have on fertilizer consumption in developing countries since most fertilizers imported for use in the current season were purchased during the period of very high prices.
1 See paras. 183–185 below.
2 CL 66/8, CL 66/PV/13, CL 66/PV/14, CL 66/PV/19.
61. The Council concurred with the Commission that every effort should be made to cover, as far as possible, the increased costs of fertilizer to the MSA countries through a concentrated and coordinated effort from bilateral and multilateral aid. It approved the Commission's recommendation that the International Fertilizer Supply Scheme (IFS) should be continued and that it be reviewed at the end of one year by the Commission, at which time its continuance would be considered. It was pointed out by the Chairman of the Commission that while the additional costs to MSA countries in the last half of 1975, compared with 1972 prices, had earlier been computed at about $600 million, a further easing of prices between March and May 1975 had reduced this figure to about $400 million. The Council noted the Commission's request to the Director-General to take appropriate action to mobilize the necessary resources, and its appeal to all countries to make available, either through the IFS or bilaterally, additional resources in cash, in kind or in services.
62. The Council approved the longer-term actions as proposed by the Commission for implementing a world fertilizer policy aimed primarily at establishing greater market stability in terms of supply and prices of fertilizers at reasonable levels and at measures needed to increase fertilizer use in relation to the expanding requirements for food. In particular, it endorsed the establishment within the FAO fertilizer intelligence system of a central international fertilizer data centre to provide reliable and timely basic information for forecasting supplies, demand and prices for fertilizer. It also approved various studies proposed by the Commission including improved methodologies for making forecasts, a continuing study of fertilizer production costs, and an in-depth study of mechanisms for the stabilization of prices of fertilizer on the international market. It was noted that in connection with these studies a small Ad Hoc consultative group would be established by the Commission to advise and assist the Secretariat in its work. This group would be composed of members of the Commission, with the participation of the fertilizer industry and other international organizations.
63. The Council concurred with the Commission in its request that the Consultative Group on Food Production and Investment in Developing Countries (CGFPI), in collaboration with FAO, UNIDO and the World Bank, should investigate and promote the further possibilities of expanding fertilizer production in developing countries, giving particular attention to plant location in countries possessing indigenous raw materials and/or large markets and the possibilities for cooperative ventures, and to the means required for the mobilization of the necessary financial and technical resources. Council members particularly emphasized the need for a comprehensive study of capacity requirements and plant location. The Council encouraged the CGFPI to investigate the possibility of a more rational approach to investment in fertilizer production capacity in order to moderate cyclical price fluctuations.
64. The Council stressed the importance of the FAO Fertilizer Programme and the need for its extension and expansion, as recommended by the Commission. The Council also endorsed the Commission's recommendation that the programme work in the field should emphasize the more efficient use of mineral fertilizers and also the utilization of organic materials to the extent possible.
65. The Council endorsed the request of the Commission that the Director-General ensure that sufficient resources were made available to service the Commission and to undertake the studies as called for by the Commission in implementing the recommendations to follow up the World Food Conference Resolutions on Fertilizers.
66. The Council also agreed that the lines of action proposed by the Commission should be treated as an integrated and comprehensive policy and that the activities of the FAO Secretariat and other international organizations in respect of fertilizer development should be coordinated in an effective manner.
67. The Council agreed that its report on this item should be transmitted to the World Food Council for attention.
68. The Council noted the report of the Ad Hoc Government Consultation on Pesticides in Agriculture and Public Health (Rome, 7–11 April 1975), which had been called as a matter of urgency in response to Resolution X of the World Food Conference and endorsed by the Sixty-Fourth Council Session. The Council had stressed the need to examine thoroughly the entire subject of pesticides and plant protection, with emphasis on pesticides supply and demand as affecting developing countries.
69. Most members agreed with the resolutions and recommendations of the Ad Hoc Consultation, although in some cases priorities varied. They expressed the wish that the Programme Committee, and, if need be, the Finance Committee, should give their views on the resolutions and recommendations of the Consultation. Many members referred to the short time-span that had occurred between the receipt of the consultation's report in their capitals, and therefore their governments would need more time to consider the wider implications of the proposals.
70. Many members attached highest priority to Resolution V, calling on FAO to establish a continuing supply/demand information system, in collaboration with WHO and UNIDO. In this regard concern was expressed by some members that agreement had not yet been reached with Industry concerning continuous provision of information on supply. It was noted that the Secretariat, however, had looked into and was in contact with Industry concerning this aspect and felt that a workable system would be established. Strong support was also expressed for Resolutions I, II, VIII and X dealing with various aspects of training in the efficient and safe use of pesticides and strengthening plant protection services in developing countries.
71. The Council agreed to the proposed changes in constitutional bodies with slight modifications in the titles of two statutory bodies, and requested the Secretariat to implement them.
72. Most members agreed to the proposals for the Secretariat and International Advisory Board outlined in CL 66/21-Sup.1.
73. Some members stressed the importance of the desert locust control programme and expressed the wish that it be not weakened.
74. A number of members recommended increased action on plant breeding for resistance to pests and diseases, but a few felt that, initially, the “horizontal” approach, as specified in Resolution IV, should be used only on an experimental basis.
75. Some members supported the strengthening of the staff resources of the pesticides section as they felt that the subject was of utmost importance to food production and preservation.
76. The Council agreed that its report on this item should be transmitted to the World Food Council for attention.
1 CL 66/21, CL 66/21-Sup.1, CL 66/PV/13, CL 66/PV/14, CL 66/PV/19.
77. The Council considered the Report of the Tenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries (COFI).
78. The Council commended COFI for recognizing the importance of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea and already giving thought to the need to adapt to changing circumstances. It welcomed the convening of the COFI Sub-Committee on the Development of Cooperation with International Organizations Concerned with Fisheries that would consider the roles to be played, after the emergence of a new legal order for the oceans, by COFI itself, the Department of Fisheries of FAO and the various regional fishery bodies. In this connexion, it was stressed that every effort should be made to accelerate the transfer of technology to developing countries in the fishery sector, in view of the increased opportunities and responsibilities that would devolve upon them.
