Major Programme 2.1: Agricultural Production and Support Systems
|(all amounts in US$ 000)
||2004-05 Programme of Work
||ZRG 2006-07 Programme of Work
||ZNG 2006-07 Programme of Work
||RG 2006-07 Programme of Work
||Intra-departmental Programme Entities for Agricultural Production and Support Systems
||Agricultural Support Systems
||Agricultural Applications of Isotopes and Biotechnology
|Programme Change from 2004-05 Programme of Work at MP level
Substantive thrusts under ZRG conditions
280. During 2006-07, Major Programme 2.1 will give priority to supporting standard-setting processes and the development of appropriate policy and regulatory frameworks in areas such as plant and animal genetic resources, biotechnology, biosecurity, animal health and sustainable development and management of natural resources, in particular water. It will assist countries in acquiring new technologies and promote approaches that are compatible with social, environmental and health concerns, and which contribute to increased productivity of land, water and labour. It will strengthen linkages between normative and field activities and emphasise policy assistance, technical advice and capacity-building at country level, as well as market linkages in support of farmers and agro-processing enterprises during the transition to commercial agriculture. Resources have been selectively shifted to Programme 2.1.2 to provide additional support to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Secretariat of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (IT-PGRFA).
Programme 2.1.0: Intra-departmental Programme Entities for Agricultural Production and Support Systems
281. A major focus is on facilitating inter-disciplinary capacity-building in sustainable and integrated approaches. Specific attention will be given to the assembly, assessment and sharing of lessons relating to the adoption of improved agronomic and management practices in changing farmer and market circumstances. Expected accomplishments during the biennium (as follow-up to COAG78
discussions) will include: dissemination of national policy experience and concrete examples of good agricultural practices that meet economic, social and environmental objectives and contribute to food safety and security, but are non-prescriptive and will not lead to mandatory standards or codes; information resources to support the development of these practices and conservation agriculture in integrated production systems, generation of principles and lessons learned; and enhanced capacity of partner institutions in selected locations.
282. Limited support will be given to global perspective studies and work on SARD79
; to publications and communications planning across the department; and to the agriculture home page of the FAO Web site (Agriculture 21) and other advocacy material. In late 2006, the 11th
regular session of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) will review the status and needs of the various sectors of biodiversity, including biodiversity for food and agriculture other than plants and animals, as well as the agro-ecosystem approach to genetic resource conservation and cross-sectoral matters. It will adopt a multi-year programme of work, which will include work on the supporting components of the IT-PGRFA and preparations for the First International Technical Conference on Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR), to be held in 2007. The 20th
session of COAG will be organised in 2007.
283. The catalytic provision to support the work under approved PAIAs80
will be augmented, thereby facilitating inter-disciplinary action towards the solution of recognised problems of Members (entity 210S5).
Programme 2.1.1: Natural Resources
284. Under Programme 2.1.1, in line with the priorities expressed by governing bodies, activities in the areas of: Agricultural water use efficiency and conservation
; Integrated land, water and plant nutrition policies, planning and management
; and Land and water quality improvement
are to continue with their current focus. Policy and institutional support for water management, including transboundary water resources, and for land and water management in a watershed context, with focus on ecosystem services, are to be strengthened. In contrast, the implementation of lower-priority outputs dealing with: moisture conservation techniques in rainfed areas; disaster mitigation through water logging and salinity control and rehabilitation; and related studies and inputs to major fora, will be delayed. Regional priorities, in particular those focusing on capacity-building, as well as water management policy, water use efficiency improvement, water harvesting, land degradation and soil fertility, with special attention to institutional arrangements, are to be better integrated into the programme. In Africa, both normative and field activities through TCP81
will continue to support the formulation and implementation of projects in the context of the CAADP83
285. The programme will implement the activities recommended by international meetings, such as the FAO/Netherlands Conference on Water for Food and Ecosystem held at The Hague in 2005, focusing on the integration of agriculture and ecosystems into better water management. It will also contribute, in close collaboration with Members, to forthcoming international fora such as the Fourth World Water Forum, in Mexico (2006), and the Year of Desert and Desertification (2006) organized by UNCCD85
Programme 2.1.2: Crops
286. During 2006-07, in line with priorities expressed by the governing bodies, including the last session of COAG, Programme 2.1.2 will put special emphasis on the IPPC, scientific advice to Codex, the IT-PGRFA and control of the desert locust. It will give attention to horticulture for income generation and nutrition and integrated crop production and conservation agriculture in response to growing demand from Members. It will also support the further development of the good agricultural practice (GAP) approach within an integrated crop production and protection system as one of the means to promote sustainable agricultural practices along the food chain.
