212A5: "Mainstreaming IPM" by Enhancing Essential Ecological Processes
Development problem to be addressed:49.
Countries face conflicting pressures to reduce both risks to consumers from
pesticide residues in food as well as international phytosanitary risks.
Chemically-based pest management leads to reduced agro-biodiversity and
disrupted ecological functions and services, and ultimately leads to pest
outbreaks and production instability. Health hazards associated with acute
pesticide exposure are compounded by poor nutrition and infectious diseases,
hence contributing to household food insecurity and poverty.
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:50.
With Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as the preferred pest management strategy,
communities should be enabled with adequate donor support to set up and sustain
farmers field schools (FFS) that teach IPM. Knowledge acquired in FFS will make
it possible to restrict and eliminate toxic pesticides, replacing them with
recommended production techniques that enhance ecosystem services such as pest
regulation by natural predators.
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:51.
Rural communities should benefit from more stable income due to fewer pest
outbreaks, safer food, and lower risks from exposure to pesticides. Consumers
(mostly urban) should experience lower health risks from pesticide residues in
food and other agricultural products. The environment will be better preserved,
with less disruption of ecosystem functions embodied in
52. IPM becomes, before 2012, the preferred pest
management strategy for the majority of member countries, with the farmers field
schools becoming the leading model for community-based participatory technology
- Integrated pest management policies
- Support to national Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes
- Principles of population dynamics, epidemiology and evolution introduced
in the framework of agro-biodiversity
- Financial size and number of beneficiary farmers of national IPM
- Examples of approved national pesticide reduction strategies, national
policy reforms in support of, or explicitly mentioning IPM.
- Improvements in the quality of IPM deliverables at community level.
212A9: Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources,
including through Biotechnology, Biosafety and Seed Sector Development
Development problem to be addressed:53. Farmers
and breeders need access to plant genetic resources, including alternative crops
and new cultivars, and related information and technologies, including through
seed provision, to achieve sustainable increases in production and/or maintain
profitability. This is underpinned by the Global Plan of Action (GPA) for the
Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and
Agriculture and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:54.
Development of, and easier access to high-quality, locally adapted planting
material, and improved on-farm management of agricultural biodiversity will
enable farmers to achieve sustainable production increases, contributing to food
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:55.
Farming communities (including resource-poor farmers in marginal areas) and the
public at large will benefit from increased food security.
56. Wide dissemination and use, as well as
conservation of plant genetic resources and related biodiversity, through
strengthening of the seed sector and plant breeding capacities at national
level, and effective implementation of the GPA for the Conservation and
Sustainable Use of PGRFA.
- Capacity building for enhanced use of PGRFA, including through plant
breeding strategies and biotechnology
- Enhanced management practices of crop and crop-associated biodiversity
through application of the ecosystem approach
- Support to on-farm management, exchange and improvement of PGRFA, and
national seed systems ensuring complementarity between private, public and
- Improvement of regulatory frameworks for PGRFA seed and variety release,
including PVP in both the public and the private sector
- Due attention to seeds and PGRFA in disaster preparedness, relief and
- Improved access to, and transfer of PGRFA and seed related technologies,
- Assessment of national plant breeding and biotechnology capacity for
strategic planning to enhance use of PGRFA
- Monitoring of use of PGRFA, including support to the global facilitating
mechanism for the implementation of the Global Plan of Action
- Assessment of biotechnology based applications, emphasizing use of PGRFA,
to meet development needs
- Promoting use of alternative crops and cultivars, emphasizing
under-utilized species and their genetic resources
- Policy advice and support to enhance national capacity in plant biosafety
- Support for the implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements at
national and international level
- Examples of activities stemming from GPA implementation.
- Examples of national programmes and private enterprises disseminating
locally-adapted cultivars, including from alternative crops, and good-quality
planting material in part due to this entity.
- National programmes for PGRFA established, strengthhened, and/or
incorporating seed and plant breeding activities.
212B1: Production and Biodiversity in Crop and Grassland Systems
Development problem to be addressed:57. Crop
productivity increases can be detrimental to natural resources, giving rise to
widespread concerns over the sustainability of agricultural intensification
(e.g. from the biological, ecological, economic and social perspectives).
Emerging markets for local products offer prospects for developing country
farmers and pastoralists, and represent a niche area to which science can
contribute much in terms of building bridges between new and traditional
technologies. Technologies are often available in a particular country or
international research centre, but have not been transferred to benefit
production at farm level or to other countries. The agriculture sector needs to
apply rigorous processes, procedures and methodologies to assure quality food
and feed production and diversify production systems.