79. The Council noted the growing usefulness of regional fishery bodies and felt that priority should continue to be given to strengthening all their activities. It considered that a critical review of the performance of these bodies was an important function of COFI. In particular, increasing attention should be given to the question of economic returns. Regional bodies established within the framework of FAO should devise means to help the developing countries improve their catches. Appreciation was expressed for the fact that the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council had recognized the need to examine its own role and functions and had appointed an ad hoc committee to do this and to study at the same time the important question of inland fisheries in the area.
80. In discussing specific aspects of FAO's work in fisheries, the Council drew special attention to the need for:
assisting developing countries in improving their statistics and data collection systems as a basis for fishery management. Data still tended to be insufficient and was often supplied too late. The training of statisticians was an essential task;
considering the establishment of an international market information system to provide developing and developed countries with regular up-to-date market intelligence;
developing small-scale fisheries not only to increase supplies of protein food but also to better economic and social conditions and provide employment opportunities in poor fishing communities;
transferring intermediate technology that was adapted to local needs not only for fish catching operations but also for handling, processing, marketing and related activities;
developing aquaculture as a source of protein food and to provide employment.
81. The Council agreed with COFI that FAO should collect, analyse and disseminate information on bilateral and multilateral fisheries aid, donor criteria and the needs of potential recipients.
82. The Council re-emphasized the need for scheduling with care the sessions of COFI and of other Council committees.
83. The Council noted that Mr. F.E. Popper, Assistant Director-General, Fisheries Department, would be retiring before the next session of COFI. It expressed its deep appreciation and gratitude for the excellence of the services he had rendered in the course of his many years with FAO, and wished him well for the future.
1 CL 66/4, CL 66/PV/17.
84. The Council noted that two countries had offered to host the Eighth World Forestry Congress: Bulgaria and Indonesia. The Council found it very difficult to choose between these two offers, as both countries had a distinguished record of progress in forestry matters and it was satisfied that in the organization and conduct of the Congress the standards set at previous Congresses would be maintained.
85. Since it was necessary to make a choice, however, the Council decided that several considerations favoured the selection of Indonesia. These were: the current world interest in the development of tropical forest resources - of which Indonesia contained one of the largest remaining reserves; the wide variety of problems connected with forest management, extraction and utilization of which Indonesia's extensive forest areas provided examples; and the importance of Indonesia's forest exports as a source of foreign exchange. Consideration was also given to the fact that several World Forestry Congresses had already taken place in Europe, while very few had been held in a developing country. The Council therefore decided that Indonesia should be the host for the Eighth World Forestry Congress.
86. The Council wished to record its appreciation of the generous offer made by Bulgaria and to express its recognition of the great progress achieved by Bulgaria in the field of forestry in all its aspects - silvicultural, industrial and environmental. It hoped that it might be possible to consider Bulgaria as host for a subsequent World Forestry Congress.
87. The delegate of Indonesia thanked the Council for its decision, reiterated the commitments made by his country regarding the organization of the Congress, as set out in Appendix 2 to CL 66/25, and, in response to the emphasis laid by some members on the importance of study tours within the framework of the Congress, gave some details regarding the places to be visited and the forestry aspects to be studied in the tours being contemplated by the Indonesian authorities.
88. Following some questions raised by a few members, the Council was reminded of the special characteristics of World Forestry Congresses, in that they were assemblies open to representatives from all the technical, scientific, social and economic sectors involved in forestry - national forest services, forest industries, timber companies, scientific, technical and educational institutions - and in general to all foresters and individuals associated with forestry activities. They constituted the only forum of this kind in the field of forestry. The Council was also informed that the organization of a World Forestry Congress did not entail any financial commitments for FAO as responsibility for the organization of a Congress lay entirely with the host government, which met all expenses incurred in organizing and running the Congress.
89. Nevertheless, two members considered FAO selection of the site of the Congress an unnecessary and outdated practice, and suggested that the choice be left to the Congress in future. Noting this suggestion, the Secretariat replied that the World Forestry Congresses had always confirmed FAO's authority to decide on the host for the Congress and, recognizing FAO's leadership in world forestry affairs, the Seventh Congress had even asked FAO to define the principles of World Forestry Congresses and specify the provisions which should be included in the rules of procedure of all future Congresses. This had been done by the Sixty-Fourth Council Session. However, should the Council prefer that FAO renounce its prerogative of choosing the host country for World Forestry Congresses it should take a formal decision to this effect in advance of the Eighth Congress, so that FAO could inform the Congress of the position and invite it to decide how the site of World Forestry Congresses should be determined in the future.
1 CL 66/25, CL 66/25-Sup.1, CL 66/PV/9.
90. The Council was informed that the shortage of pulp and paper in the world had eased. However, though supplies were now available, prices continued to be very high. Moreover, shortages were expected to recur in 1977.
91. The Council expressed satisfaction at the improvement in the immediate supply situation but agreed that efforts must be continued to expand manufacturing capacity in developing countries in order to effect improvements in the long term. It took note of the various actions that had been initiated and commended the programmes being developed jointly with the UNDP and Unesco with the assistance of other agencies.
92. The Council agreed that the situation should continue to receive the close attention of the Committee on Forestry, and that the Council should be informed only of any developments that required a specific study of the situation by the Council.
93. In considering the Director-General's proposal for establishing an FAO Development Research Centre financed with extra-budgetary resources, the Council took into account the views of the Programme and Finance Committees and noted that the former considered the proposal interesting and imaginative and worthy of further consideration.
