European System of Cooperative Research Networks in Agriculture
(ESCORENA)

 

PROGRESS REPORT 1996-98


INTRODUCTION

Establishment of ESCORENA

Structure

Financial aspects

Role of FAO

Monitoring

Adjustments

ACTIVITIES 1996-98

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA

Direct contacts

Meetings

Publications

JOINT APPLIED RESEARCH

COOPERATION WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES

COOPERATION WITH OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

DESCRIPTION OF NETWORKS

PLANT PRODUCTION

Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Cotton

European Cooperative Research Network on Flax and Other Bast Plants

FAO/CIHEAM Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Nuts

Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Olives

FAO/CIHEAM Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Pastures and Fodder Crops

Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Rice

European Cooperative Research Network on Soybean

European Cooperative Research Network on Sunflower

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Buffalo

FAO/CIHEAM Interregional (REU/RNE) Research Network on Sheep and Goats

AGRICULTURE - ENVIRONMENT

Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture Network(RAMIRAN)

Sustainable Rural Environment and Energy Network (SREN)

FOOD AND NUTRITION

Network on Trace Elements, Natural Antioxidants and Contaminants in Foods and Diets

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUPS

Oats Disease Nursery

Game Farming Group

ANNEX I - ESCORENA Coordinators

ANNEX II - List of ESCORENA Meetings

ANNEX III - PARTICIPATION OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN NETWORK MEETINGS
(1996-98)

ANNEX IV - REU TECHNICAL SERIES

INTRODUCTION

1. The Seventh and Eighth FAO Regional Conferences for Europe held in Budapest, Hungary, 1971 and in Munich, Germany, 1973, respectively, discussed the role of FAO in agricultural research in Europe and recommended the establishment of a system of voluntary research cooperation under the aegis of FAO. These recommendations were based on the principle that in a period of rapid technological and scientific development, it was difficult for any one institution or country to undertake all necessary scientific research on any given subject matter.

2. The Conferences recommended the basic purpose and main objectives of the system, namely to:

3. The present paper briefly reviews development of the system since its inception and activities of networks in the period 1996-98. It focuses on adjustments in programmatic orientation and changes in organizational structures that took place in the period under review.

Establishment of ESCORENA

4. Twenty-five years ago, at the time of the establishment of ESCORENA, agricultural research in Europe was still oriented towards attaining national food security through self-sufficiency, increase in food production for export, substitution of imported by locally produced goods, price stabilisation and increase in farm income. Contacts between researchers from western and eastern parts of the Continent were still limited, but were gradually improving within the framework of the policy and spirit of détente. The agricultural and political situations were conducive to the establishment of a structure, which would facilitate East-West cooperation under the aegis of an intergovernmental organization, such as FAO.

5. Economic cooperation among West European countries (developed market economies) has been taking place mostly through two economic groupings: the Common Market, later European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). At the time of the establishment of ESCORENA, there were no joint agricultural research projects financed and coordinated by the EEC Commission.

6. The first cooperative research network was established in 1974 (Olives). This was followed by networks on Sunflower, Pesticides (1975), Maize, Durum Wheat, Soybeans, Animal Waste Management (1976), Trace Elements (1977), Pastures and Fodder Crops (1978) and Sheep and Goats (1979). Since 1983, six networks operated within the European Cooperative Networks on Rural Energy (CNRE), and in 1993 they were reorganized into a single network on Sustainable Rural Environment and Energy (SREN). In the period between 1985 and 1992 the networks on Maize, Pesticides and Durum Wheat were phased out and their programmes transferred to other forms of international cooperation. The networks on Cotton, Olives, Rice, Buffalo and Nuts were established as interregional networks in the period 1988-92 including countries from Europe and the Near East. The ad hoc Working Group on Flax was transformed into a network in 1993.

7. The FAO Regional Office for Europe (REU) established networks upon consultation with appropriate national authorities and research institutions, which expressed their interest to cooperate. Each network is composed of cooperating institutions and/or individual researchers working on the same or similar subjects. Within the network, they agree on joint research projects, divide tasks and objectives and establish a time frame. Cooperative research projects stem from national research programmes and priorities and are financed by participating national institutions. Therefore, they are at the same time a form of the international research cooperation and an integral part of national research programmes.

Structure

8. Each network is free to establish its structure. The networks have a simple and flexible organizational set-up and their activities are basically self-regulated. Most networks are divided into subnetworks or working groups covering specific topics within the broader network subject. The network participants choose chairmen and coordinators of subnetworks and working groups, usually for a renewable period of four years. The network coordinators (Annex I) are responsible for the implementation of the agreed programme and collaborate with FAO in convening workshops, technical meetings, network consultations and producing publications.

Financial aspects

9. As mentioned above, research programmes have been financed by cooperating institutions. FAO’s financial support is mainly catalytic: it covers a part of the meeting costs and publications. Travel of participants to meetings and technical consultations is, in principle, paid by collaborating institutions. FAO supports the participation of researchers from developing countries and from Central and Eastern European countries on a selective basis.

10. Some networks receive financial support from governments of participating countries, international organizations and industry. SREN is partly financed through a special Trust Fund established by several European countries. The Olives and Nuts Networks are partly financed by INIA1 through a special Trust Fund established by the Government of Spain.

Role of FAO

11. Research networks have been established by FAO following requests made by Member Nations from Europe and in accordance with FAO policies and objectives. At the outset, it was understood that the role of FAO should be catalytic: to assist countries in establishing research cooperation and to develop forms of cooperation that would gradually become self-governing and financially independent entities. Cooperation with FAO would then be regulated through the established forms in accordance with mutual interest and FAO rules.

12. ESCORENA started as a part of FAO’s regional activities in Europe. However, already at the start of its activities it obtained broader significance: it was not only the relevance of the European knowledge and technologies to the FAO mission, but a gradual inclusion of institutions from developing countries in network activities and the consequent changes in programme orientation (which led to the establishment of interregional networks) that made ESCORENA both an efficient way of diffusing European experience and technology transfer and an active factor in contributing to the implementation of FAO programmes in developing countries.

Monitoring

13. Activities of ESCORENA have frequently been reviewed and proposals for their improvement made, firstly by relevant network consultations and then by the European Commission on Agriculture (ECA) and its Executive Committee, the Regional Conferences for Europe (1988, 1990, 1992, 1996), the Committee on Agriculture (COAG) and the Programme Committee of the Council, the FAO Council and Conference (particularly in 1983 and 1991, within the Review of the Regular Programme budget, ESCORENA and other Technical Cooperation Programmes were examined).

14. In 1989, following the recommendation of the Twenty-fifth Session of the European Commission on Agriculture (ECA), an advisory body reporting to the FAO Regional Representative for Europe and the Chairman of the ECA was established on a four-year trial basis. The European Research Network’s Advisory Committee (ERNAC) was established to periodically review on-going network activities within the System, to advise on usefulness and feasibility of programmes, value of topics proposed for new networks and on the discontinuation of those networks that have accomplished their tasks. The Twenty-seventh Session of the ECA recommended continuation of activities of ERNAC. Reports and recommendations of ERNAC were discussed at the Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth ECA Sessions.

Adjustments

15. Since its inception, ESCORENA has been in the continuous process of internal adjustment in order to improve its functioning and to increase the efficient use of its resources and results. New networks have been established in response to requests from national research institutions and in accordance with Rules for the Operation.

16. The establishment of ERNAC coincided with the first major adjustment, focusing on environmental aspects of agricultural production, difficult and marginal areas, non-food products, agricultural policies (e.g. quality improvement) and low-input production systems. This led to the strengthened cooperation with countries from the Mediterranean Basin, transformation of some existing networks to interregional ones and to the establishment of new networks, as well as to the shared sponsorship with the Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM) and broader involvement of the private sector and non-governmental organizations. Three networks (Olives, Pastures and Fodder Crops and Sheep and Goats) established in 1973-79, had from their inception, a strong Mediterranean component, encompassing institutions and themes of relevance to the southern bank of the Mediterranean Sea. Later, other networks were established or existing ones opened to institutions from Mediterranean countries in order to strengthen North-South cooperation (Cotton, Nuts, Pastures and Fodder Crops, Rice, Buffalo and Sheep and Goat). The phasing-out of some commodity-oriented networks reflected changes in agricultural policy of the major part of European countries.

17. During the period under review, major programmatic and organizational adjustments were initiated in connection with the implementation of the Plan of Action of the World Food Summit, FAO priorities and the consequent changes in FAO’s organizational structure.

18. At present the Networks’ activities financed by FAO are mainly the organization of meetings, specialised courses and publications. The adaptation of the Networks to the above-mentioned Plans of Action would require increased financial resources and their allocation to activities related to joint research and transferring of technology among institutions in developed and developing countries.