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:58.
This technical project, involving inter-disciplinary expertise, aims at
effective implementation of strategies and integrated technologies capable of
reducing food insecurity and improving rural livelihoods, while ensuring that
natural resources are not degraded.
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:59.
Smallholders, urban or peri-urban agricultural producers and pastoral
communities will benefit from guidance regarding sustainable and profitable
methods of crop production and their implementation. Consumers and the public at
large should ultimately be assured of better quality and safer food, produced in
ways which do not harm the environment. Public institutions and scientists will
benefit from networking to improve and diversify cropping systems on a global
60. Increased access to sufficient and quality food
produced in a sustainable manner, through integrated technologies and
- Introduction of improved technologies in intensive cropping systems for
- Introduction of improved technologies for extensive grassland and cropping
systems for sustainable livelihoods
- Sustainable food and industrial crop intensification including through
Good Agricultural Practices
- Technologies and improved knowledge base for intensive forage production
- Implementation of the Global Cassava Development Strategy
- Capacity building in crop management and varietal guidance in support of
Integrated Production and Pest Management
- Evidence of technical knowledge transferred to small farmers and
pastoralists related to production and biodiversity in crop/grassland systems
212B2: Horticulture for improving livelihoods
Development problem to be addressed:61. Through
its diversity and adaptability to producers' and consumers' requirements,
horticulture has the potential to become an increasingly important sector for
the future development of agriculture. Furthermore, increased daily fruit and
vegetable consumption as part of a balanced diet is promoted by FAO and WHO, in
view of the known health benefits in terms of micro-nutrient intake and
prevention of certain non-communicable diseases. This points to the need for
efficiency improvements in fruit and vegetable supply chains, in a market-linked
approach, in order to ensure year-round availability of safe fruit and
vegetables at affordable prices. The health dimension, added to the potential
offered by the development of high value horticultural crops as a means of
improving farmers' income, constitutes a challenge for the production and trade
sectors. A comprehensive approach based on multi-agency collaboration, task
sharing and, where appropriate, partnership with the private sector, is needed
to address this challenge. Policy guidance will be provided to countries, and
technical decision support mechanisms established.
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:62.
This technical project aims to support sustainable development of the
horticulture sector. It will foster interdisciplinarity and internal/external
partnerships, assist with external resource mobilization and deliver effective,
need-driven services to countries in this sector.
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:63.
Smallholders, home gardeners, urban and peri-urban producers and traders of
horticultural commodities should be able to benefit from demand arising from
increased consumer awareness of the role of fruit and vegetables in healthy
diets. Consumers and the public at large should ultimately be assured of
supplies of better quality and safe produce, at affordable prices and produced
in ways which do not harm the environment.
64. Promotion of strategies for increasing small
farmers' income while addressing health concerns and technical constraints along
fruit and vegetable food chains; adaptation and dissemination of technologies
for increasing horticulture efficiency and product availability.
- FAO-WHO global fruit and vegetable initiative
- Policies and strategies to support rational development of urban and
- Technical guidance for increasing efficiency of perennial fruit production
- Technical support to horticultural education
- Technical support and capacity building for good agricultural practices in
horticulture, including organic management
- Strategies and technologies for increasing year-round vegetable
- Articulated national and regional programmes based on policy adjustments
and reflecting an inter-disciplinary, food-chain approach to horticulture
212B4: Facilitating Plant Production Decision Making: Policy and
Development problem to be addressed:65. Farmers
require demand-oriented, operational knowledge rather than general advice. Yet,
technical information on crop production, plant breeding and biotechnology is
often not well referenced and insufficiently tailored to particular ecological
contexts at the country level.
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:66.
This entity is to ensure the provision of comprehensive and more
demand-responsive technical information through AGP decision support databases
and Web sites, for enhanced and safer technology adoption. The dimensions of
crop diversity, new technologies and ecological compatibility will be given
particular attention, to ensure that short-term objectives of crop production
increases are not met at the cost of long-term sustainability.
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:67.
Farmers and policy makers should directly benefit from an improved knowledge
base on plant production and related disciplines.
68. Provision of demand-oriented and timely policy
and technical advice.
- Development and enhancement of key crop databases and decision support
- FAO crop-related Web sites, electronic newsletters and new publications on
major and minor crops
- Interest shown by Governments, public institutions, donors and private
enterprise in country or regional expansion of technology, in response to
- Amount of information and training material on adapted species or
cultivars and related technologies collected, structured and delivered through
212P1: Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention
Development problem to be addressed:69. The
negative effects of plant pests on crop production and conservation, national
plant resources and biodiversity.
