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CHAPTER 2: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC PROGRAMMES

MAJOR PROGRAMME 2.1: AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

248. Major Programme 2.1 seeks to address the evolving challenges for agriculture together with current and emerging concerns of Members. Emphasis is given, notably, to enhancing the linkages between normative and field activities and to policy assistance, technical advice and capacity building at country level, especially in areas such as plant and animal genetic resources, biotechnology, biosecurity and animal health.

249. Agriculture is the main contributor to food security and sustainable development, and an efficient and responsive agriculture sector is essential to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on poverty, hunger and sustainable development. These MDGs and the World Food Summit (WFS) goals can only be met by ensuring reliable production, processing and delivery of more food. The challenge is to satisfy an increased and diversified demand for food and other products while conserving natural resources, ensuring food quality and safety, and improving rural livelihoods, often in fragile environments.

250. The main priorities are: to continue to support standard-setting processes and the development of appropriate policy and regulatory frameworks, and to assist in their application at country level; to promote new technologies to intensify and diversify agricultural production in a sustainable manner; to encourage better integration in the development and management of natural resources such as land and water; to assist countries in assessing and reducing the effects of agriculture-related environmental degradation and market failures, especially on vulnerable, food-insecure households; to build capacity and infrastructure at both national and international levels for rapid response to emerging crises in the crop and animal sectors; and to understand, evaluate and raise awareness on the biosecurity risks in exchanges of agricultural inputs and products, including genetically modified organisms, so as to ensure the provision of safe and quality food as well as facilitate expanding international trade.

251. Over the MTP period, attention will continue to be given, inter alia, to new technologies and approaches compatible with social, environmental and health concerns, and in particular methods for increased productivity of land, water and labour, applications of biotechnology and sustainable use of genetic resources that can provide the basis for incremental production to meet the projected demand for food and agricultural products beyond the medium term. The relationship between production increases and sustainable farming practices, as well as consumer concerns, is further strengthened through dissemination of policy experience and concrete examples of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) that meet economic, social and environmental objectives and contribute to food safety in the context of a rapidly changing food economy and globalization.

PROGRAMME 2.1.0: INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL PROGRAMME ENTITIES FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

Prog. Entity

Time Frame

Title

PWB
2004-05

MTP 2006-07

MTP 2008-09

MTP 2010-11

MTP Total

210A1

2002-2005

Sustainable Intensification of Integrated Production Systems

590

-

-

-

-

210A2

2002-2005

Promotion of Conservation Agriculture

880

-

-

-

-

210A3

2006-2011

Enhancing capacities for sustainable production systems and good agricultural practices

-

1,470

1,470

1,470

4,410

210P1

Continuing

Secretariat of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA)

2,051

2,051

2,051

2,051

6,153

210S1

Continuing

Committee on Agriculture (COAG)

562

562

562

562

1,686

210S2

Continuing

Technical Services for Partnership Development and Information Enhancement

548

548

548

548

1,644

210S5

Continuing

Central Support to PAIAs

592

592

592

592

1,776

Total Programme of Work

5,223

5,223

5,223

5,223

15,669

Less External Income

-

-

-

-

-

Net Appropriation

5,223

5,223

5,223

5,223

15,669

Real Growth

778

1,906

3,384

6,068

Net Appropriation with Real Growth

6,001

7,129

8,607

21,737

Growth in Net Appropriation (Percentage)

14.9%

36.5%

64.8%

38.7%

252. The intra-departmental entities in this Programme address emerging and cross-cutting issues. One change over the previous MTP is the consolidation and reformulation of two closely related entities: 210A1 Sustainable intensification of integrated production systems, designed to support implementation of the PROD PAIA, and 210A2 Promotion of conservation agriculture. Progress so far, along with a re-assessment of the PROD PAIA, has highlighted a number of issues, such as supporting collaborative work and building synergies among the technical programmes dealing with conservation agriculture (CA) and Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The new Programme Entity, 210A3 Enhancing Capacities for Sustainable Production Systems and Good Agricultural Practices, will support interdisciplinary action and coordination of work in the thematic areas of GAPs, conservation agriculture and sustainable integrated production systems, with emphasis on policy and technical advice as well as capacity building in Member countries. As regards on-going entity 210P1, it may be noted that the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA) came into force in June 2004. Following the first meeting of the Governing Body in 2005, some further change is expected from the PWB 2006-07 onwards in relation to Secretariat support for the Treaty.

Entity

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

E1

E2

E3

210A3

       

 

   

210P1

     

               

210S1

     

               

210S2

             

 

 

210S5

 

Legend:

less than US$ 750,000

US$ 750,000 to US$ 2 million

more than US$ 2 million



Real Growth Proposal

Additional resources would be applied under entity 210P1 to: i) strengthen the implementation of the International Treaty on PGRFA, and ii) advance work on the supporting components, as listed in Part V of the International Treaty (The GPA for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of PGRFA; the State of the World's PGRFA; Ex Situ Collections of PGRFA; International PGR Networks; and the Global Information System on PGRFA). Under 210A3, they would serve to broaden support to countries in the adoption of good agricultural practices and in responding effectively to private sector GAP initiatives. A more comprehensive information platform would be developed and GAPs would be identified for additional production systems and sub-regions.

210A3: Enhancing capacities for sustainable production systems and good agricultural practices

Development problem to be addressed:

253. The entity operates in a context of growing needs for safe and quality agricultural products and sustaining rural livelihoods, while preserving the natural resource base. It seeks to improve capacities of, and coordination between, a wide range of stakeholders to support economically, environmentally and socially sustainable agriculture.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

254. The aim of policy and technological choices in sustainable agriculture is generally not to optimize the production of one commodity in isolation, but to promote holistic solutions, to recognize the economic and social dimensions of technology adoption, and to understand the contribution of agriculture to broader livelihoods systems. This can only be achieved through multidisciplinary and coordinated approaches.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

255. FAO departments and divisions, and a variety of global and national stakeholders: line ministry decision makers and policy advisors, international institutions, universities and research institutes, extension technicians, farmer associations and other civil society organizations, private sector.