ACTIVITIES 1996-98

19. Network activities during the 1996-98 period were affected by the decline in external financial support for more costly forms of cooperation, such as meetings and technical consultations at network level. The reduction in the number of meetings in comparison with the 1994-95 period was partly offset by the more intensive use of electronic means of communication between researchers and participating institutions. Publication activities were maintained at almost the same level as during the period 1994-95. Joint applied research continued within a number of networks in the form of cooperative projects funded by national funding institutions or through participation in internationally funded projects. Networks dealing with plant and animal production have intensified their work in the field of plant and animal genetic resources. Mediterranean components of programmes of interregional networks were further developed in collaboration with CIHEAM, which contributed to the more intensive links between countries from Europe and the Near East.

20. The various forms of cooperation within the System and each individual network, the attainment of basic objectives of the System and the implementation of the agreed principles of cooperation could be illustrated by some indicators of more or less general character.

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA

21. Researchers and participating institutions exchange information and experimental data through direct contacts, meetings and publications.

Direct contacts

22. During the period under review, direct contacts between individual researchers and participating institutions were further strengthened. This was facilitated by the increased use of new communication technologies and the use of email.

Meetings

23. Networks and working groups organized a total of 70 workshops, technical consultations, seminars, technical and business meetings with the participation of some 2 500 experts (Annex II). Meetings were held in 16 European2, three Near East3 and one non-Member Nation4.

24. Although the attendance at meetings is not the only form of participation in ESCORENA research cooperation, it may be considered as a way of assessing interest of research communities from various countries for this form of cooperation. It may also be used as an orientation in the search for amendments and improvements in the performance of the System as a whole and of each individual network. The available information indicates uneven geographic distribution of participants. Out of 41 European countries serviced by the FAO Regional Office for Europe, four countries5 did not participate in ESCORENA meetings, ten participated in meetings6 of one to three networks, while 22 countries7 participated in meetings of five to 12 networks (Annex III).

25. Twelve countries from the Near East Region were represented at meetings of interregional networks and some European networks (SREN, Flax). Six countries participated in meetings of three to eight networks8.

26. Meetings of networks whose activities and programmes have become of global nature (Cotton, Flax, Sunflower) or which have developed programmes of broader interest (RAMIRAN, Rice, SREN) have attracted participation of researchers from 22 countries which are not part of the FAO European Region. Eleven of these countries participated in meetings of three or more networks9.

Publications

27. Publications constitute a major vehicle for exchange of scientific information and the dissemination of research results. ESCORENA networks issue the following publications:

28. Selected proceedings of the meetings in Annex II were published either as REU Technical Series, or as institutional publications of cooperating international institutions, namely, CIHEAM - Cahiers Options Mediterraneenne10, European Association for Animal Production (EAAP)11, Centre National du Machinisme Agricole du Génie Rural des Eaux et des Forets (CEMAGREF)12, Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD)13, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)14, Institute for Natural Fibres (INF)15 and national institutions hosting respective meetings.

JOINT APPLIED RESEARCH

29. According to information received from the Secretariat, ten joint projects have been developed as a result of the meetings. Some of these projects were financed by European programmes.

30. Particular results were obtained in the joint research programmes16, exchange of germplasm17, in collection, conservation and utilisation of plant genetic resources18, sustainable management of natural resources19, diversification of agricultural production20 and in the development of sustainable production systems including improvements in quality of typical local products in support of rural employment and improvements in the economic position of rural population21.

COOPERATION WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES

31. Cooperation with developing countries was carried out in the form of direct participation of 12 Near East countries in interregional networks, attendance of some representatives from other regions at network meetings and distribution of publications to institutions and individual researchers from developing countries in Latin America and Asia. Lack of sufficient financial resources to finance travel costs was the main cause of relatively poor attendance of researchers from developing countries at scientific events organized by networks.

32. The organization of meetings in participating developing countries contributed to the broader involvement of local researchers in international cooperation, particularly if a selected topic was of relevance to the host country22.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

33. The signature of agreements between FAO and CIHEAM regarding the joint sponsorship of interregional research networks on Nuts, Pastures and Fodder Crops and Sheep and Goats, was an important step towards associating other international organizations in ESCORENA activities. This contributed to the more intensive participation of countries from the south bank of the Mediterranean in network activities, as well as to including research activities of priority to developing countries from this Region.

34. The cooperation between the Olive Network and the International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) continued during the period under review. It contributed to the broader participation of countries from the Mediterranean basin in the Network activities. In 1997 a joint FAO-IOOC meeting attended by all olive-growing countries from the Mediterranean basin, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru and Thailand adopted a proposal aiming at broadening the membership, scope and objectives of the Network under the joint aegis of FAO and the IOOC.

35. Cooperation with European and global INGOs active in technical areas covered by ESCORENA, has been maintained and in some cases further improved. A number of events has been jointly organized with relevant INGOs, such as EAAP, EGF, ICAC, ICAR, ISHS, ISO23 and others.

DESCRIPTION OF NETWORKS

PLANT PRODUCTION

Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Cotton

Coordinator: U. Kechagia (Greece)

The Network was established at a technical consultation held in April 1988. Initially, it was composed of four subnetworks and a number of working groups. The structure was adjusted in 1992 (elimination of subnetworks and establishment of nine working groups). During the period 1992-96, three groups implemented the programmes as planned; three have managed to implement part of the programme, while three were not active. In 1996 the Network was restructured with a view to providing a more integrated approach, retaining the structure of national coordinators.

The current structure consists of the following working groups:

Ad hoc WG: Cotton under Marginal Conditions - L.Dimitrova-Bozhinova (Bulgaria)

During the period under review, the Network organized one technical consultation (51 participants from 18 countries), one workshop attended by coordinators of working groups and selected experts (27 participants from ten countries) and a meeting of the Biotechnology Group (28 participants from 16 countries). The Network is composed of participants from 14 countries, but its activities were attended by a number of researchers from countries which have not officially declared their interest to participate in the Network and from countries from other regions (China, India, USA). The Network cooperates with the International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC).

The Third Consultation (1996) reviewed activities of working groups on cotton breeding, variety trials, growth regulators, cotton nutrition, integrated pest management, biotechnology and cotton technology. The establishment of a common collection of 260 accessions and a list of available cotton germplasm, a study of factors influencing behaviour of varieties, an inventory of growth regulators, analysis of correlation between quality parameters and the first results in the use of biotechnology in the development of new cotton cultivars were identified as the main achievements of the Network. Proceedings of the Consultation were published by the Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), Montpellier, France.

Participating institutions are also involved in research projects carried out under the auspices of ICAC. Participation of institutions from other regions suggests the possibility of transforming this Network into a global one.

European Cooperative Research Network on Flax and Other Bast Plants

Coordinator: R. Kozlowski (Poland)

The Network was established in 1993, having been an ad hoc Research Group from 1989 to 1993. In 1996, the Network added “Other Bast Plants” to its title.

Presently the Network consists of six working groups:

The Network brings together 325 experts from 45 countries from the areas of research, economics, marketing and industry. Countries from North and South America and Asia as well as Australia and South Africa have shown an interest in joining the Network. Among the current activities are maintenance of an international register of flax/linseed collections, studies on diversification of uses, technologies of harvesting and processing as well as development of a European-wide test for fibre quality. Analyses of world statistics on flax cultivation, yields of linseed and fibres as well as studies on market price fluctuations are made within the Network.

The Network organized the Fourth European Regional Workshop on Flax (Rouen, France, 25-28 September 1996), two meetings of the WG on Extraction and Processing (Poznan, Poland, 29 September 1997 and 24-25 September 1998), three meetings of the WG on Quality (Wageningen, The Netherlands, 22 February 1996; Poznan, Poland, 1 October 1997; and Tampere, Finland, 10 August 1998), a Symposium on Flax and Bast Plants (Poznan, Poland, 30 September – 1 October 1997), a Symposium on Production Technology and Ecology of Hemp, Flax and Bast Plants (Poznan, Poland, 24-25 September 1998) and a Joint Meeting of WGs 2 and 6 (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, 28-30 September 1998) during the International Conference on the Future of Bast Fibrous Plants.

The Fourth European Regional Workshop reviewed activities of the Network and defined programmes for future cooperation. The scientific programme included 89 research papers and technical reports covering the current market situation, new trends in cultivation techniques, trends in fibre extraction, breeding and market demand, processing and spinning and non-textile application of flax. The Workshop was attended by 220 participants from 22 countries. Its organization was supported by the authorities of the Host Country and industry.

The Working Group on Extraction and Processing organized two workshops. The first dealt with harvesting and processing (28 participants from 13 countries, 20 research papers). Issues relevant to production and agro-technology, harvesting and decortication and non-fibre use of flax and hemp were discussed at the second workshop (63 participants from 17 countries, 37 research papers).

A Symposium on Flax and Bast Plants (173 participants from 25 countries) covered recent development in flax production and processing with particular reference to flax production in polluted areas.

The WG on Quality held three meetings (1996, 1997 and 1998) to review the progress in the joint research project on quality assessment (12 participating institutions) and to discuss the methodology for evaluating the results of the testing.

