TWENTY-THIRD REGIONAL CONFERENCE FOR AFRICA
JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, 1-5 MARCH 2004
REPORT ON FAO ACTIVITIES IN THE REGION
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|n. Co-operation with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and Farmers Organisations (FOs)|
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1. FAO special report on the State of Food and Agriculture in Africa 2003 prepared for the African Union Ministerial Meeting of 2 July 2003, notes that Africa is the only region where average food production per person has been declining in the past 40 years, putting large segments of the population at risk of food insecurity and malnutrition. A third of Africa’s population is undernourished and FAO projects that by 2015, the numbers will increase. The stagnation of agricultural production and declining productivity, in many countries, have resulted from poor political commitment, poor policy environment as well as structural and institutional impediments to agricultural productivity and growth.
2. The renewed focus by the African Leaders as echoed in their Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security in Africa, at the Maputo AU Summit, offers new prospects for improved food and agriculture development. The African Leaders have resolved to: revitalize the agricultural sector, including livestock, forestry and fisheries; implement the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). They also agreed to adopt sound policies for agricultural and rural development and committed themselves to allocating at least 10% of national budgetary resources for their implementation within five years. FAO has collaborated with NEPAD Secretariat in the preparation of CAADP and is committed to assist in its implementation at national and regional levels. In addition, FAO has continued to provide technical assistance to member countries, focusing on food security, poverty reduction and sustainable use of natural resources and has maintained an active programme within its mandate.
3. The Twenty-Second Regional Conference recommended that:
The following briefs summarize the actions taken on these recommendations:
4. Technical assistance was provided to 42 member countries in the region towards the pilot and expansion phases of their Special Programme for Food Security. Three countries have been assisted in formulating new SPFS projects, 29 countries are extending the SPFS at national level. Numerous techniques introduced have helped countries increase their yields. FAO has assisted in the implementation the New Revised International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC 1997) which promotes consultations among member countries on International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISMP).
5. Technical assistance was provided to 31 member countries in fisheries and aquaculture and to the Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC) for the monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) of fishing operations. FAO introduced the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) and assists in the implementation of the International Plan of Action to prevent and eliminate illegal fishing (IPOA-IUU) and the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
6. FAO assisted the NEPAD Secretariat, the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and the AU in the preparation of the technical documents, including the revised CAADP, the Action Plan along with its flagship projects in Johannesburg, the organization of high-level meetings in Abuja and the Maputo AU Summit. FAO provided technical support and advice through full-time African experts, and staff time to assist the NEPAD Secretariat and the RECs; assisted national Governments organize One-day sensitisation workshops on NEPAD; and contributed to the formulation and implementation of forestry projects in the NEPAD Environment Action Plan.
7. Recruitment policies of FAO are in line with the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and FAO staff and dependants are covered by the FAO medical insurance. The UNAIDS handbook has been distributed and testing and counselling information is available through FAO’s internal web page. FAO is promoting food security and agriculture sector interventions to help mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic through labour saving technologies, transfer of knowledge and appropriate technologies, institutional building, nutritional care and support for affected persons.
8. The Organisation assists Ministries of Agriculture to strengthen their capacity to integrate gender concerns into their activities, such as policy formulation on “gender and agricultural development”; training in the use of socio-economic and gender analysis tools. FAO promoted the production and analysis of gender related data. Technical support has been provided to the FAO Regional Office for Africa for the implementation of the Plan of Action on Gender and Development.
9. The FAO new entity "Forests and Water" will focus on improved national awareness and policy environment in support of the sustainable management of mountain forests and upland areas with regard to water resources. In 2003 a new programme was initiated under the FAO Netherlands Partnership Programme (FNPP) on Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) for Food Security. The programme aims at providing support to development of IWRM strategies and development plans at local river basin and sub-catchment level, and IWRM policies at national level. The focus is on capacity building for IWRM implementation in rural development.
10. FAO has supported PATTEC through scientific/technical fora and organises annual meetings of PAAT Advisory Group Co-ordinators, Programme Committee and FAO Liaison Officers on African Trypanosomiasis. FAO has assisted in the development of modalities for harmonisation and actions for PAAT and PATTEC.