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:70.
The IPPC provides an essential framework and forum for international
cooperation, harmonization and technical exchange between contracting parties.
It is predicated on the assumption that effective multilateral action is
necessary to prevent the spread and introduction of pests and to promote
measures for their control.
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:71.
Farmers, as far as protection of their crops is concerned; general public
through protection of agricultural systems and the environment, as well as
facilitation of trade.
72. Promote appropriate regulatory frameworks and
effective national and international phytosanitary measures for the control of
plant pests. Reduction of the spread of plant pests and better control through
common action. This either cannot be achieved by countries individually, or at
- International Phytosanitary Standards
- Harmonized approaches among concerned international and regional
agreements and organizations
- Exchange of mandatory phytosanitary information
- Support national phytosanitary systems
- Settlement of Disputes
- Provision of an efficient administrative framework
- Support to Regional FAO Commissions
- Measures taken by national plant protection services in support of IPPC
- Examples of national strategies, policies and projects formulated and/or
implemented in the light of IPPC.
212P2: Pesticide Management
Development problem to be addressed:73. The use
of pesticides remains necessary to sustain and increase production levels in
many cropping systems. However, pesticides - and notably obsolete ones - pose
serious risks to human health and the environment.
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:74.
The work of this entity is guided by the Revised Version of the International
Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides. This entity
contributes to the development of standards on pesticide management, pesticides
residues, and on pesticide product quality. This entity supports the Interim
Secretariat of the Rotterdam Convention for the application of Prior Informed
Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in
International Trade. The standards facilitate the trade of pesticides and
agricultural products, while at the same time protecting human health and the
environment. Improved information exchange, the use of less hazardous
alternatives (bio-pesticides) and the disposal of obsolete pesticides are other
areas of interest which should contribute to reducing risks associated with
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:75.
Farmers and other users of pesticides, as well as consumers through the
reduction of pesticide-related health and environmental risks.
76. Sound pesticide management practices in
compliance with international standards, and focussing on risk
- International Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides
promoted and updated
- Recommendations for Pesticide Maximum Residue Levels to Codex, Standards
for pesticide residues
- Secretariat to the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC)
Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International
- Prevention of obsolete pesticide stocks and facilitation of their disposal
- Technologies for replacement of pesticides highly hazardous for the
- Technical Support for national regulatory systems and sound pesticide
- Examples of progress made in the international regulatory framework for
sound pesticide management, due in part to this entity.
- Reduction of trade, use and storage of hazardous pesticides.
212P3: Migratory Pest Management
Development problem to be addressed:77.
Transboundary plant pests, in particular the Desert Locust, but also other
locusts, grain-eating birds and armyworm, may cause substantial crop damage and
represent a continuing threat to the livelihood of rural populations and to the
overall food security of affected countries. Prevention and control programmes
must be effective, while respecting human health and the
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:78.
Migratory pests, by definition, practically affect more than one country, and
management practices in one country affect other countries. The management of
migratory pests, therefore, needs to be supported by effective inter-country
approaches and cooperation.
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:79.
Farmers and pastoral communities in affected regions will benefit from improved
protection of crops and pastures. The public at large will gain from the
reduction and substitution of chemical pesticides with
80. Regional and inter-regional cooperation and
coordination for the management of migratory pests, in particular Desert
Locusts, but also other locusts, grain-eating birds and armyworms.
- Monthly bulletins on the desert locust situation, including forecasts,
special alerts and summaries on other locust outbreaks
- Coordination of desert locust management and cooperation among affected
- Technical support services to governments on migratory pest control
- Examples of concerted actions taken as response to special alerts on
critical Desert Locust situations/exchange of information
- Examples of policy decisions to control transboundary pests agreed among
nations of the same region.
212P4: Technical Support to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources for Food and Agriculture
Development problem to be addressed:81. The
conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA, facilitated access to these resources
and sharing of benefits derived from their use, and are essential to food
security and sustainable agriculture. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources for Food and Agriculture was underwritten by Members in this
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:82.
The wide implementation of the International Treaty on PGRFA will result in the
conservation and enhanced use of plant genetic resources. Access by farmers to
high-quality, locally-adapted planting material will provide the basis for
sustainable production increases and contribute to food security and
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:83.
Parties to the International Treaty on PGRFA and other countries, through
effective technical support to the Treaty itself and its supporting components.