94. The majority of members considered that the problems which were proposed for study and research by the Centre were within FAO's areas of responsibility and should be studied under the Regular Programme of FAO rather than by a separate autonomous institution. In this connexion, it was explained that the Technical Advisory Committee of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research had identified gaps in development research in the areas elaborated in the proposal and that the Programme Committee had recognized in its report that the “Regular Programme of FAO had limitations in its ability to respond to the need for in-depth study of emerging critical problems of agriculture at national and global levels”.
95. It was suggested that the Secretariat should biennially identify, briefly describe, and submit to the Council a limited number of high priority problems for which development-oriented research, currently not covered, should be urgently undertaken. It should then be investigated whether these research projects could be undertaken by existing institutions, or under the FAO Regular Programme, or be financed by voluntary contributions.
96. While agreeing with the analysis of the gaps in research identified in the proposal, the Council felt that these could on the whole be better filled by greater use of the existing national research organizations. In their view, this was necessary to avoid proliferation. It was explained, in this connexion, that the proposal envisaged considerable use by the Centre of national institutions, particularly in developing countries, through collaboration and network arrangements, expecially in respect of comparative cross-country analytical studies of major development issues.
97. It was emphasized that the proposal was being put forward at an inopportune time, when funds were being sought by a number of agencies for work on food and agricultural development. Some members, however, felt that with the new demands that the World Food Council, the Development Fund, the Research Group and the Consultative Group on Food Production and Investment might make, the case for the Research Centre might possibly be clearer in a year's time.
98. In conclusion, the Council agreed not to endorse the Director-General's proposal for the establishment of an FAO Development Research Centre.
1 CL 66/2, CL 66/29, CL 66/PV/18.
99. The Council considered the Thirteenth Annual Report of the Intergovernmental Committee (IGC) of the UN/FAO World Food Programme covering the period 27 April 1974 to 25 March 1975, including reports of the Twenty-Sixth and the Twenty-Seventh Sessions of the IGC.
100. The Executive Director in introducing the report expressed his satisfaction that the situation of WFP resources had improved, due to a substantial additional pledge from Canada, and to further pledges by the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates, which had largely contributed to bringing the total resources for 1975/76 to $542 million, or 23 percent beyond the established target. The higher level of resources available in the current biennium cast a new light on the proposal made by him at the Twenty-Seventh Session of the IGC of establishing the target for the 1977–78 biennium at a minimum of $750 million. He informed the Council that this change in the resources position had encouraged the Programme to send missions to Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka to identify projects for immediate implementation; and as a result 24 projects for a total value of $76.6 million were approved during the last session of the IGC under the Quick-Action procedure for these most seriously affected (MSA) countries. This demonstrated the Programme's ability to plan new activities effectively and within a short period of time. The reputation earned by, and the confidence in, the Programme had together gradually induced donor governments to ask WFP to take responsibility for the processing, shipping and monitoring of supplies to their food aid bilateral programmes. The Executive Director added that WFP was fully committed to the Programme of Action of the New International Economic Order and was reorientating its activities to enable it to further strengthen international economic cooperation of this type. He informed the Council that WFP had played its part in International Women's Year and had issued new guidelines in this regard. He continued by drawing the attention of the Council to the draft resolutions appended to the Report for its consideration and recommendation for approval by the FAO Conference, one dealing with the reconstitution of the IGC and the other with the establishment of the framework for the target for WFP pledges for the 1977–78 biennium. He concluded by drawing the attention of the Council to the proposal for the revision of WFP General Regulation 6 dealing with the allocation of resources for emergencies.
101. The Council welcomed the Executive Director's report and expressed satisfaction on the achievements of the programme outlined therein; on the way in which its activities assisted the developing countries, particularly in the field of increased food production; and on the emphasis being given to the needs of the least developed and MSA countries. The Council also expressed its appreciation of the additional pledges mentioned by the Executive Director, and of the fact that of these some had been made in the light of the concept of forward planning as recommended by the World Food Conference. This was seen to be a concrete demonstration of the confidence inspired in donors by the effectiveness of the Programme.
102. Note was taken of the assistance afforded to liberated areas in colonial territories in Africa and to African Liberation Movements, the Council welcoming the Quick-Action Projects approved in Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau and the Cape Verde Islands. It was pointed out that other projects of a similar nature could be expected, and that WFP aid would certainly be requested for them.
103. Most of the members of the Council welcomed the Programme's support for the Programme of Action for the New International Economic Order and agreed that this was adequately expressed in the policies being followed by the Executive Director.
104. The Council, appreciating the need for greater flexibility in the matter of the question of resources to be set aside for the purposes of providing emergency aid, approved the following amended version of WFP General Regulation 6:
1 CL 66/6, CL 66/PV/3, CL 66/PV/4, CL 66/PV/19.
“A portion of the resources of the Programme will be reserved each year for use by the Director-General of FAO for emergency food needs. The amounts to be reserved will be determined by the IGC from time to time in accordance with changing circumstances. In cases of special need, the IGC may, at the request of the Executive Director, in consultation with the Director-General of FAO, allocate further amounts for use by the Director-General to meet emergency food requirements. Any unused balance of the emergency allocation will return to the general resources of the Programme at the end of each year.”
This allowed the establishment of the reserve in accordance with changing circumstances and current situations. The hope was expressed, however, that the Programme would not change the fundamental emphasis of its activities from development to emergency aid.
105. The Council, on the matter of the pledging target for the period 1977–78, adopted the following Resolution, on the understanding that a firm recommendation for the target figure would be submitted to its next Session by the Twenty-Eighth IGC Session:
TARGET FOR WFP PLEDGES FOR THE PERIOD 1977–78
Having considered the Thirteenth Annual Report of the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Programme,
Noting the comments of the IGC concerning the target for voluntary contributions to the Programme for the period 1977–78,
Recalling Resolutions 2462 (XXIII) and 2682 (XXV) of the UN General Assembly, which recognized the experience gained by WFP in the field of multilateral food aid,
1. Submits for consideration and approval of the Conference of the FAO the attached draft Resolution;
2. Urges States Members of the United Nations and Members and Associate Members of the Food and Agriculture Organization to undertake the necessary preparation for the announcement of pledges at the Seventh Pledging Conference for the World Food Programme.