11. FAO provided inputs for the preparation of the NEPAD/CAADP pillar "Investment in Land and Water", following the ARC special session during the WFS fyl. Follow-up support was extended to selected countries in their identification of national action plans. In the domain of land management and soil fertility, assistance was provided to many countries in the framework of the Special Programme of Food Security (SPFS) in specific field projects, programmes with strong partnership elements, and in using approaches such as Farmers Field Schools for soil productivity improvement, integrated soil fertility management, watershed land management, micro-dose of fertilizers, etc. Technical support was given to several countries in developing good agricultural practices and/or community land use planning for agricultural production and for combating land degradation. Characterization of the land and water resources of the Limpopo River Basin was also completed.
12. Assistance in capacity building was provided to national institutions in Land and Water Resources Information Systems. A workshop was held in Dakar with 40 Experts from 17 West and Central African countries. National state of land resource reports and databases are elaborated and posted on the FAO Gateway to Land Resources Information System. The updating of AQUASTAT was also discussed and the methodology reviewed.
13. Nine Specialists from West and Central, East and Southern Africa were trained for carbon sequestration evaluation and monitoring, in connection with climate change and soil productivity improvement at community land levels.
14. Assistance was provided for land degradation assessment in dry lands in Africa. Support was provided for pilot site activities in Senegal, and through a regional Workshop with 18 African countries and was extended to 22 countries in collaboration with the World Bank for the preparation of national action plans for soil fertility improvement and promotion of good land husbandry practices. These action plans are at various stages of development and need funding.
15. FAO supported the Southern African Development Community – ACFD 2002 regional consultation on “Improving fertilizer procurement and distribution to enhance food crop production in the region”. Within the framework of the West and Central, the East and Southern African Sub-Committees for Soil Knowledge and Sustainable Land Management, two meetings are under preparation; with the aim to train specialists in the use of the World Reference Base for soils resources (WRB).
16. FAO has continued to promote sustainable crop protection programme that reduces risks associated with pests and pest control in member countries. Capacity building for the development and implementation of Farmer Field Schools for field application of Integrated Production and Pest Management (IPPM) in crops was pursued. Crops that have been successfully grown with minimal or no pesticide applications include: cassava, cotton, bananas, maize, rice and vegetables.
17. FAO assisted eight member countries and implemented three projects on management of Water weeds. A major achievement was the successful control of Salvinia molesta (water fern) in the Senegal River. Other countries of the Niger and Volta Basins have established the units for rearing insects for the control of water hyacinth, and also the networks to facilitate this long-term work. Togo received technical assistance to improve weed management in major crops through training for technical personnel and farmers.
18. Jointly with UNEP, FAO has conducted Farmer participatory training for Phasing out of methyl bromide in the ornamental tree-growing industry in Naivasha, Kenya. The work on roses is ongoing with promising results. The development of IPPM capacity was reinforced by providing support to countries for the strengthening of plant protection legislation, reducing risks in pesticide distribution and use and facilitating safe and proper plant imports and exports.
19. Capacity building assistance was provided to several countries in pesticide management. In the Sahel region, assistance was provided in establishing controls to regulate the range, quality and suitability of pesticide products, based on provisions of the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Control of Pesticides.
20. All member countries have participated in training workshops on the implementation of the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals, and Pesticides in International Trade and the Stockholm Convention on the Reduction/Elimination and Management of Pesticides. FAO has provided advice and support to Governments in the region to ratify this Rotterdam Convention. Of the 45 countries that have ratified this Convention, 12 are from the Africa region.
21. Support to member countries in the identification, elimination and prevention of obsolete pesticide stockpiles through technical guidance and training has continued. FAO supported Africa Stockpiles Programme (ASP) and has coordinated the formulation of projects for six countries in phase 1 of the ASP. The implementation of the New Revised International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC 1997) continued through regional technical consultations for African countries on draft International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM).
22. FAO assisted Ghana, Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of Congo to formulate NERICA rice projects and continues to assist Rwanda in the intensification of rice production for food security. Nigeria benefited from FAO’s assistance in the formulation of a Policy Document on Good Agricultural Practices. FAO initiated on a pilot basis an interdisciplinary programme in Burkina Faso to enhance Integrated Production Systems (PRODS/PAIA) for intensified and sustainable agriculture in support of the SPFS and Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development.
23. Technical documents on fodder tree utilization and forage production and conservation technologies have been produced. Work on Country Pasture Resource Profiles in Africa continues. FAO has initiated the production of books to sensitise primary and secondary school students on environmental issues related to agricultural activities.