Farming communities and the public at large will benefit from increased food
security and diversity.
84. To assist parties in implementing the Treaty
and its supporting components (the Global Plan of Action, international ex situ
collections, PGRFA networks, and the global information system), hence
contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA, facilitated
access to these resources and the sharing of benefits derived from their
- Rolling Global Plan of Action (GPA) for the conservation and sustainable
use of PGRFA refined on the basis of an agreed periodically updated report on
the State of the World's PGRFA
- Facilitating mechanism for the implementation by all stakeholders of the
Global Plan of Action
- Support to international networks of ex situ collections
- Contributions to an enhanced Global Information System for PGRFA,
including seeds and crop improvement
- Support to seed security networks
- Technical support to the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and
Agriculture and its Intergovernmental Technical Working Group (ITWG) on PGRFA
as well as the Governing Body of the Treaty
- Summary status of implementation of, and examples of actions taken to
implement the Global Plan of Action.
- Number of information requests to the Global Information System.
- Adoption of the revised Global Plan of Action.
212P5: Support to Strategy Formulation and Promotion of Specific Action for
Rice Development in Member Countries of the International Rice Commission
Development problem to be addressed:85. Rice is
the staple food for more than 3 billion people in the world and provides 50-60%
of daily energy requirements in their diets. Yield increase was the principal
factor contributing to the rapid growth in the world's rice production during
the 1970s and 80s. But since 1990, the average growth has decelerated
considerably, from about 2 percent per year in the 1980s to about 1 percent per
year in the 1990s. Intensive rice production also needs to be adjusted in order
to reverse growing environmental degradation, such as agro-chemical pollution,
increased pest infestation and loss of biodiversity, while water and land
resources for rice production have become more scarce.
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:86.
The coordination of national, regional and global efforts should greatly assist
sustainable rice production for food security and poverty alleviation, and will
remain the main focus of the International Rice Commission.
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:87.
Rice-growing farmers should benefit from the continued refinement of national
policies and technologies available for rice intensification. Rice consumers
would benefit from continued availability of their staple food and price
88. Adjustment of national rice development
programmes, and wide implementation of the Commission's recommendations aimed at
increasing rice production on a sustainable and environmentally-friendly
- Harmonization of action on rice development in countries through IRC
sessions, meetings and steering committee, and inter-regional cooperative
- Assistance for the implementation of IRC's recommendations in countries
and monitoring of their impact
- Collation, analysis and publication of information on innovative rice
technologies, production factors, constraints and opportunities in different
- Number of staff of national programmes trained on new technologies and
- Number of national programmes actively implementing recommendations from
- Examples of corrective actions taken at the country level as a result of
the Commission's recommendations.
- Demand for IRC Newsletter.
212P6: EMPRES - Plant Pests Component
Development problem to be addressed:89.
Transboundary plant pests, especially the desert locust, are a continuing threat
to the livelihoods of rural populations and to the overall food security of
affected countries. Prevention and control programmes must be effective, while
respecting human health and the environment.
Proposed contribution to problem resolution:90.
The entity is to minimize the risk of transboundary plant pest emergencies,
initially focusing on desert locusts, through support of early warning systems,
early reaction and research capabilities.
Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:91.
Farmers and pastoral communities will benefit from protection of crops and
pastures. The public at large will gain from the reduction and substitution of
chemical pesticides with bio-pesticides.
92. To minimise the risk of transboundary plant
pest emergencies, initially focusing on desert locust, through support of early
warning systems, early reaction and research capabilities.
- Coordination of EMPRES activities, with focus on West and North West
- Improved locust survey and early warning systems
- Support to early locust control capacity
- Improved desert locust contingency planning implementation and control
- Technical support for early warning and early control, for transboundary
plant pests other than locusts
- Effective use by National Plant Protection Services of upgraded electronic
communication systems and improved reporting procedures
- Effective use of improved applications and alternatives to chemical
pesticides,especially environmentally friendly biopesticides
- Outcomes of reviews of the Desert Locust control capacity of selected
countries aimed at enhancing contingency planning processes
- National officers trained on Desert Locust survey and control
212S1: Advice to Countries and Support to Field Programme
93. As this entity largely
represents on-demand services to Members which by their nature are difficult to
plan in advance, no formulation of rationale and objective is
- Technical support and advice to field programme, including emergencies,
with respect to crop production
- Technical support and advice to field programme, including emergencies,
with respect to crop protection
- Technical support and advice to field programme, including emergencies,
with respect to seed systems
- Requests, missions, project fulfilment