DRAFT RESOLUTION FOR THE CONFERENCE
TARGET FOR WFP PLEDGES FOR THE PERIOD 1977–78
Recalling the provisions of Resolution 4/65 that the World Food Programme is to be reviewed before each pledging conference,
Recalling the provisions of operative paragraph 4 of its Resolution 4/73 of 28 November 1973 that, subject to the review mentioned above, the next pledging conference should be convened at the latest early in 1976, at which time governments should be invited to pledge contributions for 1977 and 1978, with a view to reaching such a target as may be then recommended by the General Assembly and the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Noting that the review of the Programme was undertaken by the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Programme at its Twenty-Seventh Session and by the FAO Council at its Sixty-Sixth Session,
Having considered Resolution 1/66 of the FAO Council, as well as the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Committee,
Recognizing the value of multilateral food aid as implemented by WFP since its inception and the necessity for continuing its action both as a form of capital investment and for meeting emergency food needs,
1. Establishes for the two years 1977 and 1978 a target for voluntary contributions of $......... million of which not less than one third should be in cash and/or services in aggregate, and expresses the hope that such resources will be augmented by substantial additional contributions from other sources in recognition of the prospective volume of sound project requests and the capacity of the Programme to operate at a higher level;
2. Urges States Members of the United Nations and Members and Associate Members of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, to make every effort to ensure the full attainment of the target;
3. Requests the Secretary-General, in cooperation with the Director-General of FAO, to convene a pledging conference for this purpose at United Nations Headquarters early in 1976;
4. Decides that, subject to the review provided for in Resolution 4/65, the following pledging conference at which governments should be invited to pledge contributions for 1979 and 1980 with a view to reaching such a target as may be then recommended by the General Assembly and the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization, should be convened at the latest early in 1978.
106. With regard to reconstitution of the IGC, a large majority of the Council endorsed the principle of there being only one Committee, and that it should not have more than 30 Members; it being felt that the recommendation of the World Food Conference in respect of the reconstitution of the IGC into a Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes (CFA) reflected the general satisfaction of the efficient way in which the present IGC, limited as it was in number, was conducting the affairs of the Programme. The details of how the various activities, old and new, of the reconstituted Committee would be divided between its sessions, would be arranged by the Committee itself: In principle, however, two sessions a year were envisaged.
107. The Council agreed that when reconstituting the Committee, due attention should be paid to the equitable distribution of seats, taking into account the need to maintain a geographical balance, redressing the present under-representation of Latin America; the desirability of including important countries having a commercial interest in the international trade in foodstuffs; as well as that of preserving a proper proportion between donor and recipient countries.
108. The Council recommended the following draft resolution for adoption by the Conference:
DRAFT RESOLUTION FOR THE CONFERENCE
RECONSTITUTION OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE OF THE UNITED NATIONS/FAO WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME INTO A COMMITTEE ON FOOD AID POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES
Having considered Resolution XXII of the World Food Conference, which in paragraph 6 recommended that the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Programme be reconstituted so as to enable it to help evolve and coordinate short-term and longer-term food aid policies recommended by the World Food Conference,
Having noted Resolution 3348 (XXIX) of the United Nations General Assembly endorsing the resolutions of the World Food Conference,
Recalling the Resolutions 1 setting up the World Food Programme as a Programme undertaken jointly by the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and establishing, for the purpose of providing guidance on policy administration and operations, an Intergovernmental Committee of twenty-four members, elected half by the FAO Council and half by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations,
Concurring with the proposals made, on the recommendation of the IGC, by the FAO Council at its Sixty-Sixth Session and the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations at its 59th Session to reconstitute the Intergovernmental Committee so as to assure the effective evolution and coordination of multilateral, bilateral and non-governmental food aid programmes, in the light of the recommendations set forth in Resolutions XVIII and XXII of the World Food Conference,
Desirous, at the same time to maintain as much as possible the established rules and procedures relating to the operation of the World Food Programme,
1. Decides, subject to the concurrence of the General Assembly of the United Nations, that the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Programme shall be reconstituted as the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes (hereinafter referred to as “the Committee”) in accordance with the provisions set out in the present Resolution. The Committee shall comprise 30 Member Nations of the Food and Agriculture Organization or States Members of the United Nations, 15 of these Members to be elected by the Economic and Social Council and 15 by the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization, it being understood that outgoing Members shall be eligible for re-election;
2. Resolves that States already elected as Members of the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Programme, pursuant to the provisions of previous resolutions 1 shall continue as Members of the Committee for the remainder of their respective terms, and requests the Economic and Social Council and the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization to elect three additional Members each, one Member each for a term of one year, one Member each for a term of two years, and one Member each for a term of three years; 2
3. Decides that thereafter all Members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of three years, and requests the Economic and Social Council and the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization to make such provisions as will ensure that the terms of office of five Members elected by each of the two Councils shall expire in each calendar year;
4. Further requests the Economic and Social Council and the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization, when electing Members of the Committee to take into account the need for balanced representation of economically developed and developing countries and other relevant factors, such as the representation of potential participating countries, both contributing and recipient, equitable geographical distribution, and the representation of both developed and developing countries having commercial interests in international trade in foodstuffs, especially those highly dependent on such trade;
5. Further decides that, in addition to discharging the functions hitherto exercised by the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Programme, the Committee shall help evolve and coordinate short-term and longer-term food aid policies recommended by the World Food Conference. It shall in particular:
provide general guidance on the policy, administration and operation of the World Food Programme;
provide a forum for intergovernmental consultations on national and international food aid programmes and policies;
review periodically general trends in food aid requirements and food aid availabilities;
recommend to governments, through the World Food Council, improvements in food aid policies and programmes on such matters as programme priorities, commodity composition of food aid and other related subjects;
formulate proposals for more effective coordination of multilateral, bilateral and nongovernmental food aid programmes, including emergency food aid;
review periodically the implementation of the recommendations made by the World Food Conference on food aid policies.