24. Fifteen countries have been assisted by the TCP facility to improve the productivity of poultry, small ruminants and pigs in support of the Diversification Component of the SPFS. To reduce losses and improve the quality of milk products, FAO is implementing a Post-Harvest Food Losses and Food Safety project in Sub-Saharan Africa and a French funded project on utilisation of the lactoperoxidase technique in West Africa. FAO has responded to livestock related requests for emergency assistance in Southern and the Horn of Africa.
25. Forty-three countries in the Africa region will participate in the first FAO Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources, to be finalized in 2006. FAO has provided technical and financial assist
26. EMPRES-Livestock activities are coordinated and integrated with the Pan African Control of Epizootics (PACE) programme implemented by the Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources of the African Union; FAO participates in the PACE Advisory Committee meetings. Support through the FAO/IAEA Joint Division is directed at good laboratory practices, diagnostics and vaccine quality control. The Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme is assisting countries to achieve formal declaration of disease freedom by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). TCP support to Southern and East Africa is aimed at containing the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and contagious bovine pleuro-pneumonia. In West Africa, EMPRES support was directed at the control of African swine fever and at early warning protocols for Rift Valley fever (RVF).
27. In the Horn of Africa attention was on the negative impact of trade restrictions imposed by countries in the Arabian Peninsula on imports of live animals from RVF suspected areas. Two Trust Fund projects have been assisting local authorities in Djibouti, Ethiopia and northern Somalia to re-establish safe livestock trade with Gulf countries.
28. In support of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and of further efforts to reduce human and animal trypanosomiasis and their vectors, FAO has, through the AU/FAO/IAEA/WHO Programme Against African Trypanosoniasis (PAAT), convened a series of workshops, meetings and consultations to support the preparation of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programmes.
29. FAO continues to promote conservation agriculture technologies in the region focussing on three principles: minimal soil disturbance and direct planting, maintenance of a permanent soil cover with residues, cover crops and crop rotations/associations by crop sequences, intercropping and/or mixed crops. An agricultural mechanisation strategy and action plan has been formulated in Mali.
30. Minimum standards and codes of practice for pesticide use and application equipment are now published and are being considered for adoption in a number of countries. Preparatory Assistance project in Sudan is being conducted for a longer-term project to promote community-based agro-related micro and home-based manufacturing activities towards the sustainable resettlement of internally displaced people.
31. Technical support was provided to countries in the region in: post-harvest activities, marketing, rural finance and agribusiness training, and livestock marketing. In Ghana, FAO assisted in conducting studies on term finance and trader associations, tomato and cassava processing, lending arrangements to qualified SPFS participants. Ten FAO-GTZ Micro-Banking systems for rural financial institutions in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania were installed, and FAO technical support provided for a further 13 installations. In collaboration with GTZ, an improved version for Windows (“MB Win”) has been developed.
32. Field programmes were supported through improved farm management and planning of participating farm communities, participatory monitoring and evaluation. FAO has assisted in building Governments’ capacity in farm data collection and analysis and understanding rural local information networks as well as in monitoring and evaluation. Regional investigation of the impact of commercialisation of agriculture on gender groups within rural households was conducted as well as the study on costs and benefits of peri-urban and urban agriculture and its implications on the incidence of malaria.
33. Support is provided in the capacity building efforts of the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) of member countries. This included advice on policy and planning, organization and management, technology assessment and transfer including biotechnology, cooperation, partnership and linkages, and information and communication technology. Electronic fora on biotechnology were organised with the aim of helping NARS to better integrate problems related to food security, poverty alleviation and environmental conservation.
34. FAO provided assistance and hosted the establishment of the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) in its Regional Office, Accra. In collaboration with FARA and the sub-regional organisations, FAO assisted NEPAD Secretariat in preparing the component on agricultural research, technology dissemination and adoption that was incorporated in the CAADP. In addition to participation at meetings of the CGIAR and the Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR), FAO has published the NARS Directory for Africa both in print and electronic format.
35. Support has been provided to the restructuring of Agricultural Extension services in Uganda and the development of the Farmer-Led Extension training course for the region. FAO co-hosted a conference on “Transforming Agriculture Extension in Africa” with GTZ in 2003.
36. FAO supports the development of national Rural Youth policy in many countries and training curriculum in Namibia and Cameroon. FAO will support the Sub-regional Training Seminar on National Youth Policy for Central and East African Countries end of year. In collaboration with private donors, FAO has supported Education for Rural People; collaborates with UNESCO and Community rural radio broadcasters (AMARC) and participates with UNESCO in the Education and Food For All flagship. FAO is also assisting the newly formed University of the Gambia to develop the College of Science and Agriculture.
