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Annex II: Regional Dimensions

Regional Resource Summary
(all amounts in US$ 000)
  Major Programme Global Inter-Regional Africa Asia and Pacific Europe Latin America / Caribbean Near East Total
21 Agricultural Production and Support Systems 64,911 54,626 107,040 65,932 9,866 22,375 155,185 479,936
22 Food and Agriculture Policy and Development 77,134 9,898 33,068 14,290 5,003 10,447 7,045 156,884
23 Fisheries 26,228 41,189 7,423 6,444 5,318 7,186 3,554 97,343
24 Forestry 17,741 2,459 15,675 18,855 5,612 15,241 4,391 79,974
25 Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts 33,426 14,549 57,951 15,798 3,808 43,234 7,357 176,123
31 Policy Assistance 10,369 3,673 13,112 5,938 2,728 5,539 5,767 47,125
Total 229,809 126,394 234,268 127,257 32,335 104,021 183,300 1,037,384


Introduction

527.     It is recalled that the Programme of Work is presented in a "unified" manner in the PWB document. Substantive programmes are in most cases jointly executed by headquarters departments and the corresponding outposted teams in Regional or Subregional Offices. Many activities involve, therefore, participation of both headquarters and decentralized offices staff.

528.     As was done in the PWB 2004-05, this Annex provides an indication of those activities in the Programme of Work of particular interest to individual regions. It covers Chapter 2: Technical and Economic Programmes and Major Programme 3.1: Policy Assistance, irrespective of locations, i.e. whether inputs originate from headquarters or decentralized offices. For the sake of brevity and to avoid unnecessary duplication, the narratives are deliberately selective. At the beginning of each narrative, an overview of major issues of relevance to the region is provided.

529.     The summary tables provide a breakdown, by major programmes, of the resources estimated to relate to the respective region, under both the Programme of Work and extra-budgetary resources. It should be noted that while the allocations shown under the “Decentralized Offices” columns reflect the amounts allocated to Regional and Subregional Offices, the amounts under the "Headquarters" column are statistically derived. As most of the budgetary provision for country offices is under Major Programme 3.4: FAO Representatives, it is not reflected in the following tables.

Africa

Resources for Africa
(all amounts in US$ 000)
  Regular Programme Trust  
  Major Programme Headquarters Decentralized Offices Total Fund Activities Total
21 Agricultural Production and Support Systems 11,310 6,175 17,485 89,555 107,040
22 Food and Agriculture Policy and Development 9,071 2,724 11,796 21,272 33,068
23 Fisheries 4,705 2,719 7,423 0 7,423
24 Forestry 5,019 1,815 6,834 8,841 15,675
25 Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts 9,218 2,743 11,961 45,990 57,951
31 Policy Assistance 1,816 6,925 8,742 4,370 13,112
Total 41,138 23,101 64,240 170,028 234,268


General Overview
530.     The over-arching issue in the region is the insufficient progress in combating hunger and malnutrition and achieving the World Food Summit target. Major weaknesses such as in terms of institutional arrangements, policy formulation and the available statistical information base need to be addressed vigorously. Major thematic priorities of interest to the region include: sustainable approaches to natural resource management (land and water, forests, etc.); diversification and provision of effective services to the rural sector; support to policy development; capacity-building; gender differentiation; mitigation of HIV/AIDS impacts; efficient data collection systems and network development across countries; and regional cooperation and integration. FAO will seek to give attention to these and other regional priorities in its support to the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) which underpins the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). RAF174 will seek to develop a regional strategic framework, as was done by RAP175 for the Asia and Pacific region.