The WG on Breeding and Plant Genetic Resources prepared the International Flax Database (IFDB) in order to standardise the passport data, to unify descriptors and to evaluate individual characters. The Joint Meeting of the Working Groups on Breeding and Plant Genetic Resources with the Working Group on Biology and Biotechnology discussed breeding, molecular biology and biotechnology beyond the 21st Century. The meeting was attended by 75 participants from 22 countries.

Since 1994, the Network has published the Euroflax Newsletter (twice a year) which is distributed in 45 countries. Proceedings of meetings held in the period under the review were published by the Institute of Natural Fibres, Poznan, Poland.

FAO/CIHEAM Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Nuts

Coordinator: F. Vargas (Spain)

The Network was established in 1990 after an expert consultation organized by FAO (REU, RNE and AGPS). Promotion of exchange of information, joint applied research, exchange of germplasm and establishing of links between researchers were identified as the main objectives of the Network. The Network was established with five subnetworks: Almond, Hazelnut, Pecan, Pistachio and Walnut. The subnetworks on Chestnut and Stone Pine were created in 1991 and 1995 respectively. Two additional subnetworks were established in 1994: Genetic Resources and Economics. In 1996, FAO and CIHEAM agreed to cosponsor the Network.

The Network consists of nine subnetworks:

The First Technical Consultation of the Network, after its transformation into the joint FAO/CIHEAM undertaking, was held in Meknes, Morocco, 18-19 October 1996. Participants of the Consultation also attended the Tenth Seminar of the Mediterranean Study Group on Almonds and Pistachio. The Subnetworks on Hazelnut and Genetic Resources held their meetings during the Fourth International Congress on Nuts in August 1996 in Ordu, Turkey. The Second Meeting of the Economics Subnetwork was held in Zaragoza, Spain, 19-20 December 1996. The Fourth and Fifth Meetings of Coordinators of the Network24 (Meknes, Morocco, 14-17 October 1996 and Rome, Italy, 13-14 October 1997, respectively), reviewed progress reports on activities and programmes for future work.

In 1998 an Advanced Course on Production and Economics of Nuts was organized in Adana, Turkey (30 participants from nine countries). The Subnetwork on Hazelnut met in Turkey during the International Congress on Hazelnut 1996. The Subnetwork on Chestnut met during the International Congress on Chestnut held in France, while the Subnetworks on Almond and Pistachio both met in Morocco in 1996 and in Turkey during the X and XI Grempa Meetings, respectively.

Through the Subnetwork on Genetic Resources, the Network participated in the European Symposium on Conservation and Sustainable Utilisation of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture held from 30 June–4 July 1998 in Braunschweig, Germany, within the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR). It also took active part in the International Pistacia Workshop organized by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) in Irbid, Jordan, 14-17 December 1998.

In 1997, the Network published an Inventory of Almond Research, Germplasm and References and is currently elaborating similar catalogues on Hazelnut to be published in 1999. The Inventories of Walnut and Pistachio Research are planned to be published in 2000. The Inventory of Chestnut Research, Germplasm and References will follow. In collaboration with IPGRI, a publication on descriptors for cultivated pistachio and a publication on wild Pistacia species were issued in 1997 and 1998 respectively.

The Network has published the Nucis Newsletter since 1993 (once a year except in 1995 when two issues were published). The Newsletter contains information on current activities of the Network and articles and reports on nut research in the world. In addition, it includes sections on congresses and meetings and selected bibliographic references. The 1 600 copies of each issue are distributed worldwide.

Since the start of its activities the Network has received widespread support from different national and international institutions. Particular support was received from the Spanish authorities through INIA and IRTA25 institutes.

Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Olives

Coordinator: J.M. Caballero (Spain)

The Interregional Research Network on Olives is the oldest in the ESCORENA System. It was initiated in 1974 and has since then dealt with problems of common interest to all Mediterranean countries. The Network became Interregional in 1991 when its structure was changed from six sub-networks to four Working Groups, as follows:

The main current activities of the Network include the identification and characterisation of existing varieties in the different national collections of the countries participating in the Network; comparative studies on varieties; improvements in soil and water management in orchards in an attempt to diminish soil erosion; establishment of fertilisation programmes based on foliar analysis to reduce soil contamination and to save fertiliser; improvement of irrigation and integrated pest management practices; and improvement of olive oil quality by ameliorating existing and developing new technologies for oil extraction. Olive varieties are also being classified by means of the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of their oils.

During the period under review, two meetings were held in Cordoba, Spain, on the themes of Genetic Resources (1996) and Production Techniques (1997). The WG on Oil Technology and Quality met in Chania, Greece, coinciding with the Third International Symposium on Olive Growing (September 1997) organized by ISHS in cooperation with the Network and the IOOC. In December 1997, the Network presented its activities at the regional seminar on the present and future of olive oil production marketing and trade which was organized in Madrid, Spain by the IOOC.

From the Network’s inception, the IOOC has contributed to the development of the work programme and assisted in financing the attendance at network meetings of researchers from developing countries.

The Network also enjoys the financial support of the Government of Spain through a Trust Fund.

FAO/CIHEAM Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Pastures and Fodder Crops

Coordinator: J. Troxler (Switzerland)

The Network was established in 1976. It became interregional (REU/RNE) and co-sponsored by CIHEAM in 1995.

The Network consists of three working groups:

Current Network activities are defined within each working group in the form of projects with a team leader per project. At present, there are ten teams dealing with specific issues or research projects. Over 190 researchers from institutions from Europe and North Africa participate in these research projects with a strong presence of CEE researchers.

At the Technical Consultation of the Network (Banska Bystrica, Slovakia, 23-24 June 1996), 48 participants from 18 countries debated the diversity of the forage resources and systems to face the socio-economic needs, reviewed past activities, defined the future programme and elected a new coordinator. A detailed programme of activities was approved by the Board Meeting (coordinators and representatives of FAO and CIHEAM) held on the occasion of the Consultation.

The Mountain Pastures Working Group at its Ninth Meeting (Banska Bystrica, Slovakia, 20-23 June 1996) discussed the role of grazing in the management of agro-pastoral mountain areas. The Tenth Meeting of the Working Group (Brasov, Romania, 10-14 September 1998) dealt with methods and tools of extension in mountain farms.

The Research Conference on Utilisation and Development of Lowland Grasslands in Europe was held in La Coruña, Spain, 13-16 October 1998.

The Mediterranean Group organized a Workshop on Dynamics and Sustainability of Mediterranean Pastoral Systems (Badajoz, Spain, 25-29 November 1997) and a Round Table on Medicago (Rabat, Morocco).

The Network publishes Herba (once a year).

Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Rice

Coordinator: J. Chataigner, (France)

The Network was initiated in 1990 and officially established in 1991.

It is structured in the following Working Groups:

The Network incorporates all European producer countries of rice and areas and countries outside of Europe with a Mediterranean climate such as California and Australia. The Second Technical Consultation (Arles, France, 4-7 September 1996) discussed supply and demand for Mediterranean rice, research programmes, variety characteristics and rice cultivation in Australia and California. It reviewed rice cultivation and research in participating countries and activities of its working groups. The Biotechnology Working Group at its three meetings, centred on cooperation in somatic hybrid production and molecular analyses. The main activity in the Breeding and Varietal Improvement Group is the exchange of varieties for field trials over large geographical areas. In agronomy the main issue is water management followed by nitrogen fertiliser application, reduction of agrochemical use, weed and red rice, control of growth regulators, soil salinity and minimum tillage. The Working Group on Processing and Technology is concerned with the development of methods for joint analysis of technological qualities (milling yields, gelatinisation time, suitability for parboiling) and extraction of aromatic components. The Economics and Marketing Working Group is small and concerned with the issues of product-consumer analysis, retail level marketing, rice promotion and structures of the rice sector.

During the period under review, the working groups held eight meetings. The major events were the International Symposium on Rice Quality (Nottingham, UK, 24-27 November 1997), a Workshop on the Future Strategy of Water Management in Rice Systems under Mediterranean Climate and the Role of Genetic Diversity in Improving Rice Production particularly in Areas Affected by Salinity (Cairo, Egypt, 5-7 September 1998).

The Network is oriented to research on Mediterranean rice varieties (subsp. japonica). Research on tropical rice varieties (subsp. indica) is covered by international organizations such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) and the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA). The Network was financed by a Trust Fund from the French Government until 1996.

Since 1992, Medoryzae has been published (once a year). Four hundred copies are distributed throughout Mediterranean countries.

European Cooperative Research Network on Soybean

Coordinator: A. Bouniols (France)

The Network was established in 1976. Until 1994 it had eight working groups, which were reduced to the existing four:

The establishment of the Network reflected the situation in soybean production and research in Europe: almost all countries tried to increase production through the introduction of improved varieties and advanced technologies. During the first 15 years of its activities, the Network was considered as an example of successful international research cooperation and as a factor which contributed to significant increases in yields and soybean production in Europe. However, since 1991 activities of the Network started to decline in parallel to the sharp decline in soybean production in Europe. In 1994-95 an attempt was made to continue research cooperation by launching a cooperative project designed to screen various genotypes adapted to different agro-ecological zones. Declining funds for this type of research have impeded the realisation of this proposal.