37. Various activities to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on Agriculture in the region were undertaken. A project proposal is under formulation on the incorporation of HIV/AIDS and Agriculture information into the curriculum of Universities and Agriculture training colleges in Ghana.
38. FAO has provided Communication for Development support to SPFS. Support was provided in Communication for Development training, strategy design, methodology, policy and media use, particularly Rural Radio to enhance agricultural advisory services and foster participation of rural communities and NGOs.
39. FAO continued its support to Ministries of Agriculture to strengthen their capacity to integrate gender concerns into the planning and implementation of their programmes through various approaches: technical assistance for policy formulation, entitled “Gender and Agricultural Development Strategy”; training of development planners in the use of socio-economic and gender analysis tools (SEAGA), for planning and implementation of agricultural sector programmes; reinforcing the collection and use of gender related data and developing training materials on the re-tabulation of existing raw data disaggregated by sex and age; has organised training workshops on Gender Analysis and Participatory Approaches for the Sustainable Use and Conservation of Agro-biodiversity and Food Security.
40. HIV/AIDS work has focused on critical areas to vulnerable households, such as: the role of agro-biodiversity; knowledge transfer systems; labour saving technologies; and nutritional care and support for PLWHA and affected households. Guidelines have been produced to integrate HIV/AIDS considerations into the project cycle in order to identify and implement mitigating strategies for household food security, livelihoods and nutrition.
41. FAO provides technical assistance on building capacity of village-based and farmer organisations in order to increase their participation and empowerment in planning and implementation of development activities, professionalize their organisations and improve their rural livelihoods and food security. FAO has continued to give support to the rural disabled by providing them with agro-based technical and micro business management skills.
42. FAO is conducting an inter-regional comparative study on the role of local level institutions in reducing vulnerability to natural disasters, in order to build on lessons learned to strengthen local organisations, national and local governments and civil societies in risk management in some member countries. Partner institutes are conducting field analysis. “Action models” from this work will lead to recommendations for decentralised risk prevention and disaster mitigation.
43. Technical assistance has been provided to some member nations on the participatory design of rural development policies and strategies. On the basis of lessons learnt on the role of public and civil society institutions, guidelines are being developed that will lead to recommendations on the best practices and approaches to decentralised planning and implementation of rural development policies and strategies.
44. Technical support is provided to many field projects concerning legal and policy issues, land administration and land use planning such as: the Ghana Land Administration Project (LAP), Namibia's Land Reform Act, Mozambique on the implementation of the Land Law; Guinea-Bissau in support of the development of a Land Law, Angola on conflict resolution, Sudan’s consideration of land issues during the transition from emergency to development, and Mali’s elaboration of a Pastoral Charter agreed upon by pastoralists and farmers.
45. Recent studies including Lessons learned from land administration projects: The cases of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana and Land tenure situation in Ethiopia - general review have been prepared, and training materials provided, including a Resource kit and training materials on common property diagnostics in Lusophone countries, used in support of Mozambique and Angola’s communal land demarcation and Training materials for land conflict management prepared for use in Ghana.
46. FAO is supporting capacity building and restructuring of public rural development institutions in the context of decentralisation in several African countries. FAO is implementing a DFID-funded Livelihood sub-programme "Natural Resource Conflict Management" in Ghana, with the aim of creating a critical mass of trainers competent in conflict management of natural resources. FAO is implementing a case study in Mali on analysing effective policies and institutional strategies for SARD. The recommendations will be used to strengthen national capacities in Mali and the region, to plan, implement and evaluate SARD policies.
47. FAO is conducting studies in Ghana and South Africa on the role of agricultural trade unions vis-à-vis the current changes of the agricultural sector with the objective of identifying lessons and providing policy recommendations to governments, trade unions, non-governmental organisations and donors, for strengthening rural institutions.
48. FAO implements an institutional analysis in fishing communities in the African Great Lakes Region to assess the participation and representativity of households affected by HIV/AIDS. Results are used to update existing curricula in order to train front-line extension staff to assist vulnerable households in HIV/AIDS affected fishing communities.