6. Decides also that the Committee shall report annually to the Economic and Social Council and the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization, which, in considering the reports of the Committee shall take into account the responsibilities of the World Food Council. The Committee shall submit periodical and special reports to the World Food Council;
7. Resolves that the Committee should normally hold regular sessions twice a year and such special sessions as it considers necessary or on the call of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of FAO, in consultation with the Executive Director of the World Food Programme, or on request submitted in writing by at least one-third of the members of the Committee;
8. Resolves further that the Committee shall be serviced by the Executive Director of the World Food Programme, acting in consultation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of FAO. In this respect the Executive Director shall be guided by the relevant provisions of the General Regulations of the World Food Programme, and in particular, shall continue to rely to the maximum extent possible on the technical services of the United Nations and its subsidiary bodies, FAO, and other organizations of the United Nations system, without duplicating such services.
9. Calls upon the Committee to adopt its own Rules of Procedure, which shall be based upon the Rules of Procedure hitherto applicable to the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Programme, and to make provision for inviting States Members of the United Nations or the Food and Agriculture Organization that are not Members of the Committee to participate in its deliberations;
10. Authorizes the Committee to establish such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary to enable it to discharge its functions;
11. Resolves that the appointment of the Executive Director, the administration procedures, financing and other working arrangements of the World Food Programme should continue to be governed, mutatis mutandis, by the “World Food Programme Basic Documents”.
1 Resolutions 1/61 and 4/65 of the FAO Conference and Resolutions 1714 (XVI) and 2095 (XX) of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
2 This text assumes that the proposed resolution will be adopted by the General Assembly after the November 1975 post-Conference sessions of the FAO Council, at which the Council is due to elect four members of the IGC to fill the same number of vacancies. However, in the event that the General Assembly should adopt the resolution before that FAO Council session, the Council, at that session, would have to fill those four vacancies as well as elect three additional members.
109. The Council noted the work undertaken by FAO in implementing the objectives of International Women's Year (IWY) for a greater integration of women in rural development efforts. The Council recognized the key role of women in agricultural development, especially their potential contribution to food production, food availability and utilization, and the improvement of nutrition. It was stressed that youth should also be fully involved in the development process.
110. The Council agreed that the integration of women in agricultural and rural development should be a continuing consideration in the formulation, design and implementation of all relevant FAO projects and programmes and that efforts should not be limited to 1975. It was stressed that action should continue to ensure that appropriate education, extension and community facilities should be made available to women on equal terms with men.
111. The Council recognized that data on qualitative and quantitative contributions by women to rural development were as yet inadequate. Some members felt that studies were needed to identify the factors which hampered the full participation of women in rural development and prevented them from contributing effectively to the quality of rural life. The importance of the work of FAO in the field of Home Economics was recalled and the wish was expressed that the work be continued on a regular basis.
112. The Council noted that FAO was sending a high-level delegation to the World Conference on IWY in Mexico. FAO had assisted in the formulation of plans for the rural sector incorporated in the World Plan of Action of the Conference.
113. While the adoption of Resolution 2/66 below was an important step in the right direction, the Council urged that, even more important, Governments should adapt their national policies so as to take full account of the integration of women, and prepare plans of action towards this objective.
114. The Council adopted the following resolution:
INTEGRATION OF WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND NUTRITION POLICIES
Recalling that the Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Resolution 2263 (XXII) unanimously approved by the General Assembly on 7 November 1967, had as its objective increased participation of women in economically active population of all countries under equal conditions as men in order to promote their integration in development and invited Governments to provide women with the same opportunities for general and specific training necessary to their employment at all levels and in all sectors of society,
Recalling that General Assembly Resolution 3010 (XXVII) proclaimed 1975 as International Women's Year, one of its objectives being the full integration of women in the total development effort,
Recalling that ECOSOC Resolution 1849 (LVI) invited member states, the specialized agencies, regional intergovernmental organizations, national and international organizations and non-governmental organizations in consultative status to devote 1975 to intensified efforts in this connection,