287. The IPPC will address harmonisation of phytosanitary measures, information exchange and technical assistance with the aim of reducing trade barriers while protecting national plant resources from pest damage. Efforts will be made to enhance participation of developing countries and strengthen national, and where appropriate regional, capacity and infrastructure.
288. Programme 2.1.2 will support the Secretariat of the IT-PGRFA and its programme of work as adopted by its governing body, for which resources have been set aside in a new programme entity. Accordingly, another priority area will be the implementation of the supporting components of the IT-PGRFA, in particular the Global Plan of Action (GPA), elements of the Global Information System, conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources through plant breeding, biotechnology, biosafety and sustainable management of agrobiodiversity. The programme will enhance complementarity between the public and private sectors in national seed systems, harmonise regulatory frameworks for PGRFA, seeds and variety release and contribute to disaster preparedness, seed relief and rehabilitation.
289. The plant pest component of the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) will concentrate mainly in the Western Region (West and Northwest Africa), emphasising preventive control of the desert locust through support for early warning, early reaction and applied research, especially on alternatives to conventional chemical pesticides and related human health and environmental issues. Capability to assist Members in addressing desert locust emergencies will be maintained. To the extent possible, work would be initiated on other transboundary plant pests and diseases.
290. Less resources will be given to lower priority areas, reducing ability to provide policy advice and decision-making support on crop production, and pasture and production systems globally. Support for the development of seed networks will be reduced to capacity-building only. In relation to IPM86
, technical support to weed management will be minimised. One entity created in the Medium Term Plan (MTP) 2006-11: Facilitating plant production and protection decision-making
has been eliminated, though several of its essential outputs have been incorporated into other entities.
Programme 2.1.3: Livestock
291. Programme 2.1.3 was strategically adjusted in the MTP 2006-11 with entities reduced from eight to six and major outputs from 24 to 19. The programme seeks to clarify, through analysis and information, and facilitate: 1) the role of the global livestock sector in improving food security and providing a pathway out of poverty; and 2) the potential of meeting rapidly increasing demands for livestock products through production, processing and trade. Such objectives are to be achieved while mitigating negative impacts of production and intensification on the poor, safeguarding the environment, and minimising the risks to public health. Design of the programme is also responsive to comments made in Technical Committees, including the last COAG.
292. During 2006-07, institutional and policy considerations will continue to be mainstreamed in the programme's portfolio so as to align its technical work with the socio-economic framework conditions relevant for sustainable, equitable and safe sector growth. It will strengthen national disease prevention and management systems with priority given to transboundary animal diseases, including those of zoonotic nature such as avian influenza, in the context of the FAO/OIE87
Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs), under EMPRES and through ECTAD88
. The programme will work to secure agreements among countries to cease rinderpest vaccination and join the process for the declaration of global freedom from the disease in 2010. Veterinary public health activities will be strengthened in conjunction with Codex and OIE. Environmental factors driving animal disease emergence and spread will be investigated in support of early disease warning capabilities.
293. Access barriers to markets for smallholder livestock producers will be identified as well as opportunities to overcome them, based on policy and institutional innovations and underpinned by the use of good agricultural and management practices. After finalisation of the first report on the World’s Animal Genetic Resources, priority actions for the improved management and conservation of domestic AnGR will be agreed at the First International Technical Conference on AnGR in 2007. Capacity-building in all fields of animal genetic resources management will continue. The programme will prepare detailed guidance on managing the livestock sector in emergency situations. Detailed policy guidance will be made available and testing started for the management of livestock wastes in high-intensity and high-density production systems. The Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas (GLiPHA) will be made available interactively in all its intended elements. The programme will comprehensively address the impacts of livestock on the environment (disease dynamics and ecology, biodiversity and environmental health) and design policy and institutional options to manage such impacts at local and national levels.
294. Through the EMPRES programme and the EUFMD89
, assistance will be provided to the Central and Eastern European subregion for the control of FMD90
and other transboundary animal diseases. The broad operational and disciplinary capability for such support will be based at headquarters, as will support to the subregional animal genetic resources and policy/institutions-related priority requirements. Additional resources are earmarked in the subregion for catalysing such support.