Objective(s)

256. Coordinated action in various regions, exchange of information and lessons, and support to capacity building and policy change in order to demonstrate and promote integrated production systems.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

PROGRAMME 2.1.1: NATURAL RESOURCES

Prog. Entity

Time Frame

Title

PWB 2004-05

MTP 2006-07

MTP 2008-09

MTP 2010-11

MTP Total

211A1

2002-2007

Agricultural Water Use Efficiency and Conservation

2,763

2,763

-

-

2,763

211A2

2002-2007

Land and Soil Productivity

2,471

2,471

-

-

2,471

211A3

2002-2007

Integrated Land, Water and Plant Nutrition Policies, Planning and Management

1,400

1,400

-

-

1,400

211A5

2004-2009

Land and Water Quality Improvement

793

793

793

-

1,586

211P7

Continuing

Land and Water Information Systems, Databases and Statistics

1,697

1,697

1,697

1,697

5,091

211P8

Continuing

Knowledge Management and Partnerships

1,263

1,263

1,263

1,263

3,789

211S1

Continuing

Direct Support to Member Nations and to the Field Programme

5,310

5,310

5,310

5,310

15,930

211S2

Continuing

International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID)

569

569

569

569

1,707

Programme Reserve

-

 

6,634

7,427

 

Total Programme of Work

16,266

16,266

16,266

16,266

48,798

Less External Income

662

662

662

662

1,986

Net Appropriation

15,604

15,604

15,604

15,604

46,812

Real Growth

706

1,412

2,118

4,236

Net Appropriation with Real Growth

16,310

17,016

17,722

51,048

Growth in Net Appropriation (Percentage)

4.5%

9.0%

13.6%

9.0%

257. The programme promotes the conservation and improved use of land and water resources and plant nutrient inputs. Major areas of emphasis remain: the sustainable improvement of land and water productivity; soil and water conservation; rehabilitation of degraded land and water resources; integration of land and water development; and dissemination of appropriate practices and policies for sustainable land and water management. The programme is also responding to demands of countries for integrating environmental and socio-economic related activities.

258. Programme 2.1.1 is essentially in a transitional phase, since several of its constituent programme entities are time-bound and expected to end over the next few years. No structural change is introduced in this MTP, with only streamlining of some major outputs. Programme Entities 211A1 and 211A3 will be completed in 2007, and 211A5 in 2009. Programme Entity 211A2, originally expected to end in 2005, is to be extended until the end of 2007. Recommendations for change or reformulation are anticipated as a result of the auto-evaluation processes either planned or underway, and will be incorporated in the next MTP. Preliminary thinking indicates the likely introduction of three new programme entities from 2008 (211A6 - Practices and Policies for Sustainable Agricultural Water Management, 211A7 - Practices and Policies for Sustainable Land Management, 211A8 - Integrated Land and Water Management), and a fourth one from 2010 (211A9 - Land and Water Quality Management and Environment).

Entity

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

E1

E2

E3

211A1

       

 

       

211A2

           

 

     

211A3

             

     

211A5

             

     

211P7

                 

 

211P8

                 

 

211S1

         

 

     

211S2

         

     

   

Legend:

less than US$ 750,000

US$ 750,000 to US$ 2 million

more than US$ 2 million



Real Growth Proposal

In line with the priority expressed by Governing Bodies on water use efficiency and conservation, and with particular attention to regions facing serious water scarcity, the following activities would be expanded under 211A1: i) support to networks dealing with on-farm water control techniques and integrated resources management; ii) preparation of guidelines on irrigation system modernization, management and scheduling; and iii) policy and institutional support for water management, including transboundary water resources.

Under 211A3, Real Growth resources would allow increasing demands to be met in two areas: i) land and water management in a watershed context, with focus on ecosystem services; and ii) integrated planning and management of land, water and nutrient resources.

PROGRAMME 2.1.2: CROPS

Prog. Entity

Time Frame

Title

PWB
2004-05

MTP
2006-07

MTP
2008-09

MTP
2010-11

MTP Total

212A1

2002-2005

Alternative Crops and Cultivars for New Opportunities

1,247

-

-

-

-

212A3

2002-2005

Strategies and Technologies for Sustainable Crop and Grassland Production Systems

3,265

-

-

-

-

212A4

2002-2005

EMPRES - Plant Pests Component

1,877

-

-

-

-

212A5

2002-2007

"Mainstreaming IPM" by Enhancing Essential Ecological Processes

2,217

2,383

-

-

2,383

212A8

2002-2005

Facilitating Plant Production and Protection Decision Making

399

-

-

-

-

212A9(1)

2004-2011

Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources, including through Biotechnology, Biosafety and Seed Sector Development

2,346

3,373

3,373

3,373

10,119

212B1

2006-2011

Production and Biodiversity in Crop and Grassland Systems

-

2,577

2,577

2,577

7,731

212B2

2006-2011

Horticulture for improving livelihoods

-

1,245

1,245

1,245

3,735

212B4

2006-2011

Facilitating Plant Production Decision Making: Policy and Technology

-

284

284

284

852

212P1

Continuing

Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)