49. FAO continues to support pilot applications of the FIVIMS initiative in the region. Support in strengthening early warning and food security information systems is being provided and extended to the SADC, the IGAD, and the ECOWAS Secretariats. FAO monitors food supply and demand in all member states and disseminates up-to-date Global Information and Early Warning System information to ensure timely interventions. A series of joint FAO/CILSS Crop Assessment Missions took place in West Africa. Joint FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Missions were carried out in other countries.
50. The International Initiative for strengthening agricultural and rural statistics in Africa is being developed. A key output will be a “charter” providing guiding principles for the sustained development of food and agricultural statistics. An international Seminar was co-organized by FAO, PARIS21 and French Cooperation on a New Partnership to Strengthen Agricultural and Rural Statistics in Africa for Poverty Reduction and Food Security. FAO held two regional Workshops on Integrated Agricultural Statistics in Support of Food Policies, an Expert Consultation on Root Crop Statistics, a National Demonstration Centre on Food Security and Consumption Statistics from Household Income and Expenditures Surveys and Agricultural Statistics for Policy Support. The 18th Session of the FAO AFRICAN Commission on Agricultural Statistics, in Cameron, urged governments to allocate additional resources for agricultural statistics. Support to countries through field projects continued to be provided.
51. Support is provided for the development and implementation of National Plans of Action for Nutrition in 23 countries. FAO cooperated with other development partners in the development of the Standard and Trade Development Facility to assist developing countries to participate effectively in the work of international standard setting bodies (Codex, OIE and IPPC). FAO trained trainers from French-speaking West African countries in the application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point and held Regional Workshops on: food inspection techniques; food control regulatory frameworks; practical approaches to food control management; and on the application of food safety risk analysis in Africa. FAO assisted member countries in the improvement of the quality and safety of street foods, organization and strengthening of food control systems, and formulation of food control projects.
52. Compilation of nutrition profiles and the preparation of food composition databases was undertaken; French version of “Improving nutrition through home gardening” was published; co-sponsoring the 2nd International Workshop on Food-based approaches for a healthy nutrition in West Africa.
53. Efforts to improve nutrition and household food security among HIV affected households were promoted including the production and consumption of indigenous and less labour intensive food crops.
54. Establishment of grassroots nutrition education programs, setting-up of a regional training programme for small/medium size industries in several West African countries, expansion of the Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger (FMFH) global school initiative, training of trainers to improve the quality and availability of food composition data; contributing to WTO workshops and seminars on SPS agreement in the region.
55. FAO activities in policy and programme work aimed to help member countries to improve their food security and to reduce poverty in a broad-based, gender sensitive and sustainable manner. Technical assistance was provided to countries and regional organizations to ensure that policies, strategies and programmes reflected and addressed priority problems to increase productivity in food and agriculture.
56. Multidisciplinary missions were fielded to countries to address priority problems in food security, sustainable management of water resources, post-harvest loss reduction, Integrated Crop and Pest Management and Improvement of Agricultural Trade.
57. FAO assisted to build capacity of Governments for policy analysis, formulation, monitoring and evaluation. With support from Development Partners, FAO provided assistance to prepare agricultural components for Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, Common Country Assessment, (CCA), and the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF).
58. Technical assistance was provided to sub-regional organizations (ECOWAS, UEMOA, CEEAC, CEMAC, CILSS, SADC, COMESA, and IGAD) on Regional Initiatives to improve sustainable food security. FAO provided technical assistance for the preparation of NEPAD/CAADP, held technical consultations with RECs, ADB and other partners in Accra, Abuja, Johannesburg and Maputo on the implementation of CAADP. FAO also assisted member countries to hold One-day awareness workshops on the NEPAD/CAADP.
59. During the period, the main fisheries-related activities undertaken by FAO included:
60. FAO forestry activities in the region expanded significantly. The Forestry Outlook Study for Africa (FOSA) has yielded a regional overview report for Africa, and five sub-regional outlook reports reflecting the challenges and potentials for forestry development in North, West, East, Central and Southern Africa. These offer policy options and investment strategies through which forestry may contribute to poverty alleviation, food security and sustainable development. The FOSA reports constitute inputs into the CAADP of NEPAD.
61. Over 15 member countries received assistance with their national forest programmes (NFPs) through the multi-donor NFP Facility. With support from the EC-FAO Partnership Programme, experiences in implementing NFPs have been reviewed.