Programme 2.1.4: Agricultural Support Systems
295. The programme aims to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of agricultural production, marketing and distribution systems, through support to farmers and agro-processing enterprises in making the transition to commercial agriculture. Capacity-building and strengthening market linkages to support farmers and agro-processing enterprises remain top priorities. Region-specific materials will be developed to build farmers' management and marketing skills. Information on opportunities that promise to enhance farm income will be disseminated. For agro-processing enterprises, information will be provided on technologies to improve post-harvest operations and create additional value for the consumer. Guidance will be provided on strategies and managerial practices for improving profitability in all parts of the agrifood system.
296. In line with the MTP 2006-11, work on food distribution systems, small- and medium-scale agro-enterprises and related commercial farming enterprises will be enhanced in response to the rapid changes occurring worldwide in the organisation of agrifood systems and associated markets. Accelerating economic growth and improving competitiveness will be key thrusts of the work. Policies and institutional constraints affecting competitiveness, agribusiness development and the provision of agricultural services will be identified to feed into appropriate strategies. Policy guidance materials will be developed to improve access to marketing, rural finance and mechanisation services. Assessments will be made of effective approaches to food chain management and product innovation in order to increase trade competitiveness. Complementary guidance will be provided on the use of modern market, industrial organisation and food chain concepts and methods taking account of COAG discussions on the matter. Stress will be placed on strategies, approaches and technologies for improving product quality and safety in food chains in order to meet consumer expectations.
297. In order to ensure coherence in work on policy and institutional support, entity 214B1: Guidance on policies and institutions for sustainable agricultural services provision will be merged with 214B4: Policy and institutional support for fostering competitive agro-industries. The programme’s emphasis on the performance of food chains - covering product quality and safety, as well as efficiency and competitiveness - will be increased. On the other hand, two areas will see some reduction, reflecting evolving needs and priorities. Support relating to farm power and mechanisation will be reduced overall and focused on mechanisation strategies, particularly for sub-Saharan Africa, where requirements remain high. There will also be a reduction in the scope of support relating to agricultural services information systems and databases. In order to retain a critical mass of resources for the Information Network on Post-harvest Operations (INPHO) and the Rural Finance Learning Centre, compilation of farm power reports will be curtailed and new integrated information system covering farm economics, marketing and rural finance will not be developed.
Programme 2.1.5: Agricultural Applications of Isotopes and Biotechnology
298. Programme 2.1.5 is implemented jointly with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Working closely with other programmes, it seeks to strengthen country capacities to intensify crop and livestock production systems, while conserving natural resources, and to improve food quality and safety through support for research, development of standards, training and capacity-building relating to applications of isotopes and biotechnology.
299. Detailed guidelines and protocols coupled with technical advice will strengthen national capacities for applying molecular, genomic and isotope abundance methods to select and introduce alleles for key traits into crops and contribute to making cropping systems more productive and sustainable, particularly in marginal and stress-prone areas. Skills and knowledge will be imparted on using isotopic and soil water measuring devices to identify and apply practices that improve crop water productivity, enhance soil fertility and minimise land and water degradation, as well as on breeding-related biotechnologies to broaden the genetic base of crops. To reduce the risks to crop production and the environment posed by exotic or alien invasive insects, the programme will assist in the use of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods by providing standard operation procedures for rearing and sterilisation of target species.
300. The programme will contribute to the process of declaration of global freedom from rinderpest and to the progressive control of other livestock diseases covered by EMPRES by providing sensitive early-detection methods and analysed quality-assured data from national serological and molecular surveys. It will strengthen the international regulatory framework by providing inputs to OIE on validation criteria for diagnostic assays and accreditation of veterinary laboratories. It will contribute through the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) to the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) by providing Members with policy and technical advice on priority-setting for interventions that involve the SIT to create tsetse-free zones. Also, countries’ access to molecular tools for better characterizing indigenous AnGR and identifying DNA91
sequences that mark favourable traits will be improved by the provision of DNA markers and the development of internationally standardised sampling and analytical protocols.
301. The programme will assist countries in harmonising national regulations based on the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and the IPPC International Standard on Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment. It will help them minimise the risks to food production and food security from a nuclear or radiological accident by finalising and testing a management plan for emergency preparedness. By developing guidelines, protocols and distance-learning materials supported by training-the-trainer activities and by providing assistance in introducing laboratory quality management systems compliant with international standards, it will improve the quality of services provided by laboratory personnel involved in food control and regulation of pesticides and veterinary drugs, thereby promoting GAP from ‘farm to fork’ and consumer and environmental protection.
Real Growth Scenario
302. Under Programme 2.1.0, incremental resources would be used: 1) to accelerate the assessment and sharing of lessons to support the development of sustainable production systems; and 2) to respond to country requests for capacity-building on GAP. Real growth would also allow for a more substantial catalytic provision to support work under the Priority Areas for Inter-disciplinary Actions (PAIAs) - 210S5.