4,170

4,170

4,170

4,170

12,510

212P2

Continuing

Pesticide Management

3,162

3,162

3,162

3,162

9,486

212P3

Continuing

Migratory Pest Management

1,849

1,849

1,849

1,849

5,547

212P4

Continuing

Technical Support to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

2,793

2,793

2,793

2,793

8,379

212P5

Continuing

Support to Strategy Formulation and Promotion of Specific Action for Rice Development in Member Countries of the International Rice Commission (IRC)

645

478

478

478

1,434

212P6

Continuing

EMPRES - Plant Pests Component

-

1,877

1,877

1,877

5,631

212S1

Continuing

Advice to Countries and Support to Field Programme

2,152

2,152

2,152

2,152

6,456

Programme Reserve

-

-

2,383

2,383

4,766

Total Programme of Work

26,122

26,343

26,343

26,343

79,029

Less External Income

726

715

715

715

2,145

Net Appropriation

25,396

25,628

25,628

25,628

76,884

Real Growth

1,327

2,654

3,981

7,962

Net Appropriation with Real Growth

26,955

28,282

29,609

84,846

Growth in Net Appropriation (Percentage)

5.2%

10.4%

15.5%

10.4%

(1) - Although the title of the entity has changed, there has been no substantive change in its formulation

259. Programme 2.1.2 deals with the sustainable enhancement of crop production, the prevention and reduction of losses due to pests, the conservation and use of plant genetic resources and seed production. Three major complementary actions are to assist countries in: developing sustainable crop production systems; promoting integrated plant protection practices; and conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources, including seed production development. The programme seeks to achieve an appropriate balance between field and normative work including technical backstopping, institutional capacity building, standards setting and policy assistance.

260. While outputs may be adjusted in line with evolving situations, no structural changes are made to Programme Entities 212A4 (newly coded 212P6), 212A9, 212P1, 212P2, 212P3 and 212P4, reflecting their high priority with the membership. Due to the continuing nature of the work involved, entity 212A4 EMPRES - Plant Pests Component is converted into a continuing programme entity (212P6), while action is to be concentrated mainly in the Western Region. The current Technical Project for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) (212A5) is expected to give way in the future to a successor entity: Application of IPM to Challenges in the Global System, in order to carry the IPM application further at national level.

261. In line with the recommendations of the recent evaluation of FAO's crop production activities, the present entities 212A1, 212A3 and 212A8 are to be phased out at the end of 2005 and will be replaced by three new entities which reflect a more multidisciplinary approach, with emphasis on policy and strategic development. These new entities focus more specifically on horticulture (212B2), production and biodiversity in crop and grassland systems (212B1) and crop production decision support systems (212B4).

262. It must be stressed that funding constraints are faced in a number of areas, such as work on IPM and the IPPC Secretariat. There will be substantial reliance on, or synergies with extra-budgetary resources for: EMPRES (212P6); IPM (212A5); Horticulture (212B2); implementation of the GPA and IT-PGRFA (212A9 and 212P4); International Plant Protection Convention/IPPC (212P1), in particular for the participation of developing countries in standard setting; the Secretariat to the Rotterdam Convention and the Africa Stockpile Programme (212P2); and the Desert Locust Control Commission (212P3).

Entity

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

E1

E2

E3

212A5

           

       

212A9

 

     

       

212B1

       

 

     

212B2

       

         

212B4

           

 

   

212P1

     

             

212P2

   

             

212P3

   

                 

212P4

     

     

       

212P5

     

 

   

   

212P6

   

                 

212S1

   

   

           

Legend:

less than US$ 750,000

US$ 750,000 to US$ 2 million

more than US$ 2 million



Real Growth Proposal

In the priority area of Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources (212A9), increased resources would enable FAO to reinforce assistance to countries in assessing and building national plant breeding and biotechnology capacity, and to strengthen support to implementing the Biosafety Protocol. It would be possible to support, in response to increased requests by countries, the development of international agro-biodiversity normative indicators and regulations for access to seed.

Another high priority area, the IPPC, would also benefit, especially to work closely with the Convention on Biological Diversity in the context of Invasive Alien Species. Real growth resources would be used, under 212P1, to further the development of specific standards, technical support to developing countries, and preparation of explanatory documents to standards.

In conjunction with 210P1 Secretariat of the CGRFA, entity 212P4 would be strengthened to respond to countries' demand for technical assistance in implementing the International Treaty on PGRFA, and for technical support to the Global Crop Diversity Trust (an element of the Treaty's funding strategy).

212B1: Production and Biodiversity in Crop and Grassland Systems

Development problem to be addressed:

263. Crop productivity increases can be detrimental to natural resources, giving rise to widespread concerns over the sustainability of agricultural intensification (e.g. from the biological, ecological, economic and social perspectives). Emerging markets for local products offer prospects for developing country farmers and pastoralists, and represent a niche area to which science can contribute much in terms of building bridges between new and traditional technologies. Technologies are often available in a particular country or international research centre, but have not been transferred to benefit production at farm level or to other countries. The agriculture sector needs to apply rigorous processes, procedures and methodologies to assure quality food and feed production and diversify production systems.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

264. This technical project, involving inter-disciplinary expertise, aims at effective implementation of strategies and integrated technologies capable of reducing food insecurity and improving rural livelihoods, while ensuring that natural resources are not degraded.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

265. Smallholders, urban or peri-urban agricultural producers and pastoral communities will benefit from guidance regarding sustainable and profitable methods of crop production and their implementation. Consumers and the public at large should ultimately be assured of better quality and safer food, produced in ways which do not harm the environment. Public institutions and scientists will benefit from networking to improve and diversify cropping systems on a global scale.