62. Under the FAO-Netherlands Partnership Programme, activities on forest management practices in Central Africa have been carried out in collaboration with the African Timber Organization (ATO), International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO), World Conservation Union (IUCN), Inter-African Forest Industry Association (IFIA), Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and the International Model Forests Network Secretariat (IMFNS). This process culminated in the publication of 14 case studies and a short description of 10 nominated forests. A Code of Reduced Impact Logging (RIL), initiated under the EC-FAO Partnership Programme was elaborated in Central and West Africa.
63. Under the Tehran Initiative on Low Forest Cover Countries (LFCCs) and Dry zone process on Criteria and Indicators (C & I) of Sustainable Forest Management, the FNPP has supported technical workshops in a number of countries and two regional meetings. With support from the FNPP and in collaboration with UNEP, FAO also organised two regional workshops on the management of secondary forests.
64. Support to Forestry Research has been strengthened through the Forestry Research Network for Sub-Saharan Africa (FORNESSA). A FORNESSA website is operational and includes databases for African forestry research institutions, scientists and projects.
65. The 13th Session of the African Forestry and Wildlife Commission (AFWC) took place in Gabon. Two more countries, Egypt and Equatorial Guinea, participated as full members of the Commission, and Libya requested membership. The 14th Session of the AFWC will take place in Morocco.
66. FAO activities in the region aimed at reinforcing effective dialogue and cooperation between FAO, member Governments, and NGOs/CSOs at national and regional levels. FAO helped NGOs/CSOs to prepare for their participation in the WFS by organizing two FAO/NGO-CSO preparatory Regional Consultations. The action plan adopted by these meetings constituted the platform for African NGO/CSO participation in the WFS:fyl and the parallel NGO/CSO Forum on Food Sovereignty. The four priority areas identified by the NGOs/CSOs for cooperation are: the right to Food and Food sovereignty; local peoples’ access to, management of, and control over local resources; small-scale family-based agro-ecological methods of food production; and trade and food sovereignty. FAO organized a regional Consultation in Accra with the IPC regional focal points in order to define the action plan for Africa.
67. FAO has encouraged the involvement of farmers’ organizations in the NEPAD process to ensure that the agricultural component takes into account the real needs of the producers. FAO collaborated with IFAD to help farmers’ organizations hold sub-regional consultations and is also enhancing NGO/CSO participation in other field programmes such as the SPFS. FAO contributes to the Farmers’ Organizations capacity building. In Burkina Faso, a TCP for farmers’ organizations capacity building is operational and being managed by the Farmers’ organizations themselves.
68. Emergency interventions to control contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sudan and Zambia as well as to control ASF epidemics in Burkina-Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Uganda, and Zambia were undertaken. Emergency assistance and intervention to control FMD outbreaks in Botswana, Guinea-Bissau, Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe as well as intervention to control brucellosis in small ruminants in Swaziland were made. Intervention to investigate an epidemic in the Comoros of unknown aetiology was undertaken in addition to the control of zoonoses and promotion of public health. Emergency Support for Drought Affected Livestock Owners in Northern Kenya were undertaken.
69. EMPRES has carried out the following activities in the Africa region in 2002 – 2003:
70. The TCDC Activities have extended the range of FAO’s collaboration with African countries with the main thrust of enhancing the spirit of cooperation based on shared responsibilities and mutual benefits. During this last biennium, 85 assignments have been undertaken. Twenty-five (25) African countries have actively taken part in the programme and 35 have benefited. Twenty-three countries in Africa have entered into South-South cooperation agreement.
71. Under the Special Programme for Food Security, 42 countries have been assisted towards the pilot and expansion phases, three in formulating new projects and 29 in extending the SPFS at national level. Numerous simple techniques have contributed to increased yields of crops in many countries. They include: the treadle pumps for small-scale irrigation and water harvesting techniques; utilization of composts, lime application on acidic soils, popularisation of simple and efficient silage making technologies for livestock production; the introduction of warehouse receipt techniques to support inventory loans. The South-South Cooperation (SSC) has introduced appropriate and cost effective technologies, such as Indian improved irrigation structures and cereal/vegetable seed production techniques in Eritrea; Vietnamese metallic fishing boats and fish paste production techniques in Senegal; rice cultivation techniques in Madagascar, and food processing techniques for yams in Benin; and Moroccan improved animal breeding and beekeeping techniques in Burkina Faso. SPFS is improving the livelihoods and nutrition of poor families in urban/peri-urban sites by using simple techniques, abundant labour and locally available low-cost materials. Micro-garden techniques were introduced in Senegal from Colombia with assistance from Vietnamese SSC experts. Conversely, Senegalese experts assisted Venezuela in developing micro-gardens. Farmer Field Schools community-based extension training programmes have introduced integrated production and pest management techniques in over 18 countries in the region.