Major Programme 2.1: Agricultural Production and Support Systems
531.     Planned activities include:

  • Continued support to CAADP/NEPAD in irrigation development, land and water management, soil fertility improvement, crops-livestock integration, conservation agriculture and establishment of field farmers schools (FFS);
  • Advice on crop management and improvement programmes, in particular for cassava, and dissemination of New Rice for Africa (NERICA);
  • Support to countries on plant genetic resources and seed development;
  • Assistance in implementation of the Rotterdam Convention and the African Stockpile Project for pesticide disposal;
  • Establishment of biotechnology networks coupled with efforts to strengthen national plant breeding capabilities;
  • Implementation of EMPRES176, particularly to combat and prevent desert locust upsurges;
  • Support to animal disease control programmes, pursuing progress on the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) control; co-implementation of the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) in support, inter alia, of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC);
  • Advice to countries on pro-poor-livestock policy and institutions development;
  • Support to regional programmes on sustainable dry-land pastoral systems management;
  • Strengthening analytical capacities and quality assurance systems in applying Codex standards and good agricultural practices to reduce food safety hazards;
  • Improved land and water management, including transboundary water resources, in both irrigated and rainfed agriculture;
  • Enhanced delivery systems for rural finance, agricultural input supply, market information and agro-processing and agro-enterprise development.
Major Programme 2.2: Food and Agriculture Policy and Development
532.     Main activities to benefit the region are:

  • Studies on food safety risks and eventual diseases transmitted through bushmeat consumption;
  • Support to the regional plan of action to improve food safety in Africa adopted by the FAO/WHO177 Regional Food Safety Conference for Africa;
  • Strengthening of systems for accurate and timely information on the incidence, nature and causes of food insecurity and vulnerability, as part of FIVIMS178;
  • Capacity-building and innovative methods for data collection, processing and dissemination, including the Multi-Agency Programme for Capacity-Building in Food and Agriculture Statistics in Africa;
  • Support to countries in the conduct of agricultural censuses, using the new approach of the World Programme for the Agricultural Census 2010;
  • Capacity-building for WTO179 negotiations and implementation of agreement reached;
  • Assistance towards creating a common market in Africa for agricultural commodities;
  • Manuals for producers and exporters on how to export certified products and studies of European markets for organic/fair-trade products from West Africa.
Major Programme 2.3: Fisheries
533.     The application of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) will include assessments of the environmental impact of fisheries and aquaculture operations, while promoting responsible fisheries, coupled with support to statistical data services to generate up-to-date information for monitoring of exploited fish stocks.

534.     Countries in the region will also require substantial assistance in planning fisheries and aquaculture development for the reduction of post-harvest losses through improved techniques and in improving livelihoods in artisanal fisheries communities, in close cooperation with the donor-supported Sustainable Fisheries Livelihoods programme, which operates in 25 West African countries.

535.     The Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF), the Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa (CIFA), the South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission (SWIOFC) and their subsidiary bodies and working groups will continue to be supported, in collaboration with other non-FAO regional fisheries bodies (RFBs) and arrangements. Fisheries components will to the extent possible be integrated in development programmes under NEPAD.

Major Programme 2.4: Forestry
536.     FAO will seek to enhance the role of forests in combating food insecurity and in poverty eradication. It will provide policy assistance, technical advice and awareness activities aimed at arresting deforestation and degradation of natural resources. Countries will also require assistance for capacity-building, improved governance through decentralization and devolution processes, promotion of multi-stakeholders partnerships, and capitalising on traditional knowledge. Regional cooperation and partnership with regional and subregional integration, networks and initiatives will be given priority.

Major Programme 2.5: Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts
537.     Activities of importance to the region will include:

  • Strengthening of national data collection and analysis systems to reflect gender differentiated realities of agricultural production and support gender sensitive planning;
  • Assistance in bioenergy development and tools to monitor land cover change;
  • Support to restructuring of National Agricultural Research Systems for improved linkages among national research, extension and education systems;
  • Advice on national biotechnology and biosafety policy frameworks;
  • Support to national and regional implementation of multilateral environmental agreements and to participation of countries in scientific initiatives related to global environmental changes;
  • Support to governments to plan and respond to the impact of HIV/AIDS and other diseases on food and nutrition security;
  • Testing of appropriate policy materials on access to land and methodologies to provide improved land tenure security.
Major Programme 3.1: Policy Assistance
538.     The establishment of a regional field programme development strategy, including a viable project pipeline, will be a major focus in the context of NEPAD. Priority areas for policy assistance will include: financing agriculture and trade and competitiveness in the context of regional integration, including required information flows for competitiveness in production and trade.