Objective(s)

266. Increased access to sufficient and quality food produced in a sustainable manner, through integrated technologies and policies.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

212B2: Horticulture for improving livelihoods

Development problem to be addressed:

267. Through its diversity and adaptability to producers' and consumers' requirements, horticulture has the potential to become an increasingly important sector for the future development of agriculture. Furthermore, increased daily fruit and vegetable consumption as part of a balanced diet is promoted by FAO and WHO, in view of the known health benefits in terms of micro-nutrient intake and prevention of certain non-communicable diseases. This points to the need for efficiency improvements in fruit and vegetable supply chains, in a market-linked approach, in order to ensure year-round availability of safe fruit and vegetables at affordable prices. The health dimension, added to the potential offered by the development of high value horticultural crops as a means of improving farmers' income, constitutes a challenge for the production and trade sectors. A comprehensive approach based on multi-agency collaboration, task sharing and, where appropriate, partnership with the private sector, is needed to address this challenge. Policy guidance will be provided to countries, and technical decision support mechanisms established.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

268. This technical project aims to support sustainable development of the horticulture sector. It will foster interdisciplinarity and internal/external partnerships, assist with external resource mobilization and deliver effective, need-driven services to countries in this sector.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

269. Smallholders, home gardeners, urban and peri-urban producers and traders of horticultural commodities should be able to benefit from demand arising from increased consumer awareness of the role of fruit and vegetables in healthy diets. Consumers and the public at large should ultimately be assured of supplies of better quality and safe produce, at affordable prices and produced in ways which do not harm the environment.

Objective(s)

270. Promotion of strategies for increasing small farmers' income while addressing health concerns and technical constraints along fruit and vegetable food chains; adaptation and dissemination of technologies for increasing horticulture efficiency and product availability.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

212B4: Facilitating Plant Production Decision Making: Policy and Technology

Development problem to be addressed:

271. Farmers require demand-oriented, operational knowledge rather than general advice. Yet, technical information on crop production, plant breeding and biotechnology is often not well referenced and insufficiently tailored to particular ecological contexts at the country level.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

272. This entity is to ensure the provision of comprehensive and more demand-responsive technical information through AGP decision support databases and Web sites, for enhanced and safer technology adoption. The dimensions of crop diversity, new technologies and ecological compatibility will be given particular attention, to ensure that short-term objectives of crop production increases are not met at the cost of long-term sustainability.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

273. Farmers and policy makers should directly benefit from an improved knowledge base on plant production and related disciplines.

Objective(s)

274. Provision of demand-oriented and timely policy and technical advice.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

212P6: EMPRES - Plant Pests Component

Development problem to be addressed:

275. Transboundary plant pests, especially the desert locust, are a continuing threat to the livelihoods of rural populations and to the overall food security of affected countries. Prevention and control programmes must be effective, while respecting human health and the environment.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

276. The entity is to minimize the risk of transboundary plant pest emergencies, initially focusing on desert locusts, through support of early warning systems, early reaction and research capabilities.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

277. Farmers and pastoral communities will benefit from protection of crops and pastures. The public at large will gain from the reduction and substitution of chemical pesticides with bio-pesticides.

Objective(s)

278. To minimise the risk of transboundary plant pest emergencies, initially focusing on desert locust, through support of early warning systems, early reaction and research capabilities.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

PROGRAMME 2.1.3: LIVESTOCK

Prog. Entity

Time Frame

Title

PWB 2004-05

MTP 2006-07

MTP 2008-09

MTP 2010-11

MTP Total

213A3

2002-2005

Contribution of Livestock to Poverty Alleviation

2,078

-

-

-

-

213A5

2002-2005

Developing the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources

1,968

-

-

-

-

213A6

2002-2005

Veterinary Public Health Management and Food and Feed Safety

1,415

-

-

-

-

213A7

2002-2005

EMPRES - Livestock

2,953

-

-

-

-

213A8

2002-2005

Technologies and Systems for Efficient Natural Resource Use in Livestock Production

2,283

-

-

-

-

213A9

2002-2005

Environmental Management of Insect Borne Diseases

1,009

-

-

-

-

213B1

2002-2005

Livestock Sector Analysis and Strategy Development

1,140

-

-

-

-

213B2

2006-2011

Livestock Sector Analysis and Policy Development

-

1,140

1,140

1,140

3,420

213B4

2006-2011

Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety

-

1,665

1,665

1,665

4,995

213B5

2006-2011

Livestock Development and Poverty Reduction

-

3,502

4,155

4,155

11,812

213B6

2006-2011

Livestock - Environment Interactions

-

3,577

2,917

2,917

9,411

213P1(1)

Continuing

Global Livestock Information

1,948

1,948

1,948

1,948

5,844

213P2

Continuing

EMPRES - Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases

-

2,953

2,960

2,960

8,873

213S1

Continuing

Advice to Member Countries and Support to the Field Programme

2,928

2,928

2,928

2,928

8,784

Total Programme of Work

17,722

17,713

17,713

17,713

53,139

Less External Income

510

501

501

501

1,503

Net Appropriation

17,212

17,212

17,212

17,212

51,636

Real Growth

754

1,508

2,262

4,524

Net Appropriation with Real Growth

17,966

18,720

19,474

56,160

Growth in Net Appropriation (Percentage)

4.4%

8.8%

13.1%

8.8%

(1) - Although the title of the entity has changed, there has been no substantive change in its formulation

279. The programme aims to clarify and facilitate the role of the livestock sub-sector in poverty reduction and improved food security and food safety. It addresses the safe trade in livestock and animal products while protecting environmental sustainability and biodiversity. It continues to position itself in an international public goods context vis--vis the rapidly expanding and changing global livestock sub-sector, and the ensuing challenges to equity, (veterinary) public health and sustainability of the natural resource base.