During 1996-98 the Network focused on seeking new uses for this declining crop in Europe, adaptation of genotypes to new cultural practices, application of soybean cropping to soil improvement, studies on Bradyrhizobium symbiosis and improvement of quality for food and non-food uses. It organized a joint meeting in Brno, Czech Republic, 9-13 September 1997, on limiting factors of soybean in sustainable systems, nitrogen fixation for various inputs and Bradyrhizobium strains, biodiversity and place of modified genotypes, germplasm collection and markers in selection, breeding and cultural conditions for seed quality; and in Piestany, Slovakia, 14-15 September 1997 on Gene Banks and Molecular Biology. The Meeting was attended by 150 participants from 13 countries.

New members from the Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus) have joined the Network and now develop research links with members from Poland, U.K. and France.

European Cooperative Research Network on Sunflower

Coordinator: D. Skoric (Yugoslavia)

The Network was established in 1975 at the technical consultation held in Bucharest, Romania. At present it operates with the following working groups:

The Network develops working plans for four years including biennial cycles of new hybrid testing in countries covering the sunflower cropping area in Europe, Africa, Asia and North America. The WG on Sunflower Cultivars completed the 10th biennial testing cycle 1994/95 (reported in 1997) which incorporated 24 hybrids from Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, USA and Yugoslavia planted in 17 different locations. WGs on Wild Species and Biotechnology exchanged information on wild species, interspecific hybrids and molecular markers. Within the WG on Wild Helianthus spp. germplasm of wild species has been collected, maintained and characterised. The most significant achievement of the WG on Breeding was the discovery of new sources of the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) as well as Rf genes for certain sources. The WG on genetics developed sources with a high palmitic acid content using induced mutation. Good results have also been obtained in joint trials regarding identification of sunflower genotypes tolerant to pathogens.

Research results have been submitted and discussed at the two meetings held in 1997. Working Groups 3 (wild species); 4 (male sterility); 5 (biotechnology); and 7 (population dynamics of pathogens) met in Germany in March 1997, 45 participants represented 13 countries (from outside of Europe: Argentina, Australia, USA). Working Groups 1 (Experimentation of Cultivars), 2 (Genetic Study of Agronomic Traits), and 6 (Genetic Study of Physiological and Biochemical Characters) met in Egypt in October 1997, 47 participants from nine countries attended the meeting. The general meeting of the Network took place in July 1999 in Dobrich, Bulgaria.

Several important private companies collaborate in the experimental work carried out within the Network. The Network enjoys good collaboration from outside of the European Region and two of the working groups are chaired by researchers from the US Department of Agriculture.

Since 1992 “Helia” has been published twice a year. A total of 115 scientific and two technical papers have been published by scientists from 23 different countries. In 1996 a special issue of “Helia” dedicated to the 20 years of existence of the Network, was published. Two additional special issues of "Helia” dedicated to the advances made in the application of biotechnology to sunflower breeding and to the recent activities of the Network, will be published in 1999.

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

Interregional (REU/RNE) Cooperative Research Network on Buffalo

Coordinator: A. Borghese (Italy)

The Network was established in 1990 as an ad hoc research group and in 1992 became an interregional (REU/RNE) network of institutions from European and Near East countries involved in research on buffalo production.

It consists of four working groups:

Current activities involve studies to measure and compare buffalo genetic diversity in the Greek and Italian populations. Following a survey carried out on milk recording among 23 countries and detecting the interest of 13 countries in establishing recording systems, cooperation is being established with the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) to define simple recording systems to implement them in interested developing countries. Cooperation has been established with the International Bull Evaluation Service (INTERBULL) .

A Symposium on Buffalo Resources (Cairo, Egypt, 14-16 October 1996) discussed characterisation of buffaloes in Mediterranean and Middle East countries, breeding and genetics, buffalo nutrition and management and buffalo production systems. The Symposium was attended by 78 participants from seven countries, sixty of which were local experts involved in buffalo production.

A Workshop on Experiences in Buffalo Nutrition (Antakya, Turkey, 8-10 October 1998) was attended by researchers from nine countries.

The recent activities include an agreement with the Thai Buffalo Network on exchange of information and reciprocal participation in meetings; requests for the Buffalo Newsletter are increasing as is the number of articles sent for publication; a bilateral project (Greece and Italy) on animal genetic diversity in buffaloes has commenced. The Network supports activities of the WG on Buffalo Recording established by ICAR. A joint symposium on animal recording in support of the attainment of breeding objectives will be held in May 2000 during the Thirty-second ICAR Session (Bled, Slovenia, 15-17 May 2000).

Coordinators of the Network met with researchers from participating countries during the Symposium held in Cairo (1996) and the Fifth World Buffalo Congress, Caserta, Italy, (13-16 October 1997) and discussed the goals of buffalo research and the organization of research projects.

Since 1993 the Network has published the Buffalo Newsletter (once or twice a year). It includes short communications, research papers and technical notes. One thousand and two hundred (1 200) copies are distributed worldwide.

FAO/CIHEAM Interregional (REU/RNE) Research Network on Sheep and Goats

Coordinator: P. Morand-Fehr (France)

The Network was created in 1979. In 1989, it was fused with similar existing working groups of the Centre International des Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéens becoming an FAO-CIHEAM network. It currently comprises three subnetworks:

Over 230 experts and researchers from 34 countries (66 percent from European Mediterranean countries, 16 percent from South/Eastern Mediterranean, 14 percent from Northern Europe and 4 percent from Eastern Europe) participate in Network activities.

During the 1996-98 period, the Network organized six technical meetings of working groups and two regional symposia. Meetings were held in France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Morocco and Spain.

Members of the Network participated in the International Symposium on Quality of Typical Mediterranean Products organized by EAAP, CIHEAM and FAO (Badajoz, Spain, 29 September- 2 October 1996).

The Subnetwork on Nutrition at the scientific meeting (Rabat, Morocco, 24-26 October 1996) discussed the use of range vegetation, fibrous feeds and by-products by small ruminants and relations between reproduction and nutrition. The Meeting was attended by 40 participants from 12 countries. The Eighth Meeting of the Subnetwork reviewed experiences in the utilisation of forage with high tannin content and possible improvements in nutritional value and studies on behaviour of animals in pastures. Discussions on research methodology emphasised limits of applicability of research results in practice if obtained in a single location and recommended that results be tested on various sites and production situations.

The Subnetwork on Animal Resources reviewed results obtained in sheep meat recording, animal identification and consequences for breeding programmes (Toulouse, France, 9-11 March 1997) as well as experiences in mechanical milking of small ruminants (Athens, Greece, 29-30 October 1998).

The Subnetwork on Production Systems held meetings on the use of public lands in small ruminant production, labour requirements, extension for small ruminant operations and established a body to monitor developments in production systems. The Monitoring Body at its first meeting held in 1997, approved the programme, objectives and methodology for collection, analysis and dissemination of information on developments in small ruminant production systems in participating countries.

Given the low participation of Eastern European countries, an international workshop was organized in Budapest in 1997 to address the situation of sheep and goat husbandry in Central and Eastern European countries. Since 1989/90 researchers from 17 countries of the CEEC and CIS and five Western European countries have analysed developments in production and research and have recommended the reorientation towards meeting market demand for meat and milk and supporting small scale family operations. There is a need to develop programmes on pasture, flock management, animal behaviour, profitability of different systems, marketing channels and demand-supply prices. Proceedings of the Workshop are published in REU Technical Series No.50.

The Network is very active and promotes sustainable livestock production systems, genetic improvement of local breeds, enhancement of product quality, studies on animal/plant interactions and animal behaviour to utilise animals in environmental management. It maintains close links with the Pastures and Fodder Crops Network and several international organizations: International Dairy Federation, International Goat Association, EAAP, ICAR and others.

The Network publishes the Newsletter “Sheep and Goat Contact” (two or three times a year).

AGRICULTURE - ENVIRONMENT

Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture Network

(RAMIRAN)

Coordinator: J. Martinez (France)

In 1976 researchers from a number of European countries established a network on Animal Waste Utilisation. It was restructured in 1990 to reduce the number of working groups to two and ad hoc expert groups were created to address specific issues. In 1996 the Network changed its name from Animal Waste Management to the present RAMIRAN. In May 1998 the two working groups, Animal Houses-Manure/Slurry Handling and Storage and Safe and Efficient Utilisation of Manure/Slurry in Agriculture, were discontinued and only the expert groups remain.