1 CL 66/27, CL 66/PV/3, CL 66/PV/19.
Recalling that World Food Conference Resolution II on “Priorities for Agricultural and Rural Development” recognized “the important role of women in rural life in the production, marketing and consumption of food, in family nutrition, in decisions on family size and child spacing and in child-care and education, and the need to involve women more fully in the process of rural development and the implications thereof for education and extension”,
Recalling that the Decision of the Nineteenth Session of the UNDP Governing Council in January 1975 requested that the integration of women should be a continuing consideration in the design and implementation of UNDP projects and programmes and invited governments to take the appropriate decisions in order to ensure the participation of women in the planning process, in decision-making and in the implementation of development projects,
Recalling that General Assembly Resolution 3352 (XXIX) on Employment of Women by the Secretariat of Organizations within the United Nations System, requested the executive heads of organizations within the UN System to take all necessary measures in order to achieve an equitable balance between the number of men and women particularly in senior and policy-making positions and urged executive heads to give increased attention to the recruitment and promotion of women as well as the assignments given to them,
1. Supports the necessary approach to the development of food production, food availability and utilization and the improvement of the quality of rural family life through the full integration of women in rural development;
2. Invites Governments of Member Nations to ensure the most appropriate policies and adequate implementation of plans related to food and nutrition, and secure that women are satisfactorily represented in food and nutrition policy-making, planning and implementation process;
3. Invites Member States participating in the World Conference of International Women's Year in which a World Plan of Action is to be adopted, to support measures ensuring that women's share in the benefits of development in the rural sector, particularly through the recognition of their full legal equality and the adoption of measures implementing such equality;
4. Requests the Director-General to ensure that current programmes and projects in nutrition, agriculture (including fisheries and forestry) and rural development be reviewed by all Departments and Divisions concerned with these activities with a view to the incorporation of a suitable component benefiting women. Such a component should provide women inter alia with the benefits of education, training, extension, cooperative activities, credit/marketing and other community facilities to enable them to contribute to agriculture and rural development;
5. Further requests that the Director-General assure the integration of women in all FAO programmes and projects by directing all Departments and Divisions concerned with these activities to investigate, design, plan, implement and review, on a regular and systematic basis, all proposed projects and programmes in order to establish a measure of progress in assuring the important participation of women as equal partners with men in the total development process, it being understood that wherever possible women should be directly engaged in the planning, decision-making, implementation and evaluation of FAO projects and programmes;
6. Declares that the policy of the Organization be directed towards bringing about the increased participation of women in professional positions in all its units and that immediate action be taken to eliminate any differential treatment based upon sex;
7. Expresses the intention to review periodically the progress made in assuring participation of women in the development process and in achieving an increase in the number and improvement in the roles and status of women employees within all levels of the FAO staff, with due consideration given to the provisions of Article VIII of the FAO Constitution.
115. The Council was informed of FAO's contributions to preparations for the UN Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat'76) to be held in Vancouver, in June 1976.
116. It heard the remarks of the Secretary General of Habitat and his appeal for more integrated rural/urban development policies, for a more functional and consistent distinction internationally between rural and urban, and for Council members to speak out in their own governments on the importance of the Conference to rural development.
117. The Council noted his observations on the close relationship between population, food and Habitat problems; a growing need to provide minimum amenities to all population groups in all countries and particularly the “more than half the population of the developing world (who) … will continue to live in small rural settlements or dispersed isolation”; and a steady impoverishment of these outlying areas - in the absence of adequate representation of rural interests with adequately distributed growth and investment policies.
118. The Council thanked the Secretary General of the Conference for his appreciation of the important role FAO would play and for his invitation to FAO to bring a special representation to the Conference. It stressed the closeness of aims of the FAO and the Habitat Secretariats, welcomed the designation of the Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division (ESH) as the focal point, and requested the Director-General to ensure FAO's continuing participation in the Conference preparations, deliberations and follow-up, within available resources.
119. The Council was informed of developments in preparation for the Seventh Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly, in implementation of Resolution 3343 (XXIX), of ECOSOC's review of agreements between the United Nations and the Specialized Agencies, and of the approach and contributions made by the Director-General in this context.
120. Most Members of the Council commented on the importance of the Special Session in the context of the Declaration and Programme of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order, and stressed that FAO should play an important role in achieving its goals and objectives.
121. The Council noted the contributions the Director-General had so far made towards the preparations. Many members, however, expressed, the view that such contributions had not sufficiently covered long-term economic problems and constraints in agricultural production.
122. Suggestions were made that the views expressed by the Council from time to time on the contribution the food and agriculture sector could make towards economic development and its observations on the Programme of Work and Budget in order to reorientate FAO's activities, should be taken into account in any further interventions with regard to the preparations for the Special Session.
123. With reference to the follow-up on the resolutions of the World Food Conference, the Council noted the measures already taken in certain fields and, in particular, recommended that the Director-General should take more initiative for the implementation of the whole institutional machinery.
124. Some members generally recalled the reservations their Governments had earlier expressed in different fora as to the existence of an agreement on a New International Economic Order. In this context, one member observed that his Government, he believed, was in agreement with the objective of arriving at a new economic order, and with a large majority of the proposals put forward by the developing countries towards that end, and in favour of negotiations on points of disagreement to reach a mutually acceptable solution,
1 CL 66/28, CL 66/PV/3.
2 CL 66/22, CL 66/22 Sup. 1, CL 66/PV/8, CL 66/PV/9, CL 66/PV/19, CL 66/PV/20.
125. With regard to the observations concerning the lack of comprehensiveness of the Director-General's contribution, the Council noted the explanation given that FAO was not required to provide separate documentation on the food and agriculture sector to the Special Session, and that the Director-General had made contributions with regard to both the short-term and the long-term problems of agricultural development to the Secretary-General's report in response to General Assembly Resolution 3343 (XXIX).
126. The Council also noted that the role of FAO in implementing the New Economic Order, in the light of the various initiatives now underway, was scheduled for discussion at the Eighteenth FAO Conference in November 1975. It also noted that comprehensive documentation was being prepared for the purpose under the heading: “review of Long-Term Trends and Policies in the light of the recommendations of the World Food Conference, the Declarations and Programme of Action on the Establishment of a New Economic Order, and the mid-term review and appraisal of the International Development Strategy for the Second Development Decade”. The Council requested that the comments and observations made on the subject at the current Council Session should be taken into account in the preparation of such documentation.
127. The Council also noted document CL 66/22-Sup. 1, which consisted of a list prepared by the UN Secretariat of the conclusions and recommendations of the Report of the Group of Experts on the Structure of the United Nations System. The Group had been nominated by the UN Secretary-General in pursuance of operative paragraph 5 of UN General Assembly Resolution 3343 (XXIX). It was noted that some of the basic approaches of the Expert Group were similar in many respects to the views of the Director-General to the effect that the global cooperative effort needed to find solutions to world economic problems called for a new degree of leadership from the UN, in order to provide the political framework for key decisions, with the Specialized Agencies providing the necessary technical expertise.