280. Consolidation and repositioning of constituent entities has been effected to sharpen the programme's focus on areas of highest relevance and priority, taking account of the experience gained so far in dealing with a dynamically growing livestock sector. The structure now comprises six TP or CP entities against the previous eight, with major outputs also reduced. Entity 213S1 remains unchanged.

281. Entity 213P1 Global Livestock Information is maintained with only minor adjustments. Entity 213B1 becomes an entity with virtually the same name but somewhat reformulated, 213B2. Due to the continuing nature of the work involved, EMPRES is converted into a continuing entity (213P2, formerly 213A7). Entity 213B4 Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety has evolved from the previous 213A6 to cater for inputs to standard setting processes (in the Codex Alimentarius and the sanitary and phytosanitary measures context). Two new entities incorporate the core parts of former entities 213A3, 213A5, 213A8 and 213A9 (all discontinued at the end of 2005):

Entity

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

E1

E2

E3

213B2

     

         

 

213B4

       

         

213B5

 

   

         

213B6

     

 

 

       

213P1

           

 

   

213P2

     

 

         

213S1

   

     

         

Legend:

less than US$ 750,000

US$ 750,000 to US$ 2 million

more than US$ 2 million



Real Growth Proposal

Under 213B6, the higher allocation would be used to analyse environmental risks related to intensification and geographic concentration of livestock production, and to promote measures for management and risk communication. It would also translate into an effective early warning system for TADs (Transboundary Animal Diseases) and facilitation of consensus in clusters of countries on prevention and control measures (213B4). Finally, under 213B2, more resources would be applied to develop decision support tools for livestock policy formulation and to create appropriate platforms for discussing policies for the protection of the international public goods at stake.

213B2: Livestock Sector Analysis and Policy Development

Development problem to be addressed:

282. Livestock production is growing more dynamically than any other agricultural activity. This trend is associated with rapid structural change in terms of increased market orientation, geographical shifts, intensification and industrialisation. These changes pose a series of threats: the potential loss of livelihoods because changing requirements in the food chain tend to exclude vulnerable groups, in particular small producers; environmental degradation stemming from sprawling industrial livestock production and caused by mobility restrictions in dry and otherwise marginal settings; and the risks of human and animal disease spread due to changing ecologies and management practices. These threats need to be adequately addressed in national policies and international agreements.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

283. Decision makers need to be better informed about the policy issues emerging from changes in the livestock sector. They need to be equipped with tools to analyse the issues at stake and to identify suitable options. This process needs to be embedded in a policy dialogue which FAO can foster through formal (intergovernmental bodies) and informal (public action) processes.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

284. Poor and vulnerable groups would gain from a more balanced policy environment. The public at large should benefit from more emphasis placed on public health and environmental sustainability issues.

Objective(s)

285. Enhanced understanding of the policy issues related to structural change in the livestock sector, in combination with enhanced capacity in analysis and formulation, negotiated and applied in a conducive policy environment.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

213B4: Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety

Development problem to be addressed:

286. Changes in farming systems, particularly the intensification of livestock production, and global trade in livestock products have led to increased human health risks transmitted through animals and animal products. The sustainability of animal production, veterinary public health, food security, food safety, rural development and trade are compromised by zoonotic diseases.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

287. Improved veterinary and animal health capacity at the country level is likely to pay off in terms of human public health, consumer confidence and expanding trade.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

288. Consumers are the end beneficiaries of programmes to control zoonotic diseases and to improve food safety. Producers, large and small, will benefit from healthier and more productive and profitable livestock, safer products and fewer barriers to domestic and international trade. The entity focuses on both producers and consumers in developing countries.

Objective(s)

289. National veterinary public health structures are established or strengthened for the control of zoonotic diseases.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

213B5: Livestock Development and Poverty Reduction

Development problem to be addressed:

290. Livestock producers in developing countries face numerous constraints: insufficient access to markets, goods and services, weak institutions and frequent lack of skills, knowledge and appropriate technologies. These constraints are often compounded by increased vulnerability due to natural disasters, conflicts and HIV/AIDS. Both production and productivity remain below potential, and losses and wastage can be high. However, adapted breeds, local feed resources and animal health interventions are available, along with improved and adapted technologies that include product preservation and value-adding product processing. Together with supportive policies and institutions, they have the potential to substantially improve productivity, income generation and to make a major contribution to poverty reduction.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

291. Capacity building materials and decision support tools produced by this entity will be incorporated into national poverty reduction strategies and by development agencies (national, bi- and multi-lateral and Non-governmental Organizations) in formulating and implementing programmes targeted at poor livestock-dependent communities in developing countries.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

292. Rural and peri-urban households that keep livestock in developing countries will benefit from improved productivity of their animals resulting in increased income, asset accumulation and reduced vulnerability. Consumers should benefit from increased access to quality food of animal origin. Increased product processing will generate employment opportunities.

Objective(s)

293. Improved livestock husbandry and health, animal product processing and greater market access inherent in programmes aiming at livestock dependent smallholders; small-scale animal husbandry reflected in national poverty reduction strategies.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

213B6: Livestock - Environment Interactions

Development problem to be addressed:

294. This entity is concerned with livestock-related natural resource management issues such as environmental degradation and pollution, threats to animal genetic diversity and the environment-mediated emergence and spread of disease. The important aspects of livestock-environment interactions need to be elucidated and reflected in technical, policy and institutional approaches.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

295. Decision support tools and capacity building materials produced by this entity will be used by development agencies (national, bi- and multilateral and Non-Governmental Organizations) in formulating and implementing strategies and programmes targeted at environmentally sound livestock development (referred to above and below as the Livestock, Environment and Development Initiative).