72. The persistent high levels of hunger, undernourishment and poverty in Africa underscore the reasons for placing priority on agricultural development in the region. However, improvements in food and agriculture production during the past two years have not shown much significance. The weak performance reflects inadequate changes made by African governments towards national agricultural policies and overall policy environment; structural and institutional constraints including low application of technologies; limited and inefficient management of the agricultural delivery systems and the natural resource base.
73. The renewed efforts by the region’s leaders as echoed in the NEPAD’s overall vision for agriculture, and steps being taken towards the implementation of the CAADP add impetus to on-going initiatives and actions to arrest and reverse this agricultural malaise, and place African economies on a sustainable and competitive growth path.
74. Member States in the Africa region continue to place a high priority on food security, poverty reduction, sustainable agriculture and rural development, including management of natural resources, diversification, agro-processing and trade.
75. These priorities are reflected in the Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security adopted by Heads of State and Governments at the Maputo AU Summit, in which the African Leaders resolved to:
76. The NEPAD approach to agricultural development is expected to add value and content, impetus and focus to on-going national processes that address the priorities of the region.
77. FAO in partnership with other development partners, are ready to provide technical assistance at national and regional levels towards the implementation of the CAADP programme and projects, while ensuring adherence to clear national and sectoral development plans/strategies as well as leading development frameworks, such as the PRSPs.
78. FAO will also continue to provide assistance to member countries within its mandate, including: policy assistance and programmes; agriculture and livestock (including plant and animal production, plant protection, animal health, rural finance, micro-enterprise development, agricultural mechanisation, irrigation and water management), forestry and fisheries; sustainable development (including HIV/AIDS, gender, land tenure, rural institutions, technology); economic and social development (including nutrition and agricultural statistics); mobilization of resources, particularly preparation of the technical documentation for investment and collaboration with investors.
79. In collaboration with Governments, development partners, non-governmental organisations, farmers’ associations, the private sector, and other related agriculture-based professional associations, FAO professional staff of the Regional and Sub-regional Offices, will continue to provide technical assistance to address the priorities of the region in food and agriculture, especially food security, agricultural trade and sustainable management of natural resources.
80. Specific activities proposed for the biennium will focus on the operationalisation of the NEPAD/CAADP actions, and will include:
Policy assistance to member countries to ensure consistency and coherence between macro and sectoral policy frameworks and strategies, and that the NEPAD/CAADP programmes take into account national development processes.
Providing technical advice and support to strengthen the consultative process in order to ensure common understanding, support and ownership of the NEPAD/CAADP activities, involving all the stakeholders at national and regional level;
Providing technical advice and support to ensure expansion of areas under sustainable land management and reliable water control systems; support to rural infrastructure and trade-related capacities for improved market access, especially improvement of rural-based, small-scale agro-processing industries; reduction in post-harvest and storage losses; promoting intra-regional and international trade; raising and harmonizing food safety and quality standards;
Ensuring expansion and improvement of sustainable field crop production and related cropping systems, intensive grassland and fodder production, and integrated production and pest management (IPPM) farmers’ field schools (FFSs); support to emergency and rehabilitation in food production in response to disasters and emergencies;
Improving the management and conservation of fisheries resources, strengthening of regional fisheries management institutions, establishing effective monitoring, control and surveillance systems; developing environmentally-sound aquaculture; reducing post-harvest losses through improvement of fish handling practices and processing techniques; and promoting intra-regional fish trade;
81. Food security, poverty reduction and sustainable use and management of natural resources will continue to be the major thrust of FAO’s work in Africa in the foreseeable future. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) provides African Governments, in collaboration with their development partners, an opportunity for renewed efforts to address the priorities and achieve meaningful results. In the next biennium, attention will be focussed at the policy level, on assisting member countries to: (i) review, update, reform and harmonise policies, strategies, programmes in order to create an enabling environment for the implementation of the NEPAD/CAADP Action Plans in line with national and regional priorities and development objectives; (ii) strengthen capacities, institutions, mechanisms and policy instruments that will facilitate internalising CAADP at regional, country and local levels; (iii) identify, prepare bankable projects and mobilise internal and external resources for their implementation.