The current structure of the Network in Expert Groups is the following:

The principal activity of the Network is for members to exchange research information and to prioritise topics. Priority topics are then taken up by expert groups, which submit their reports to members of the Network at meetings or workshops organized on a biennial basis. The last workshop on Animal Waste Management held in Gödöllö, Hungary, 8-10 October 1996, decided that the Network should, after 20 years of intensive work on animal waste management, change direction and include municipal and industrial wastes as these were increasingly incorporated into agricultural soils.

The Eighth International Conference of RAMIRAN (Rennes, France, 26-28 May 1998) “Management Strategies for Organic Waste Use in Agriculture” was attended by 136 delegates from 26 countries. Among current activities of the Network are the cooperation in the development of models and decision support systems, elaboration of a glossary of terms on manure and conducting a survey on solid manure management in Europe. A report is being elaborated on the content of heavy metals in manure. A database on research projects dealing with solid manure and identification of research gaps is also being elaborated. The need to compile information on existing guidelines and regulations, country by country, has been identified to be addressed as a future activity. Some participants of the Network are financed by an EU Concerted Action and a proposal for a research and technology development project is being drafted on the theme of hygienic quality of manure for the V Framework Programme.

A workshop on cooperation and technology transfer between West and East European countries is planned for 2000.

Sustainable Rural Environment and Energy Network (SREN)

Coordinator: S. Kyritsis (Greece)

Formerly the European Cooperative Network on Rural Renewable Energies (CNRE), the Sustainable Rural Environment and Energy Network (SREN) was incorporated into ESCORENA in 1994 and that same year three new areas were added: animal traction, pollinator diversity and ecological farming. Since 1981, activities of the Network have been supported by a Trust Fund established by 23 European countries.

The current structure has six working groups:

During the period 1996-98 all Working Groups held technical meetings and workshops.

The Working Group on Decentralized Energy Sources at the Technical Workshop held in Freising, Germany (18-21 March 1996) discussed technical and economic aspects and potential of applications of solar, wind and geothermal energy in agriculture and rural areas. It was agreed that the future programmes should concentrate on applications of solar energy for solar drying and photovoltaic and wind energies for pumping. The Workshop was attended by 32 researchers from 13 countries. The Working Group has been inactive since 1996.

The Working Group on Environmental Aspects of Anaerobic Treatment at its Fifth Workshop held in Gent, Belgium (24-28 March 1997) concluded that the anaerobic treatment processes were becoming increasingly important for the treatment of low and high loaded waste waters, slurries and solid organic wastes. Installations were found to be far below the potential with considerable differences between countries. The future programme approved by 38 participants from 17 countries, concentrates on exchange of information and on the elaboration of joint research projects for which international funding is sought.

Technological and economic aspects of the utilisation of biomass for energy production were reviewed by the Working Group on Biomass for Energy and the Environment at a meeting held in Braunschweig, Germany (June 1997). The Working Group considered that the future programme should focus on the development of techniques for better harvesting and storage and on small scale units based on alternative energy sources. The Working Group co-organized a large international conference “Sustainable Agriculture for Food, Energy and Industry” attended by over 200 participants. The monograph “Renewable Energy – Potential Energy Crops for Europe and the Mediterranean Region” was published as REU Technical Series No.46 (1997). In 1998 the WG received additional FAO support for developing the concept of an evaluation model for an Integrated Energy Farm which produces energy and food for the market.

The main activities of the Working Group on Pollination and Pollinator Diversity Management are the exchange of scientific information, coordination of joint actions and assistance to scientists to attend relevant meetings. Members of the Working Group participated in the International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture for Food, Energy and Industry (Braunschweig, Germany, June 1997) with a contribution on links between sustainable agriculture and insect pollination. An expert meeting on competition between honeybees and other bee species was organized in The Netherlands in November 1997.

The Group on Animal Traction held a consultative meeting (seven participants from six countries) in Zaragoza, Spain (December 1997). Proceedings of the Joint FAO/CIHEAM/EAAP Workshop on Animal Draught Power in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin held in 1995, were published as REU Technical Series No.45.

As a follow-up to the Expert Consultation on Organic Farming in Europe, held in Bern, Switzerland (1990), the FAO Regional Office for Europe commissioned a study on “Research on Biological Farming Methods in Europe, Perspectives, Status and Requirements” (published in REU Technical Series No.54) in preparation for an Expert Round Table on Biological Farming Research in Europe convened on 28 June 1997. The Round Table, attended by six organic farming experts, working group coordinators of the SREN Network and members of ERNAC, considered that problems of research methodologies in organic farming deserve particular attention especially in view of the global acceptance of organic farming as a valuable contribution to improved sustainability of agriculture. It recommended the establishment of a Working Group on Research Methodologies in Organic Farming as a part of SREN. Proceedings of the Round Table were published in REU Technical Series No.54.

This Working Group held its first workshop from 29 September to 4 October 1998 in Frick, Switzerland and was attended by 65 researchers from 19 countries. The Working Group continues working in seven teams covering research methodology in plant breeding, extension and training, crop rotation, on-farm participatory research, registration of inputs, Nx cycle evaluation and country reviews.

FOOD AND NUTRITION

Network on Trace Elements, Natural Antioxidants and Contaminants in Foods and Diets

Coordinator: J. Kumpulainen (Finland)

The Network on Trace Elements, Natural Antioxidants and Contaminants in Foods and Diets was initiated in 1977 as a Network on Trace Elements, whose primary task was the development of research cooperation in trace elements in soils, plants, animals and food. It was restructured in 1995 and 1997. New orientation of the Network towards nutritional problems connected with changes in the structure of the European population and European diets fits well within FAO’s nutrition programmes and the work of the Codex Alimentarius.

Among the recent activities of the Network are the establishment of databases on content of 14 elements, major, minor and trace, in German food composition and on content of heavy metals present in food in four provinces of Spain. A national survey was carried out on safety of cereal grains, flours and milk powder in France, Poland, Sweden and Turkey. Analytical methodology is being developed to determine oxidised cholesterol compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids in foods. The Network has been very effective in developing standard evaluation methods and providing reference standards to analytical laboratories.

The objectives of the Network are to develop research cooperation in analysis and monitoring of European foods and diets with regard to contents of:

and of total dietary intakes of certain nutrients, natural antioxidants and contaminants in typical European populations.

Analytical and monitoring work has been carried out on the basis of standardised methods and protocols, developed by the Network and generally accepted in the research practice.

Currently the Network has two subnetworks with five and two working groups respectively. The Subnetworks are the following:

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUPS

Oats Disease Nursery

The Oat Disease Group was established in 1990 and changed its name to European and Mediterranean Oat Disease Nursery when Morocco and Israel were included in 1997. It is specialised in evaluating cultivars and new lines of oats for resistance to pathogens. Although the oat production does not represent major economic interest in European countries, it is of great importance for a number of small farmers as a source of income in view of the growing demand from the food industry. The screening is carried out against five major fungal pathogens and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus. Breeders and pathologists from 22 countries collaborate in performing the test trials in nearly 40 locations. The Group also monitors the incidence of the different diseases in participating countries and the appearance of new strains or new pathogens. Valuable information on yearly series of disease incidence has been produced since 1990.

Game Farming Group

The Group has not held any meetings during the last three years. After the Technical Consultation on Game Farming in Europe held in Nitra, Slovakia (1995), the Group has been acting as an informal network of researchers involved in providing support to this growing sector in Europe. It produced a guide to R&D in European game farming containing the list of researchers and institutions, type of farming (free-range, parkland, confined farming), animal species and specific area of research. The Group could be activated in cooperation with producers’ associations and specialised NGOs.

ANNEX I - ESCORENA COORDINATORS

RESEARCH NETWORK (INTERREGIONAL) ON COTTON

Dr U. Kechagia

Cotton and Industrial Plants Institute

National Agricultural Research Foundation

(N.Ag. Res.F.)