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

296. The intended beneficiaries extend throughout the animal food chain from livestock keepers to consumers. Benefits to the environment will stem from management options that utilise natural resources with minimum degradation and optimal maintenance of biodiversity. The reduction in disease emergence and associated reduced risk to human health will benefit human population at large. Expected benefits comprise healthier and more productive livestock, safer products, and a more profitable and sustainable livestock sub-sector.

Objective(s)

297. Policies are implemented to foster livestock development while protecting the environment, public health and genetic resources; national livestock and veterinary services and field and grass-root projects promote Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) and Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPM) for livestock systems at all levels of production intensity.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

213P2: EMPRES - Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases

Development problem to be addressed:

298. The endemic or epidemic occurrence of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) has a profound negative effect on livestock production and other livestock functions (e.g. draught power), on wildlife conservation and genetic diversity, food security, and constrains access to formal markets. TAD prevention and control, including response to emergencies, need to rely on efficient tools, methods and strategies, appropriate policies and strong public veterinary services.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

299. The early warning and emergency intervention system supported by this entity and its relationship with the Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases, are designed to assist countries improve prevention and control of diseases at the local, national and regional levels. Some of the diseases have public health implications, thus their control will increase consumer confidence and protect their health. Up-to-date information on the diseases and their management will enable the participation of countries in formal trade agreements. The eradication of rinderpest - to be accomplished during the time period of this MTP - will remove a major threat to animal production and wildlife conservation worldwide.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

300. Beneficiaries of improved TAD prevention and control range from rural poor, pastoral communities and peri-urban households that keep livestock in low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs), to the highly industrialised commercial operations around the world. The benefits of prevention, through enhanced biosecurity and good animal production and health practices, will be improved life expectancy and health of the animals, higher productivity, better market access and increased farm income, asset accumulation, reduced vulnerability, and in the case of zoonotic diseases, lower public health risks.

Objective(s)

301. Eradication of a major animal disease, rinderpest; effective national and regional prevention and control strategies and capabilities for transboundary animal disease management and control; enhanced understanding of disease dynamics; enhanced contingency and emergency preparedness in countries and improved efficiency of the public veterinary services.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

PROGRAMME 2.1.4: AGRICULTURAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS

Prog. Entity

Time Frame

Title

PWB 2004-05

MTP 2006-07

MTP 2008-09

MTP 2010-11

MTP Total

214A1(1)

2002-2007

Enhancing small farmer income and livelihoods by improving farmer strategies and skills for market-oriented farming

2,618

1,810

-

-

1,810

214A2

2002-2005

Meeting Urban Food Needs

1,340

-

-

-

-

214A3

2002-2005

Sustainable Commercial Provision of Input Supply, Mechanisation, Investment Support and Marketing Services

1,935

-

-

-

-

214A4(1)

2002-2007

Capacity building for small and medium post-production enterprises

2,045

1,645

0

0

1,645

214A9

2004-2009

Enhancing Food Quality and Safety by Strengthening Handling, Processing and Marketing in the Food Chain

1,281

1,131

1,703

-

2,834

214B1

2006-2011

Guidance on policies and institutions for sustainable agricultural services provision

-

1,935

2,505

3,357

7,797

214B3

2006-2011

Enhancing farmer-market linkages

-

1,458

2,028

2,884

6,370

214B4

2006-2009

Policy and institutional support for fostering competitive agro-industries

-

1,150

1,722

-

2,872

214P2

Continuing

Agricultural Services - Data and Information Systems

1,167

1,117

1,684

2,538

5,339

214S1

Continuing

Field Programme Support and Advisory Services to Countries

4,421

4,321

4,925

5,788

15,034

Total Programme of Work

14,807

14,567

14,567

14,567

43,701

Less External Income

283

275

275

275

825

Net Appropriation

14,524

14,292

14,292

14,292

42,876

Real Growth

400

800

1,200

2,400

Net Appropriation with Real Growth

14,692

15,092

15,492

45,276

Growth in Net Appropriation (Percentage)

2.8%

5.6%

8.4%

5.6%

(1) - Although the title of the entity has changed, there has been no substantive change in its formulation

302. Programme 2.1.4 addresses, inter alia, commercialization of small-scale farms, urban food security needs, provision of commercial services including post-harvest processing and marketing, and support to small and medium-scale agribusiness. It supports national actions to achieve profitable and efficient agricultural enterprises, sustainable commercial agricultural support services, as well as competitive and consumer responsive agricultural sector and agro-industries. The programme seeks to strike an appropriate balance between policy and institutional advice; capacity building and technical support; and dissemination and application of normative products and services.

303. Changes in the structure are required due to emerging trends and changing priorities in the external environment, especially: (i) the sustainability and effectiveness of interventions aimed at perceived constraints affecting agricultural services and enterprises; (ii) the accelerated pace of change in the agricultural sector in many countries, often commingled with competitive pressures from globalization of trade; and (iii) the more active engagement of the public sector in redressing market failures in the provision of support services. Further, it is necessary to increase coherence within the programme (as recommended in past evaluations) and align entities to the changed organizational structure of the Agricultural Support Systems Division (AGS). Focus is henceforth on: (i) improving capacity building approaches and materials to support the transition to commercial agriculture; (ii) providing policy and technical support for improved product quality and safety, as well as increasing competitiveness and efficiency using modern market and industrial organization and supply chain concepts; and (iii) renewed and explicit attention to policy guidance and institutional strengthening for the sustainable provision of commercial agricultural support services.