128. The Council recognized that member countries had not had the opportunity of focusing on the Expert Group's Report. Views were expressed, however, that a number of the recommendations would need further clarification with regard to recent decisions based on World Food Conference recommendations. Some members pointed out that the consolidation of operational activities and funds if applied to the World Food Programme (WFP) would not only require legislative action by the FAO Conference as well as the General Assembly but would also raise practical problems with regard to the recommendation of the World Food Conference, now being implemented, to reconstitute the Intergovernmental Committee of the World Food Programme as a Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes. The Council noted that the Expert Group itself had recognised that at this early stage in the implementation of the World Food Conference initiatives it was premature and inappropriate to make recommendations for structural changes in the food and agriculture sector. Some members expressed apprehension about the tendency of centralization reflected in the report, which, they said, was not in accord with recent decisions in favour of decentralization.
129. The Council requested the Director-General to bring to its particular attention and that of the Programme and Finance Committees and the CCLM the implications to FAO of any decisions taken by the UN General Assembly on the basis of the Expert Group's recommendations. The Council expressed the hope that the Special Session would also lead to a concrete decision to evolve a system of world economic cooperation based on equity and the common interest of all countries.
130. The Council took note of the document outlining the outcome of the Second General Conference of UNIDO (Lima, 12–26 March 1975) and drawing to the Council's attention those aspects of the Lima Declaration and Plan of Action on Industrial Development and Cooperation which were of particular interest to FAO.
131. Council took note of the report on relations with African Liberation Movements, which described FAO's activities in this field concerning emergency food aid, multi-agency UNDP missions, cooperation with UNHCR and FFHC/AD mission.
1 CL 66/30.
2 CL 66/20.
132. The Council recalled that at its Sixty-Fourth Session (November 1974) it had noted 2 the Director General's preliminary comments, which had been endorsed by the Programme Committee, on the JIU Report on Medium-Term Planning in the United Nations System. It had, however, deferred substantive consideration of the report in order to await the collective views of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC).
133. The Council was pleased to note that its earlier comments and the views of the Director-General and the Programme Committee were reflected in the ACC's comments and it generally agreed with the ACC's approach. The Council agreed that the recommendations did not form an indivisible whole and that although not all seemed practical, there were positive concepts in the report of value to inter-Agency harmonisation and avoidance of duplication in plans and programmes.
134. The Council welcomed the ACC's initiatives in undertaking an inter-agency planning experiment in the field of rural development and an experimental inter-agency country study on availability of planning data. It requested that it be kept informed of progress on these.
135. The Council agreed with the Programme Committee that FAO should meanwhile continue with the evolution of its own document on Medium-Term Objectives. In this connexion, the Council noted that the outline for the Medium-Term Objectives document approved at its Sixty-Fourth Session included background material which would in fact duplicate that contained in other existing and planned documents. In particular, the substance of the proposed sections on the world outlook and medium-term objectives of Member Nations was already well covered by the Assessment of the World Food Situation (E/CONF.65/3) prepared for the World Food Conference, the report of the World Food Conference, documents for the first session of the World Food Council, the document concerning FAO's role in the Establishment of a New International Economic Order (CL 64/29), the document COAG 75/3, and the COAG Report (CL 66/3), which discussed the programmes of the Economic and Social Policy, and Agriculture Departments in the framework of a comprehensive review of the medium-and long-term problems of the food and agricultural sector, FAO's forthcoming contribution to the mid-term review and appraisal of the International Development Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade, and the presentation to the Conference, under its Agenda item 7, of a document covering not only past trends and future prospects but also prerequisite policy conditions for agricultural development.
136. In order to avoid further duplication, and possible confusion, and to relieve the pressure on the documentation services, the Council decided that the document on Medium-Term Objectives should be prepared in conjunction with preparation of the document on Item 7 of the Conference Agenda, but should consist of the planned final section only, i.e. FAO's contribution to the achievement of medium-term objectives through its different roles and functions and programmes. In this connexion the Council emphasized the role of FAO's document on Medium-Term objectives as the basis for consideration by Member Governments of FAO's policies and programmes in the short, medium and longer term.
137. The Council considered the Report on Cost Measurement Systems prepared by the UN Joint Inspection Unit.
138. The Council noted that the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) had endorsed the appointment of a task force to pursue a comprehensive study of the detailed aspects of the proposals contained in the JIU Report.
1 CL 66/2, CL 66/16, CL 66/PV/18.
2 CL 64/REP paras 205–208.
3 CL 66/2, CL 66/17.
139. The Council also noted that whilst certain of the JIU recommendations were relevant to all organizations in the United Nations family, others were hardly relevant to FAO. In particular, the JIU's advocacy of time recording systems which captured support costs to the project level was in the case of FAO inappropriate and impracticable. It was also felt that the JIU recommendation concerning cost benefit analysis was applicable only to a limited extent, bearing in mind that FAO's Regular Programme activities were not project-oriented.
140. The Council agreed with the approach being taken by the ACC. It noted that the secretariat would be providing the Autumn 1975 Finance Committee session with a report on the analysis of the results of the cost measurement system for 1974, and asked that the Finance Committee report on its findings to the Council.
141. The Council considered the UN Joint Inspection Unit Report on the use of travel funds in FAO, together with the comments of the Director-General and the Programme and Finance Committees on this report.
142. It agreed with the comments of the two Committees that multiple visits to the same countries and multiple attendance at the same meetings should be avoided as far as possible; that properly prepared reports of trips would be of value for programming; that travel should be conceived and executed more austerely, and that Assistant Director-General should review all proposed travel and exercise control more rigorously. As regards travel reports, the Council stressed that they should be submitted promptly and in writing by officers at all levels up to DDG.
143. The Council also endorsed the view that over-frequent or lengthy trips by officers at senior management level (D-1 and above) were detrimental to supervision and management of programmes and staff and should be closely reviewed and controlled. Many members of the Council felt that first-class travel should be restricted to the Director-General. The general policy of the Organization being to conform to the Common System 2, a few members stressed the need to avoid any unilateral departure therefrom. In this connexion, the Council noted the appreciation expressed by the JIU for the initiative taken by the FAO Council in setting an example by its decision to apply economy travel to all Members of the Council, and the Programme and Finance Committees, with no distinction in terms of distance and drew the attention of the Director-General to this part of the report.