303. RG resources under Programme 2.1.1 would be allocated to enhancing water use efficiency and conservation activities, in particular: support to on-farm water control techniques and integrated resources management; assistance to irrigation system modernisation, management and scheduling; and integrated planning and management of land, water and nutrient resources. They would allow to redress under-funding under ZRG for work related to moisture conservation techniques in rainfed areas; disaster mitigation through water logging and salinity control and rehabilitation; and contributions to studies and inputs to major fora.
304. Under Programme 2.1.2, additional funds for the IPPC would be used for the acceleration of the harmonisation/standard setting programme and for technical assistance, in particular for participation of developing countries in the standard setting procedure and application of quarantine standards at national level. It would be possible to meet demands for assistance on horticulture in a more satisfactory manner, especially in urban and peri-urban agriculture and for crop diversification for improved health and income.
305. Incremental resources would be used to enable FAO to build national, subregional and regional capacity in support of the implementation of the IT-PGRFA. With regard to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources, increased resources would enable FAO to reinforce assistance to countries in assessing and building capacity in national plant breeding and biotechnology programmes, as well as plant biosafety. In response to increased demand, international agro-biodiversity indicators and regulations for access to seed would be developed in partnership with various stakeholders. The Facilitating Mechanism would be developed further for the implementation of the GPA for PGRFA.
306. Increased resources in Programme 2.1.3 would be used to: 1) strengthen capabilities in environmental and disease risk assessment and management (particularly for emerging zoonotic diseases, such as for HPAI92
); 2) accelerate the preparation of the GLEWS93
agreed with OIE and WHO94
in the context of the Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases; 3) enhance the design and negotiation of pro-poor livestock development policies in countries and regions; and 4) strengthen the support to the regional process leading to the finalisation and adoption of the first report on the World’s Animal Genetic Resources
307. RG resources in Programme 2.1.4 would be used: 1) to accelerate policy and institutional support for private sector marketing, agribusiness development and agro-industry innovation in order to enhance growth and trade competitiveness; 2) to increase outreach and the regional adaptation of capacity-building materials for improving the technical and business skills of small farmers and agro-processing enterprises and their access to essential services and post-harvest technologies; and 3) to help implement, in collaboration with others, proven technical, managerial and policy interventions to enhance the livelihoods of rural and urban poor, in selected communities and countries.
308. Additional funds under Programme 2.1.5 would be used primarily to: 1) reinforce international cooperation for further development and application of DNA markers to perform molecular characterization of animal genetic resources, 2) speed up the development of internationally standardised sampling and analytical protocols and provide nucleic acid sequence and annotation data for a database linked to DAD-IS95
; and 3) maximise the utility of local breeds by integrating molecular and phenotypic information through an international network and associated workshops. A further priority would be to strengthen work on veterinary public health, focusing on the development, validation and transfer of molecular tools for diagnosis, surveillance and epidemiology.
Zero Nominal Growth Impact
309. Programme 2.1.0 would be affected in several ways: capacity-building and dissemination of policy experience and examples of good agricultural practices would be restricted to a few countries. In conservation agriculture, emphasis would have to be placed on evaluating past and on-going country experience rather than promotion. Capacity-building and sharing of experience in integrated production systems would be restricted to one or two of these systems. ZNG would imply a further reduction in the duration of COAG and in the number of agenda items, greatly impairing its advisory role. Contributions to global perspective studies would have to be drastically curtailed, and consultative meetings with staff in regional offices would be reduced. The preparation and implementation of the multi-year programme of work of the CGRFA would be slowed down.
310. Programme 2.1.1 would need to treat information systems and knowledge management as lower-priority areas. Cutbacks would also seriously reduce land-related activities such as on land degradation and conservation, soil fertility and nutrient management, with consequential impact on assistance to countries in Africa and Latin America which have been badly affected by land degradation. FAO’s inputs to international fora on land and water issues would be weakened and the delivery of technical services to the field programme would inevitably diminish.
311. Regarding Programme 2.1.2, support to the international network of ex-situ collections of PGRFA would be eliminated, with consequent negative impact on enhancing productivity and crop production in countries. No additional funding would be available for the Secretariat of the IT-PGRFA, with consequent negative impact on the implementation of the International Treaty at the national and international level. Under ZNG conditions, funding for the IPPC would still be somewhat higher than in the current biennium, although it would be lower than under ZRG. Compared with ZRG, participation of developing countries in IPPC standard setting would be reduced, as would IPPC outreach activities in relation to information systems and technical assistance. Reductions would need to be made in support to IPM, pesticide management, crop improvement and biotechnology as well as in crop production.