57400 Sindos – Thessaloniki

GREECE

Tel.: (30) 31 799444

Fax.: (30) 31 79 65 13

Email: ok31944@compulink.gr

RESEARCH NETWORK ON FLAX AND OTHER BAST FIBRES

Dr R. Kozlowski

Institute of Natural Fibres (INF)

ul. Wojska Polskiego 71b

60-630 Poznan, POLAND

Tel.: (48) 618 480061

Fax.: (48) 618 417830

Email: netflax@iwn.inf.poznan.pl

Dr M. Mackiewicz-Talarczyk

Institute of Natural Fibres

ul. Wojska Polskiego 71b

60630 Poznan, POLAND

Tel.: (48) 618 224815

Fax.: (48) 618 417830

Email: netflax@iwn.inf.poznan.pl

RESEARCH NETWORK(INTERREGIONAL) ON NUTS

Dr F.J. Vargas

Institut de Recerca i

Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA)

Centre de Mas Bové, Apartat 415

E-43280 Reus

SPAIN

Tel.: (34) 977 343252

Fax.: (34) 977 344055

Email: francisco.vargas@irta.es

RESEARCH NETWORK(INTERREGIONAL) ON OLIVES

Dr J.M. Caballero

Centro de Investigación y

Formacion Agraria “Alameda del Obispo”

Apartado 3092

14080 Cordoba

SPAIN

Tel.: (34) 957 293633

Fax.: (34) 957 202721

Email: jcaballero@cifa.org

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NETWORK (INTERREGIONAL) ONPASTURE AND FODDER CROPS

Dr J. Troxler

Station fédérale de recherches

agronomiques de Changins

Route de Duilliar

Case Postale 254, CH-1260 Nyon

SWITZERLAND

Tel.: (41) 22 3634444

Fax.: (41) 22 3621325

Email: jakob.troxler@rac.admin.ch

RESEARCH NETWORK(INTERREGIONAL) ON RICE

Dr J. Chataigner

Vert

07430 Veruosc-le-Aunouoy

FRANCE

Tel.: (33) 475 335 641

Fax.: (33) 475 322 884

Email: jean.chataigner@wanadoo.fr

RESEARCH NETWORK ONSOYBEAN

Dr A. Bouniols

INRA, Centre de recherche de Toulouse

Environman & Agronomie

Chemin de Borde-rouge

B.P. 27

F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cédex

FRANCE

Tel.: (33) 461 285021

Fax.: (33) 461 735537

Email: bouniols@toulouse.inra.fr

RESEARCH NETWORK ONSUNFLOWER

Dr D. Skoric

Faculty of Agriculture

Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops

M. Gorkog 30

21000 Novi Sad

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA

Tel.: (381) 21 614933

Fax.: (381) 21 621212

Email: belaqua@eunet.yu

NETWORK (INTERREGIONAL)ON SHEEP AND GOAT RESEARCH

Dr P. Morand-Fehr

Station de nutrition et alimentation (INRA)

16 rue Claude Bernard

75231 Paris Cedex 05

FRANCE

Tel.: (33) 1 44081757/1756

Fax.: (33) 1 44081853

Email: morand@inapg.inr.fr

RESEARCH NETWORK(INTERREGIONAL) ON BUFFALO

Dr A. Borghese

Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia

Via Salaria, 31

Monterotondo

00016 Roma, ITALY

Tel.: (39) 06 900901

Fax.: (39) 06 9061541

Email: isz@flashnet.it

Dr B. Moioli (Secretary)

Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia

Via Salaria 31 (Km 26 700)

00016 Monterotondo, ITALY

Tel.: (39) 06 900901

Fax.: (39) 06 9061541

Email: isz@flashnet.it

RESEARCH NETWORK ON RECYCLING OF AGRICULTURAL, MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURE (RAMIRAN)

Dr J. Martinez

CEMAGREF

17, av. de Cucillé

35044 RENNES CEDEX

FRANCE

Tel: (33) 2 99281529

Fax: (33) 2 99332959

Email: jose.martinez@cemagref.fr

RESEARCH NETWORK ON TRACEELEMENTS, NATURALANTIOXIDANTS ANDCONTAMINANTS IN FOODS AND DIETS

Dr J. Kumpulainen

Laboratory of Food Chemistry

Agricultural Research Centre of Finland

SF-31600 Jokioinen

FINLAND

Tel.: (358) 3 41883231

Fax.: (358) 3 41883266

Email: jorma.kumpulainen@mtt.fi

RESEARCH NETWORK ONSUSTAINABLE RURALENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY(SREN):

Coordinator of SREN:

Dr S. Kyritsis

Agricultural University of Athens

Agricultural Engineering Department

75 Iera Odos Str.

11855 Athens

GREECE

Tel.: (30) 1 5294001/3460025

Fax.: (30) 1 5294023/3469268

Email: skir@auadec.aua.ariadne-t.gr  

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUP ON GAME FARMING

Dr S.J.G. Hall

Department of Animal Science

De Montfort University

Caythorpe Court

Caythorpe, Nr Grantham

Lincolnshire, NG32 3EP

UNITED KINGDOM

Tel.: (44) 1400 272521

Fax: (44) 1400 272722

Email: sjghall@dmu.ac.uk

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUP ON THE EUROPEAN OATS DISEASENURSERY

Dr J. Sebesta

Research Institute of Crop Production

Ruzyne 507, 16106 Prague 6

CZECH REPUBLIC

Tel.: (420) 2360851-9

Fax.: (420) 2 365228

MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN RESEARCH NETWORKS’ADVISORY COMMITTEE (ERNAC)

Dr M. Arnoux

Les Jardins D'Oc - Bat. A

9, Ter Avenue de la Gaillarde

34000 Montpellier, FRANCE

Tel.: (33) 467 041565

Fax.: (33) 467 662195

Fax.: (33) 492 662962

Dr A. Bozzini

Direttore, Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie

l'Energia e L'Ambiente (ENEA)

C.S. Casaccia - S. Maria di Galeria

ITALY

Tel.: (39) 06 3048 3600/3048 4308

Fax.: (39) 06 3048 6545

Email: moras@casaccia.enea.it

Dr B. Müller-Haye

26180 Rastede Wahnbek

Fuldastr. 6

GERMANY

Tel.: (49) 441 39209

Fax.: (49) 441 39209

Email: b_mullerhaye@compuserve.com

Via delle Grotte 4

00069 Trevignano Romano

ITALY

Tel.: (39) 06 9999308

Email: b_mullerhaye@compuserve.com

Dr J. Chataigner

(See Rice Network)

ANNEX II - LIST OF ESCORENA MEETINGS

LIST OF ESCORENA MEETINGS - 1996

DATE OF MEETING

VENUE

TITLE OF MEETING

COTTON – INTERREGIONAL

2-5 October

Montpellier

(France)

Technical Consultation

FLAX AND OTHER BAST PLANTS– EUROPEAN

19 July

Paris

(France)

Coordination Board Meeting

25-28 September

Rouen

(France)

Global Technical Workshop

NUTS – INTERREGIONAL

30 July – 2 August

Ordu

(Turkey)

The Third International Congress on Hazelnut

Hazelnut Subnetwork Meeting

Genetic Resources Subnetwork Meeting

14-17 October

Meknes

(Morocco)

GREMPA Meeting on Almonds and Pistachio

Almond Subnetwork Meeting

Pistachio Subnetwork Meeting

Genetic Resources Subnetwork Meeting

17-19 October

Meknes

(Morocco)

Technical Consultation

17 October

Meknes

(Morocco)

Fourth Coordination Board Meeting

19-20 December

Saragoza

(Spain)

Second Meeting of the Economics Subnetwork

OLIVES – INTERREGIONAL

May-June

Cordoba

(Spain)

Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources

PASTURES AND FODDER CROPS – INTERREGIONAL

20-23 June

Banska Bystrika

(Slovakia)

Ninth Meeting of the Mountain Pastures Working Group

23-24 June

Banska Bystrika

(Slovakia)

Global Technical Workshop

25 June

Banska Bystrika

(Slovakia)

Coordination Board

RICE – INTERREGIONAL

23-24 May

Vercelli

(Italy)

Workshop on Agronomy

15-16 June

Montpellier

(France)

Coordination Meeting on Economics

4 September

Arles

(France)

Preparation Meeting of Concerted Programme

5-7 September

Arles

(France)

Technical Consultation

SOYBEAN – EUROPEAN

2-4 July

Toulouse

(France)

Global Workshop of Working Groups and Experts

SUNFLOWER – EUROPEAN

   

NO MEETING HELD

SHEEP AND GOAT RESEARCH – INTERREGIONAL

28-29 May

Bella, Potenza

(Italy)

Meeting of the Coordination Board of the Sheep and Goat Network

24-28 October

Rabat

(Morocco)

Workshop on Small Ruminant Nutrition

BUFFALO – INTERREGIONAL

11-14 October

Cairo

(Egypt)

Symposium on Buffalo Production

15 October

Cairo

(Egypt)

Coordinators’ Board Meeting

ANIMAL WASTE MANAGEMENT – EUROPEAN

8-10 October

Budapest

(Hungary)

Workshop on Animal Waste Mangement

TRACE ELEMENTS, NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS AND CONTAMINANTS IN FOODS AND DIETS – EUROPEAN

14-15 December

Vienna

(Austria)

Technical Coordination Workshop

SREN (RESEARCH NETWORK ON SUSTAINABLE RURAL ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY) – EUROPEAN

18-21 March

Freising

(Germany)

Workshop on Decentralized Energy in Europe

5-8 September

Gödöllö

(Hungary)

Solar Drying

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUP ON GAME FARMING

   

NO MEETING HELD

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUP ON EUROPEAN OATS DISEASES

   

NO MEETING HELD

ERNAC BOARD

30 May – 1 June

Bella

(Italy)

Review and Coordination Meeting of all Network Coordinators

LIST OF ESCORENA MEETINGS - 1997

DATE OF MEETING

VENUE

TITLE OF MEETING

COTTON – INTERREGIONAL

     

NO MEETING HELD

FLAX AND OTHER BAST PLANTS– EUROPEAN

29 September

Poznan

(Poland)

Second Workshop of Extraction and Processing WG (WG2)

30 September -

1 October

Poznan

(Poland)

Flax and Other Bast Plants

Symposium

30 September – 1 October

Poznan

(Poland)

Fifth Workshop of the Quality WG

(WG4)

NUTS – INTERREGIONAL

14-17 October

Rome

(Italy)

Coordination Meeting

OLIVES – INTERREGIONAL

5-7 June

Cordoba

(Spain)

Production Techniques and

Productivity

24-26 September

Chania

(Greece)

Olive Oil Technology and

Quality Workshop

PASTURES AND FODDER CROPS – INTERREGIONAL

25-29 November

Badajoz

(Spain)

Dynamics and Sustainability of

Mediterranean Pastoral Systems

RICE – INTERREGIONAL

30 January - 1 February

Thessaloniki

(Greece)

2nd Meeting of

Agronomy Group

11-13 September

Thessaloniki

(Greece)

Genetic Resources Workshop

24-27 November

Nottingham

(U.K.)