144. The Council noted that the Finance Committee would consider these matters further at its Thirty-Fifth Session.
145. The Council considered the arrangements for the Eighteenth Session of the Conference, including the Provisional Agenda and Tentative Timetable, and the comments made by the Programme Committee at its Twenty-Eighth Session on the organization of discussions in Commission II.
1 CL 66/2, CL 66/15, CL 66/PV/18.
2 In the case of the UN and at present in other specialized agencies, Assistant Directors-General and above are entitled to first-class travel on long distance journeys. (For FAO these are defined as journeys outside Europe and the Mediterranean area).
3 CL 66/10-Rev.1, CL 66/PV/15, CL 66/PV/20.
146. The Council was informed that the Ninth McDougall Memorial lecture would be delivered by Barbara Ward (Lady Jackson), President of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).
147. The Council reviewed the Provisional Agenda of the Conference 1. It agreed that sub-items 13.1 “Review of Field Programmes, including FAO/UNDP Cooperation” and 13.2 “Medium Term Objectives” should become full items of the Agenda, and that Sub-items 13.4 and 13.5 should be discussed under Item 12 “Programme of Work and Budget, 1976–77”. It felt that appropriate portions of Sub-item 13.3 “Review of FAO Activities Relating to: (a) Fertilizers; (b) Pesticides; (c) International Programme for the Ecological Management of Arid and Semi-Arid Rangelands” could be considered under Item 12 “Programme of Work and Budget, 1976–77” in Commission II, and under Item 6 “Current World Food Situation, with Special Reference to: (a) Import Requirements for Food and Agriculture Inputs …” in Commission I. The Council agreed to the deletion of Item 13.6 “Proposal for Establishing an FAO Development Centre” in the light of the discussions held at its present session. It further agreed to the inclusion of a new Sub-item 24.5 “Integration of the Credit Union in FAO”. As regards Item 17, the Council recommended that the Conference defer consideration of this item in order to allow the Council to continue studying it.
148. Turning to the Timetable, the Council suggested that the Opening of the Conference on Saturday 8 November should take place at 10.00 hours and that the afternoon meeting should begin at 15.00 hours in order to allow for more time during the two first days of the Conference.
1 CL 66/10-Rev.1, Appendix A.
149. The Council felt that in view of Rule XXXV-1 (a) of the General Rules of the Organization by which the Appointment of the Director-General should begin and be effected within three working days following the Opening Day of the Conference, this item should be dealt with in the morning of Monday 10 November. The Council therefore agreed to the following changes
the item “Applications for Membership in the Organization” should be dealt with on Saturday 8 November at the end of the afternoon;
the ceremony of admission of the newly elected Member Nations should take place at the beginning of the morning meeting on Monday 10 November;
this would be followed by the adoption of the first report of the Credentials Committee;
the first ballot for the Election of the Director-General should take place immediately after this; to be followed by
the McDougall Memorial Lecture at the end of the morning;
the result of this first ballot, for the Director-General's Election should thus be announced before the lunch break of Monday. Subsequent ballots for the election of the Director-General would continue in the afternoon of Monday 10 November and if necessary on the following two days in order to ensure that the election is carried out in the time prescribed.
In the afternoon of Monday, the Conference Plenary would continue with the Presentation of the B.R. Sen Awards for 1974 and 1975, followed by the Director-General's Statement and the other items as mentioned in Appendix B of CL 66/10-Rev.1.
150. The Council decided that the informal meeting of observers from non-governmental organizations would be held on Tuesday morning, in order to enable them to be present at the Plenary of the Conference for the Statements of the Director-General and of the Independent Chairman of the Council.
151. The Council agreed that four half days should be allocated to the item “Review of Field Programmes, including FAO/UNDP Cooperation”.
152. The Council expressed reservations at the composition of the Resolutions Committee 1, proposed in para. 32 of CL 66/10-Rev.1, and recommended that the Resolutions Committee of the Conference be composed of seven members, one from each Region.
153. The Council agreed that para. 51 of CL 66/10-Rev.1, should be amended as follows: “At its Sixty-Sixth Session, the Council decided that, as far as possible, informal meetings of regional or similar groups should not be convened during regular Conference hours, to avoid making ........”.
154. In concluding, the Council requested the Director-General to emphasize in the Invitation Letter to the Conference the importance for Member Countries to comply with Rule III-2 of the General Rules of the Organization which states that in so far as possible the credentials of delegates, alternates, associates and advisers be deposited with the Director-General not less than 15 days before the date fixed for the opening of the Conference. This would allow the Credentials Committee to complete its work by Sunday 9 November for submission on Monday morning to the Conference for adoption, before the first ballot on the election of the Director-General.
155. The Council noted that the Heads of Delegations represented at the Council had met during the Session, and had designated the individuals who would be approached to serve as Chairman of the Conference and Chairmen of Commissions I, II and III.
156. The Council noted that the Conference at its Eighteenth Session would be required to appoint the Independent Chairman of the Council, the term of office of the present incumbent expiring in November 1975.
157. The Council also noted that with regard to the nominations for this office, Rule XXIII-1 (b) of the General Rules of the Organization laid down that the Council determine the date for such nominations which must be submitted by Member Nations and addressed to the Secretary-General of the Conference. The Council accordingly established the deadline for the receipt of such nominations at 17.00 hours on Monday 8 September 1975. Nominations would be circulated by the Secretary-General to all Member Nations by Monday 22 September 1975.
1 See paras 261–267 below.
2 CL 66/PV/15.
3 CL 66/18, CL 66/PV/15.