304. Five entities (214A1, 214A4, 214A9, 214P2 and 214S1) remain basically unchanged, except for phasing out of some outputs so as to adjust to reduced budgets and consolidate some activities currently spread across several entities. In order to highlight better policy and institutional support to marketing, rural finance and mechanisation and obtain clarity in user focus, entity 214A3, ending in 2005, is replaced by two new entities, 214B1 Guidance on Policies and Institutions for Sustainable Agricultural Services Provision and 214B3 Enhancing Farmer-Market Linkages. This latter entity is to absorb the work on food distribution systems and rural-urban linkages formerly under 214A2 Meeting Urban Food Needs. A new entity 214B4 Policy and Institutional Support for Fostering Competitive Agro-industries is to be established to address the rapid sectoral level changes occurring worldwide in the organization of agro-industries and markets, and the growing interest in strengthening medium-scale agro-industries and related commercial farming enterprises.

Entity

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

E1

E2

E3

214A1

         

         

214A4

         

         

214A9

         

         

214B1

       

           

214B3

       

           

214B4

       

           

214P2

       

 

   

   

214S1

       

     

   

Legend:

less than US$ 750,000

US$ 750,000 to US$ 2 million

more than US$ 2 million



Real Growth Proposal

Under 214B1 and 214B4, increased support would be provided to countries in the areas of: marketing, finance and mechanization services; enhanced market access to regional and international markets; and competitive development of agro-industries and commercial farming. Policy guidelines and capacity building materials would be made available in multiple languages, and the scope of advice and technical support provided to countries would be enhanced by attention to sub-regional specific priorities.

214B1: Guidance on policies and institutions for sustainable agricultural services provision

Development problem to be addressed:

305. Imperfect implementation of structural adjustment policies and marketing liberalization in many countries have resulted in farmers confronting increased market uncertainty and reduced levels of support services. Inconsistent policies have continued to deter the private sector from responding to the opportunities presented. Some policy interventions have often undermined the effective provision of essential support services (marketing, finance and mechanisation) by the private sector. Studies and policy advice related to how the private sector marketing systems function and on the efficiency in providing rural financial services, are required as the basis for informed policy making. Whilst increasing globalisation of trade can provide expanded market opportunities, policy constraints continue to frustrate many countries in actually achieving improved access to markets and these need to be studied and addressed.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

306. The entity aims at strengthening the capacity of policy makers and planners so that appropriate, coherent and enabling policy environments are put in place. This will permit farmers to receive enhanced marketing, rural finance and mechanisation services.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

307. Farmers will receive more effective services; policy makers, government officials and donor agencies will have a better appreciation of policy and institutional constraints affecting the provision of effective marketing, rural finance and mechanisation services and of how to remove constraints limiting exporter access to overseas markets.

Objective(s)

308. Introduction of an enabling policy environment for private sector provision of improved marketing, rural finance and mechanisation services to farmers and enhanced market access by exporters to regional and international markets.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

214B3: Enhancing farmer-market linkages

Development problem to be addressed:

309. Trade liberalization and growing concentration in the food processing and distribution systems, combined with more exacting standards on food quality and safety, are negatively impacting small farmers' access to both export markets and, increasingly, domestic markets. Strategies and programmes are needed to support producers to meet the needs of the increasingly competitive and concentrated agri-food system in all regions. Similarly, both procurement and input supply linkages between farmers and agribusinesses (processors and exporting companies), input suppliers and financial institutions need improvement, if small farmers are to enhance their competitiveness and not be marginalized. Whilst globalization of trade has improved access of developing countries to developed country markets, agricultural exports are still seriously constrained by deficiencies in supply chain linkages, infrastructure and services in the exporting country. The impact of these constraints on export development needs to be addressed. Continued rapid urbanization in developing countries requires food to be moved over longer distances, and supply chain issues related to strengthening rural-urban linkages and improving food supply and distribution to and within cities need to be addressed.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

310. The entity aims at strengthening the capacity of ministries of agriculture, financial service and mechanisation service providers, civil society organisations as well as agribusiness to provide enhanced services to farmers. This should help establish effective linkages with and respond to the requirements of markets.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

311. Small and medium scale farmers will have improved access to markets and enhanced income-earning opportunities through being better informed of market requirements and having better linkages with rural financial institutions and input and mechanization service providers.

Objective(s)

312. Enhanced income-earning opportunities of small and medium scale farmers through improved linkages with service providers and market outlets.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

214B4: Policy and institutional support for fostering competitive agro-industries

Development problem to be addressed:

313. If poverty is to be reduced and economic returns are to be realized from agricultural production, the development of the agro-industry sector as well as commercial farming and related agricultural enterprises is important in almost all developing countries. Recent trends in agri-food systems are challenging farmers, produce traders, agro-industrial processors and other stakeholders to improve the efficiency of their operations and to be more responsive to consumer demands as well as regulatory frameworks.

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

314. The entity will seek to exploit the potential contributions of small enterprises in the agro-industrial sector to poverty reduction, job creation, increasing incomes of farmers and traders as well as improving the general health and nutrition of the population. Competitiveness in the sector requires that its outputs are not only of the right quality but are also competitively priced. Success within the sector is driven by several related factors, including input costs and availability, the technologies adopted, management skills, capacity to innovate, linkages to input suppliers as well as wholesale and retail markets and the institutional setting. Some of these factors are controlled at the individual firm level, but all are directly influenced by policies affecting the agri-food system and by the institutions related to it.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

315. Improved competitiveness leads to direct benefits to many stakeholders of the agricultural sector. More vulnerable stakeholders, such as small farmers and small scale agro-industrial operators, are expected to reap significant gains, in terms of enhanced and more stable incomes and through improved opportunities for growth and development.