International Symposium on

Rice Quality

SOYBEAN – EUROPEAN

9-13 September

Brno

(Czech Rep.)

Joint Workshop of the Working Groups on Identification Study and Use of New CMS Sources in Sunflower Breeding and Pathogens; Use of Biotechnology in Sunflower Breeding and Studies on Common Methododologies and Population Dynamics of Pathogens

14-15

September

Piestany

(Slovakia)

Breeding and Molecular Biology, Gene Bank

SUNFLOWER – EUROPEAN

20-23 March

Giessen

(Germany)

Joint Workshop on Wild Helianthus,

Biotechnology, Breeding Programme of CMS Sources

and Population Dynamics and Pathogens

7-11 October

Cairo

(Egypt)

Joint Workshop on Cultivars, Agronomic

Traits and Genetic Study of Physiological/Biochemical Characters

SHEEP AND GOAT RESEARCH – INTERREGIONAL

9-11 March

Toulouse

(France)

Animal Genetic Resources

and their Utilization

28-29 April

Paris

(France)

Meeting of Coordination Network

Board

23-28 October

Bella

(Italy)

Systems of Sheep and

Goat Production

BUFFALO – INTERREGIONAL

15 June

Cremona

(Italy)

Expert Panel on the

Genetic Evaluation of Bulls

13-14 October

Caserta
(Italy)

Round Table on Ongoing

Research in Member Countries

RAMIRAN (formerly ANIMAL WASTE MANAGEMENT) – EUROPEAN

   

NO MEETING HELD

TRACE ELEMENTS, NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS AND CONTAMINANTS IN FOODS AND DIETS – EUROPEAN

3-4 April

Budapest

(Hungary)

Coordination Meeting of the FAO Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements, Natural Antioxidants and Contaminants

14-15 December

Vienna

(Austria)

Technical Meeting of the FAO Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements, Natural Antioxidants and Contaminants

SREN (RESEARCH NETWORK ON SUSTAINABLE RURAL ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY) – EUROPEAN

24-27 March

Gent

(Belgium)

Anaerobic Conversion for Environmental Protection, Sanitation

and Re-use of Residues

23-27 June

Braunschweig

(Germany)

Biomass Workshop and Coordination Meeting during the International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture for Food, Energy and Industry

27-28 June

Braunschweig

(Germany)

SREN Coordinators' Meeting

28 June

Braunschweig

(Germany)

Roundtable discussion on Biological Farming Research in Europe

28-29

November

Wageningen

(Netherlands)

Working Group Coordination Meeting and Technical Workshop on Pollinator Competition

12-13

December

Zaragoza (Spain)

Animal Traction Workshop

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUP ON GAME FARMING

   

NO MEETING HELD

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUP ON EUROPEAN OATS DISEASES

   

NO MEETING HELD

ERNAC BOARD

28-29 June

Braunschweig

(Germany)

Coordination Meeting

LIST OF ESCORENA MEETINGS - 1998

DATE OF MEETING

VENUE

TITLE OF MEETING

COTTON – INTERREGIONAL

14-20 July

Bari

(Italy)

Joint Meeting of Working Groups

1-8

6-12 September

Athens

(Greece)

“New Frontiers in Cotton Research”

(WG9 – Biotechnology) during Second World Cotton Research Conference

FLAX AND OTHER BAST PLANTS– EUROPEAN

24-25 September

Poznán

(Poland)

Symposium on Hemp and Other Bast Fibrous Plants: Production, Technology and Ecology

28-30 September

St. Petersburg

(Russian Federation)

“Bast Fibrous Plants Today and Tomorrow” Breeding, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Beyond the 21st Century

NUTS – INTERREGIONAL

18-29 May

Adana

(Turkey)

Production and Economics of Nut Crops

(Advanced Course)

19-23 October

Bordeaux

(France)

Chetsnut Subnetwork Workshop during the

Second International Congress on Chestnut

OLIVES – INTERREGIONAL

   

NO MEETING HELD

PASTURES AND FODDER CROPS – INTERREGIONAL

10-13 September

Brasov

(Romania)

10th Meeting of the Working Group

on Mountain Pastures

Méthodes et outils pour le transfert des

connaissances en milieu agricole montagnard

13-16 October

La Coruña

Galicia (Spain)

Research Conference 1998: Lowland Grasslands of Europe -Utilisation and Development

October

Rabat

(Morocco)

Round Table on Medicago

RICE – INTERREGIONAL

5-7 September

Cairo

(Egypt)

Future Strategy of Water Management in the Mediterranean Countries during International Rice Conference

SOYABEAN – EUROPEAN

   

NO MEETING HELD

SUNFLOWER – EUROPEAN

27-31 October

Bucharest

(Romania)

Population Dynamics of Sunflower Pathogens and their Control (Dr. H. Iliescu)

SHEEP AND GOAT RESEARCH – INTERREGIONAL

30 September –

1 October

Athens

(Greece)

Subnetwork Meeting on Animal Resources

(during Sixth International Symposium on Small Ruminant Production, 26 September-1 October 1998)

15-17 October

Sassari (Italy)

Subnetwork Meeting on Production Systems

21-24 October

Agadir

(Morocco)

Livestock Production and Climatic Uncertainty in the Mediterranean

BUFFALO – INTERREGIONAL

8-10 October

Antakya

(Turkey)

Meeting of Interregional Research Network on Buffalo “Experiences in Buffalo Nutrition”

RAMIRAN (formerly ANIMAL WASTE MANAGEMENT) – EUROPEAN

26-29 May

Rennes (France)

RAMIRAN ‘98

TRACE ELEMENTS, NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS AND CONTAMINANTS IN FOODS AND DIETS – EUROPEAN – EUROPEAN

28-30 June

Helsinki-Stockholm

Technical Meeting on Trace Elements, Natural Antioxidants and Contaminants

SREN (RESEARCH NETWORK ON SUSTANABILE RURAL ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY) – EUROPEAN

30 September -

3 October

Frick

(Switzerland)

Research Methodologies in

Organic Farming

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUP ON GAME FARMING

   

NO MEETING HELD

AD HOC RESEARCH GROUP ON EUROPEAN OATS DISEASES

   

NO MEETING HELD

ERNAC BOARD

7-9 May

Budapest

(Hungary)

Evaluation Meeting

30 November – 1 December

Rome (Italy)

Evaluation and Review Meeting

ANNEX III - PARTICIPATION OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN NETWORK MEETINGS
(1996-98)

Country

Networks

Number of networks

Albania

N P Sg

3

Armenia

Sg

1

Austria

E F N R Sb T

6

Azerbaijan

   

Belgium

C E F N P R

6

Bosnia andHerz.