312. For Programme 2.1.3, the intended enhancement of the interactive GLiPHA would be delayed with respect to geographical coverage and to integration with other information systems. Several important outreach activities, in particular the creation of national and regional livestock policy negotiation platforms, would be reduced or delayed. Work on veterinary public health which is not directly related to Codex and support to sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) would be reduced, such as the design of good practices for the reduction of food-borne diseases as well as new control measures for zoonoses control. Work on the role of livestock in poverty alleviation would be curtailed, except as relates to the mitigation of HIV/AIDS and emergency impacts on livestock and livestock-related livelihoods. Arthropod disease management, including support to PAAT, would be reduced, as well as work on natural resources and policy-related aspects of the livestock-environment interactions. The statutory programme for AnGR would be curtailed only in a minimal way so as not to endanger the commitments made. The first report on the World’s Animal Genetic Resources would be finalised, while the First International Technical Conference on AnGR in 2007 would need extra-budgetary funding. In EMPRES, work on early warning and disease control strategy design and implementation would need extra-budgetary funding in order to continue.
313. Programme 2.1.4 would need to eliminate technical support and information systems relating to farm power and mechanisation. Capacity-building for enhancing farmer-market linkages would be significantly reduced, including elimination of assistance for improving the business capacities of farmer organizations. Policy and institutional guidance relating to agribusiness, supply chain management and commercial farming would also be reduced. Support relating to farm management and agribusiness in Central and Eastern Europe would have to be provided only by headquarters staff and specialist capacity in agro-industries would be eliminated in Asia, although more general support for improving the efficiency and competitiveness of agrifood systems would be maintained.
314. With reduced resources, Programme 2.1.5 would need to phase out outputs envisaged on the management of soil nutrients, animal nutrition and reproductive efficiency, as well as food irradiation, while delivery of those on the use of SIT against the Mediterranean fruit fly, on molecular characterization of animal genetic resources and on veterinary public health would be severely curtailed.
315. Under Programme 2.1.1, several entities are expected to benefit from various strategic partnership agreements with several donors to support FAO’s normative activities. Outreach work on soil productivity and soil and water management through farmer field schools and agro-ecological approaches is carried out under the FAO-Norway partnership programme, and on agricultural biodiversity in soil health and runoff farming and soil moisture management under the FAO-Netherlands Partnership Programme. Other important projects are the Nile Basin Initiative and the GEF96
Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA).
316. Under Programme 2.1.2, extra-budgetary is expected for: participation in IPPC standard setting by developing countries; prevention and disposal of obsolete pesticides; the joint UNEP/FAO Secretariat to the Rotterdam Convention; formulation of global policies on biodiversity; integrated pest management; the IT-PGRFA and relevant activities; coordination of locust forecasting and control. Field work will also encompass: support to national and regional IPM programmes; conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources; improvement of crop grassland and horticulture systems; improvement of phytosanitary and pesticide regulatory systems and early reaction and early control of transboundary plant pests, in particular the desert locust (EMPRES).
317. Several entities of Programme 2.1.3 are also expected to benefit from strategic partnership agreements with various donors, e.g. through the DFID98
-funded Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative (PPLPI). Donors will also support the preparation of the first report on the World’s Animal Genetic Resources
and its finalisation at the Conference on AnGR in 2007. Extra-budgetary funds will also be made available for the LEAD99
programme, including from GEF for major regional livestock-environment projects.
318. Other important projects will deal with: capacity-building on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) diagnosis and surveillance; implementation of the Codex Code of Practice for Animal Feeding; support to the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP); regional TAD control, particularly of the avian influenza. The European Union will continue to provide core support to the EUFMD.
319. For Programme 2.1.4, extra-budgetary resources are anticipated in several areas: sericulture, good agricultural practices and for the Rural Finance Learning Centre. Donors will also finance projects dealing with livelihoods diversification, small-scale agro-processing and edible oil processing. Significant technical support is provided to emergency projects in a wide range of countries.
320. IAEA's contribution to the joint programme (2.1.5) is expected to reach over US$ 23 million, including the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory at Seibersdorf. The programme will also provide technical services to projects and training courses funded through the IAEA technical cooperation programme at an estimated value of US$ 26 million. These are not shown in the recapitulative tables as they are recorded in IAEA’s accounts.