Objective(s)

316. Enhanced capacity of the institutions (public agencies, research organizations, trade associations, NGO and public-private chain coordination boards) to formulate, implement and evaluate policies and strategies to strengthen the competitiveness of the agro-industrial sector.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

PROGRAMME 2.1.5: AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS OF ISOTOPES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

Prog. Entity

Time Frame

Title

PWB
2004-05

MTP
2006-07

MTP
2008-09

MTP
2010-11

MTP Total

215A1

2002-2007

Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Systems through Technologies and Capacity-Building

2,112

2,112

-

-

2,112

215A2

2002-2007

Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies and Capacity-building

1,722

1,722

-

-

1,722

215P1(2)

Continuing

Strengthening Compliance with International Food Safety Standards through Good Agricultural Practices

1,773

1,773

1,773

1,773

5,319

Programme Reserve

-

-

3,834

3,834

7,668

Total Programme of Work

5,607

5,607

5,607

5,607

16,821

Less External Income

-

-

-

-

-

Net Appropriation

5,607

5,607

5,607

5,607

16,821

Real Growth

235

470

705

1,410

Net Appropriation with Real Growth

5,842

6,077

6,312

18,231

Growth in Net Appropriation (Percentage)

4.2%

8.4%

12.6%

8.4%

(2) - The change in the title of the entity reflects a substantive change in its formulation

317. Programme 2.1.5 is implemented jointly with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It seeks to strengthen country capacities for realizing the potential offered by nuclear techniques and biotechnology to improve and diversify crop and livestock systems and to promote food quality and safety.

318. While continuing to support the development and uptake of technologies that benefit the crop and livestock sectors and improve food quality and safety, particular emphasis is given to: i) assessment and indicators of land degradation together with identification of strategies for mitigation; ii) assessment and practices for improvement of crop water productivity under small-scale irrigation; iii) biotechnology applications for characterising plant genetic resources, and specifically for dealing with drought, salinity and nutrient stresses; iv) IPM and IPPC standards for the management of exotic insect pests; v) biotechnology applications for livestock development, with focus on transboundary animal disease and diseases of veterinary public health importance, and for the characterization/improvement of farm animal genetic resources; and vi) protecting food chains from hazards covered by the Codex Alimentarius, and specifically identifying options for safe and effective pesticide and veterinary drug use for production of fruits, vegetables, meat and milk.

319. With the completion of entities 215A1 and 215A2 planned for 2007, two new entities are to be initiated in 2008 as follow-up. Some changes are also made to Programme Entity 215P1. The rationale for these adjustments includes the need to address more forcefully the natural resource assessment/conservation aspects of crop production systems and the risks from exotic insect pests, biotechnology in general, and the need to take both a stronger and more focused food chain approach to food safety through support for GAPs (Good Agricultural Practices) in relation to fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products.

Entity

A1

A2

A3

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

E1

E2

E3

215A1

       

 

 

     

215A2

     

   

       

215P1

       

 

       

Legend:

less than US$ 750,000

US$ 750,000 to US$ 2 million

more than US$ 2 million



Real Growth Proposal

National action and regional cooperation is needed to better characterize indigenous breeds, assess their genetic diversity and performance and, subsequently, identify genes in relation to specific traits and use biotechnologies for targeted conservation and improvement. Real growth resources would therefore, be allocated to: i) strengthening international cooperation for the further development of primers used for molecular characterization; ii) speeding up the development of internationally standardized sampling and analytical protocols; iii) strengthening capacities for integrating molecular and phenotypic information on local breeds through establishment of an international network and associated workshops; and iv) providing micro-satellite data for a database linked to the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DADIS).

215P1: Strengthening Compliance with International Food Safety Standards through Good Agricultural Practices

Development problem to be addressed:

320. Ensuring the safety and quality of food and agricultural products are essential concerns of consumers and users of such products world-wide, which are increasingly difficult to meet in a context of fast urbanization and globalization. There is a need to harmonize national food safety regulations around the standards and guidelines established by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission since these are used as references by the World Trade Organization (WTO) for trade-related issues. In implementing these standards (which relate primarily to pesticide and veterinary drug residues and microbiological and radionuclide contaminants), national authorities are increasingly giving priority to establishing food control systems that do not simply rely on "end-product testing" but that are designed to ensure quality and safety throughout the food chain, i.e. from "farm to table".

Proposed contribution to problem resolution:

321. This entity was originally formulated with the primary aim of strengthening the capacities of food and pesticide control laboratories for analyzing contaminants and residues covered by Codex Alimentarius food safety standards in compliance with national regulatory frameworks, relying essentially on "end-product testing" of products. While continuing with this approach in response to specific requests from countries, its future focus will be to develop methodologies (e.g. simple screening tests), indicators and guidelines, and through these, to foster the development of national strategies and actions that protect food chains from safety hazards at source, i.e. through Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The recent FAO/WHO report on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Diseases gives impetus to the need to encourage fruit and vegetable production. The livestock revolution taking place primarily in urban and peri-urban settings will inevitably be accompanied by greater use of veterinary drugs for controlling disease and improving feed conversion efficiencies, thereby raising risks to human health from misuse of veterinary drugs. Initial work will, therefore, emphasize production systems that supply consumers with fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products. However, in keeping with the new approach, increased attention will be given to: (a) developing internationally agreed Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods; and (b) assisting countries with emergency preparedness procedures to minimize the risks to food production and food security from nuclear or radiological accidents.

Intended end beneficiaries and benefits:

322. Consumers, through safer and better quality produce; producers and traders, through improved income generation and trade potential; the environment through reduced contamination of soil and water resources with pesticides and fertilizers.

Objective(s)

323. Wider use of good agricultural practices compliant with food and environmental safety standards and greater preparedness of the food and agricultural sectors for nuclear and radiological emergencies.

Major Output(s)
Indicator(s)

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