F N Sg

3

Bulgaria

B C E F P Rc Rm Sg Su

9

Croatia

N Sb Sg

3

Cyprus

P

1

Czech Republic

E F P Rm Sb Sg Su

7

Denmark

E F Rm T

4

Estonia

P Sg T

3

Finland

E F P Rm T

5

France

C E F N O P Rc Rm Sb Sg Su T

12

Georgia

   

Germany

E F P Rc Rm Sg Su T

8

Greece

B C E N O P Rc Sb Sg T

10

Hungary

E F H N Rc Rm Sg Su

8

Iceland

F

1

Ireland

F Rm

2

Israel

B C E O P Rm Sg Su

8

Italy

B C E F N O P Rc Sg Su T

11

Latvia

E F Sg

3

Lithuania

E F P Sg

4

Luxembourg

   

Malta

   

Moldova

Su

1

Netherlands

E F Rc Rm

4

Norway

E F P Rm Sg

5

Poland

E F P Rm Sb Sg T

7

Portugal

F N O Rc Rm Sg

6

Romania

B E N P Rc Sb Sg Su

8

Slovakia

E F N P Rm Sb Sg

7

Slovenia

N P Rm Sg

4

Spain

C F N O P Rc Rm Sg T

9

Sweden

E F Rm Sg T

5

Switzerland

E F N P Rm Sg T

7

TFYR of Macedonia

N Sg

2

Turkey

B C E F N O P Rc Sg Su

10

United Kingdom

E P Rc Rm Sb Sg T

7

Yugoslavia

P Sb Sg Su T

5

B - Buffalo RM - RAMIRAN
C – Cotton Sg – Sheep and Goat
E – SREN Sb – Soybean
F – Flax Su - Sunflower
N – Nuts T – Trace Elements
O – Olives
P – Pastures
Rc – Rice

PARTICIPATION OF NEAR EAST COUNTRIES IN NETWORK MEETINGS

(1996-98)

Country

Networks

Number of networks

Algeria

C O P Sg

4

Egypt

B C F N P Rc Sg Su

8

Iran

B C N

3

Iraq

B C

2

Jordan

N Sg

2

Lebanon

P Sg

2

Morocco

C N O P Rc Sg

6

Pakistan

B C

2

Sudan

C

1

Syria

B C N

3

Tunisia

E N O Sg

4

UAE

Sg

1

PARTICIPATION OF OTHER NON-EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN NETWORK MEETINGS (1996-98)

Country

Networks

Number of networks

Argentina

O Su

2

Australia

F N P Rc Su

5

Belarus*

F Sb T

3

Brazil

C E Rc

3

Canada

F Rm

2

Chile

N O P

3

China

C F N

3

Colombia

Rc

1

India

C Rc

2

Indonesia

E

1

Japan

N

1

Korea

N

1

Paraguay

C

1

Peru

O

1

Japan

C Rc Rm Sb

4

Russian Federation*

E F Rc Rm Su

5

South Africa

C F Su

3

Singapore*

C

1

Thailand

B F O

3

Ukraine*

F Sb Su

3

USA

C E F N O Rc Su

7

Uzbekistan

C

1

* Non-members of FAO
B - Buffalo P - Pastures
C – Cotton Rc - Rice
E – SREN RM – RAMIRAN
F – Flax Sg – Sheep and Goat
N – Nuts Sb – Soybean
O – Olives Su – Sunflower
T – Trace Elements

ANNEX IV - REU TECHNICAL SERIES

   

YEAR OF PUBLICATION

1.*

Greenhouse Heating with Solar Energy

1987

2.

Biomass Combustion Technologies

1988

3.*

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energies for Greenhouse Heating

1988

4.

Geothermal Energy Resources and their Use in European Agriculture

1988

5.*

Dissemination of Renewable Energies in Farms and Rural Villages-Barriers and Policy Measures

1988

6.

Manual on Design and Assessment of Integrated Farm Energy Systems (Siena Simulation Models Evaluation Chart)

1988

7.

Integrated Energy System Design and Assessment: Application to Farms

1989

8.

Women in Rural Development

1989

9.

Flax in Europe: Production and Processing

1989

10.

Energy Consumption and Input-Output Relations of Field Operations

1989

11.

Energy Conservation in Animal Houses

1990

12.*

Biological Farming in Europe

1990

13.

Nut Production and Industry in Europe, Near East and North Africa

1990

14.*

Rural Development through Agro-tourism

1990

15.

Global Management Approach to Farm Development and Family Living

1991

16.

Global Management Approach to Extension Development

1991

17.

Recent Developments in Animal Waste Utilization

1991

18.

not produced

 

19.

White Clover in Europe

1991

20.

Charcoal Production and Pyrolysis Technologies

1991

21.*

Biotechnologies for Pollution Control and Energy

1992

22.

Integrated Systems and Farm Energy Requirements

1992

23.

Mushroom Production and Research

1993

24.

Second Round Table on the Livestock Production Sector in Eastern Europe as Affected by Current Changes

1993

25.

Workshop on European Greenhouse Standards

1992

26.

European System of Cooperative Research Networks in Agriculture (ESCORENA)

1992

27.

Labour, Machinery and Energy Databases in Plant Production

1992

28.

Management of Mediterranean Shrublands and Related Forage Resources

1993

29.

White Clover in Europe: State-of-the-Art

1993

30.

Characterisation of Meadows in Mountainous Areas – Dairy Cows in the Mountains

1994

31.

Game Farming in Europe

1994

32.

Cotton Biotechnology

1994

33.

Biogas Technology as an Environmental Solution to Pollution

1994

34.

Animal Waste Management

1994

35.

Systems of Sheep and Goat Production

1995

36.

Management and Breeding of Perennial Lucerne for Diversified Purposes

1994

37.

Self-Help Organizations in Livestock Production

1995

38.

Environmental Aspects of Production and Conversion of Biomass for Energy

1995

39.

Mountain Grassland: Biodiversity and Agricultural Value

1995

40.

Quality Control and Requirements of Food and Animal Origin

1995

41.

Rural Development through Entrepreneurship

1997

42.

Recent Research and Development on White Clover in Europe

1996

43.

The Task Force on Animal Production in Central and Eastern Europe: 1991-1996 Evaluation Report

1996

44.

Fourth Round Table on the Livestock Production Sector in Eastern Europe as Affected by Current Changes

1996

45.

Draught Animal Power in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin

1997

46.

Renewable Energy - Potential Energy Crops for Europe and the Mediterranean Region

1996

47.

Breeding Strategies for Cattle, Sheep and Pigs in Eastern Europe

1997

48.

Organization and Funding of Animal Production Research in Central and Eastern Europe

1997

49.**

Trace Elements, Natural Antioxidants and Contaminants in European Foods and Diets

1996

50.

Sheep and Goat Production in the Central and Eastern European Countries

1998

51.

Inventory of Almond Research, Germplasm and References

1997

52.

Anaerobic Conversions for Environmental Protection, Sanitation and

 
 

Re-use of Residues

1997

53.

Nutrition and Growth Regulators Use in Cotton

1997

54.**

Biological Farming Research in Europe

1997

55.**

Increasing the Involvement of Young Men and Women in Rural Development in Europe

1998

56.

Biodiversity and Feeding Value of Mountain Grasslands in Europe (in preparation)

 

57.

Methods and Tools of Extension in Mountain Farms (in preparation)

 

58.

Research Methodologies in Organic Farming (in preparation)

 

59.

Role of Grazing in the Management of Agro-pastoral Mountain Areas

1999

60.

Central and Eastern European Workshop on Needs and Potentials for Farm and Farming Systems Data

1999

* out of print

** available on the Internet: http://www.fao.org/regional/europe/public-e.htm


1 Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA).

2 Austria (Trace Elements), Belgium (SREN), Czech Republic (Soybean), Finland (Trace Elements), France (Rice, Flax, Sheep and Goats, RAMIRAN), Germany (Sunflower, SREN), Greece (Olives), Hungary (Sheep and Goats), Italy (Olives, Cotton, Nuts, Rice, Buffalo), The Netherlands (SREN), Poland (Flax), Romania (Pastures), Slovakia (Soybean, Pastures), Spain (Olives, Pastures, Nuts, Sheep and Goats), Turkey (Nuts, Buffalo) and UK (Rice).

3 Egypt (Sunflower, Cotton, Buffalo), Morocco (Pastures, Nuts, Sheep and Goats) and Tunisia (Olives).

4 Russian Federation (Flax).

5 Azerbaijan, Georgia, Luxembourg and Malta.

6 Albania, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzigovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Moldova and The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

7 Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK and Yugoslavia.

8 Algeria, Egypt, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Morocco, Syria and Tunisia.

9 Australia, Belarus, Brazil, Chile, China, Japan, Russian Federation, South Africa, Thailand, Ukraine and the USA.

10 FAO/CIHEAM Interregional Networks on Nuts, Pastures and Fodder Crops and Sheep and Goats.

11 Network on Buffalo Production.

12 RAMIRAN

13 Network on Cotton.

14 Network on Pastures and Fodder Crops.

15 Network on Flax and Other Bast Fibres.

16 e.g. Network on Flax: Round Robin Test for Quality Assessment of Bast Fibres.

17 Networks on Cotton, Nuts, Rice and Sunflower.

18 Olives: germplasm collection and conservation and breeding; Sunflower: male cytoplasmic sterility, collection of wild species, interspecific hybrids and molecular markers; Nuts: almonds germplasm inventory; Flax: International Flax Database.

19 Sustainable management of Mediterranean and mountain pastures; lowland feed resources, olive orchards soil and water management.

20 Flax: use of marginal lands for non-food agricultural production.

21 Buffalo and Sheep and Goats.

22 For example, a meeting of rice production in Egypt dealing with soil salinity. The same effect was had on meetings held in some CEE countries, such as those of the Pastures and Fodder Crops Network held in Estonia (White Clover Production) or Romania (Extension for Mountain Pasture Management).

23 European Association for Animal Production (EAAP), European Grassland Federation (EGF), International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC), International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR), International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS) and International Sunflower Organization (ISO).

24 Since 1996 GREMPA has functioned within the framework of the FAO/CIHEAM Network on Nuts.

25 Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA).

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