539.     The policy groups in RAF and SAFR180 will follow-up on studies undertaken in the 2004-05 biennium on the underlying causes of famines and related needed public policy measures, and examine how to reposition agriculture and rural development at the centre of economic recovery after conflicts.

Asia and Pacific

Resources for Asia and Pacific
(all amounts in US$ 000)
  Regular Programme Trust  
  Major Programme Headquarters Decentralized Offices Total Fund Activities Total
21 Agricultural Production and Support Systems 9,190 6,744 15,934 49,998 65,932
22 Food and Agriculture Policy and Development 7,650 2,148 9,798 4,492 14,290
23 Fisheries 4,261 1,687 5,947 497 6,444
24 Forestry 4,013 1,901 5,914 12,941 18,855
25 Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts 4,449 1,796 6,246 9,552 15,798
31 Policy Assistance 1,350 3,640 4,990 948 5,938
Total 30,913 17,916 48,829 78,428 127,257


General Overview
540.     A regional strategic framework (RSF): "Towards a Food-secure Asia and Pacific", was prepared by RAP and identified six major thematic priorities for the region over the longer term, i.e.: 1) agriculture restructuring under changing market and trade conditions; 2) decentralized governance in support of sustainable development; 3) reducing vulnerability to disasters; 4) promoting effective and equitable management, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; 5) strengthening biosecurity for food security and agricultural trade; and 6) alleviating poverty in rice-based livelihood systems. This RSF was presented to partner institutions and endorsed by the 27th Regional Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in May 2004 in Beijing. While not an exhaustive blueprint for action, the RSF will, nevertheless, provide a useful tool to formulate activities of interest to the region in the medium- and short-terms. Key areas of intervention for RAP, with support from headquarters, will include: policy advice, technical assistance and capacity-building, as well as promoting regional networking and partnership with stakeholders, in particular working closely with regional economic bodies such as ASEAN, SAARC and PIF181.

Major Programme 2.1: Agricultural Production and Support Systems
541.     Planned activities include:

  • Capacity-building and support on modernising irrigation systems and strategic planning for rural water resources management;
  • Promotion of appropriate land use planning, efficient fertiliser use and ‘integrated nutrient management’ technologies;
  • Rehabilitation of land and water resources affected by emergencies, especially in relation to floods and droughts;
  • Development of high-value horticultural and industrial cropping systems and diversification of rice production;
  • Support to animal genetic resources management and conservation, and strengthening national plant and animal genetic resource characterization and improvement programmes through biotechnology;
  • Support to countries in the fight against transboundary animal diseases, with continued emphasis on avian influenza control and eradication;
  • Implementation of standards, as developed by Codex, the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) and, where appropriate, regional standards, in partnership with the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission (APPPC) and the Regional Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA);
  • Strengthening of national phytosanitary systems and support to the implementation of IPM182 programmes, with emphasis on farmers field schools;
  • Training and capacity-building at regional and national levels to prevent and control outbreaks of transboundary plant insect pests (through area-wide IPM approaches and adherence to IPPC standards);
  • Development of decision-support tools to facilitate formulation and implementation of regional policies for safe livestock production and promoting market opportunities for farmers;
  • Pro-poor livestock policy interventions, particularly in South Asia;
  • Support to regional programmes on sustainable dry-land pastoral systems management;
  • Promotion of post-harvest management and agro-processing technologies as applied to commercial crops, cereals, horticultural and root crops as well as animal products;
  • Advice on agricultural intensification and diversification strategies, along with the provision of efficient agricultural support services, including promotion of viable micro and rural finance systems;
  • Development of improved food distribution and related infrastructure.
Major Programme 2.2: Food and Agriculture Policy and Development
542.     The following activities may be highlighted:

  • Support to FIVIMS at the regional level and in selected countries aimed at strengthening national food security strategies;
  • Training on, and policy and technical advice to nutrition plans, policies and programmes that address specific undernutrition and malnutrition problems;
  • Support to regional food safety programmes, networks and centres of excellence as recommended by the FAO/WHO Regional Food Safety Conference for Asia and the Pacific (May 2004);
  • Food consumption studies to promote healthy diets and food composition databases for multipurpose uses and promotion of nutrition education for consumption of safe and nutritious foods in balanced quantities;
  • Upgrading of regional and national early warning, preparedness and mitigation systems against food emergencies and natural disasters;
  • Capacity-building and advice on improved regional and national statistical and information systems in the food and agriculture sector;
  • Support to countries in the conduct of agricultural censuses using the new approach of the World Programme for the Agricultural Census 2010;
  • Study on status of agriculture and food security in the region, including development trends, trade policy analysis and support to trade negotiations;
  • Assistance in the implementation of the voluntary guidelines to support the progressive realisation of the right to adequate food, including dissemination of advocacy and training material.
Major Programme 2.3: Fisheries
543.     FAO will need to address continuing weaknesses in fisheries and aquaculture systems and foster inter-country cooperation through:

  • Advisory services to strengthen national fishery statistical systems; regional information exchange and harmonisation of fishery inquiries;
  • New approaches on status and trends reporting;
  • Promotion of both rural and commercial aquaculture, with due emphasis on farmer associations, certification and promotion of best management practices; technical assistance to small-scale aquaculture and aquatic resource management through partnership programmes;
  • Technical advice and capacity-building to support legal frameworks and policies to promote community-based management and co-management of fisheries resources and to facilitate institutional development within small-scale fishing communities;
  • Further assistance in the rehabilitation of Tsunami-impacted countries and strengthening of disaster preparedness capabilities in the region;
  • Advice to regional associations on provision of credit for small- and medium-scale fisheries enterprises;
  • The Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC) as a regional consultative forum to discuss emerging regional issues and solutions; support to other FAO regional fishery bodies and backstopping of non-FAO bodies; and
  • Of particular relevance to the South Pacific subregion, assistance to ensure effective seafood quality assurance systems and inspection to meet the requirements of major international trading partners, as well as for the sustainable development of small-scale fisheries.
Major Programme 2.4: Forestry
544.     Taking account of rapid economic development and transformation with respect to markets and trade, forestry activities of interest to the region will include:

  • Understanding of forest products trade issues, including forest certification and efforts to combat illegal logging and associated trade of forest products;
  • Support to decentralization and devolution of the forestry sector in a sustainable development and effective natural resources management context;
  • Reducing vulnerability to disasters, coupled with sound forest rehabilitation and watershed management and understanding of effective flood mitigation and relationship between forests and water;
  • Strengthening biosecurity and combating threats from invasive species to forests and forest products species;
  • Support to restructuring and re-orientation of forestry institutions to adapt to rapidly changing socio-economic environments.
Major Programme 2.5: Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts
545.     The following activities may be highlighted:

  • Assistance in bioenergy development and land cover change application;
  • Support to strategy formulation for information and communication technologies (ICTs) and application of ICT and distance education modalities;
  • Technical advice to improve national agricultural extension systems including participatory approaches and more effective delivery of services for small and marginalised farmers and other stakeholders, especially in decentralized contexts;
  • Support to governments to respond to the impact of HIV/AIDS and other diseases of poverty on food and nutrition security;
  • Studies, publications, national and regional meetings and networks on successful programmes for rural education, rural youth, capacity-building of rural women, minority groups including disabled peoples;
  • Methodologies for national arrangements to provide improved land tenure security.
Major Programme 3.1: Policy Assistance
546.     Policy assistance to countries in the region will focus inter alia on: alternative restructuring scenarios in light of institutional constraints and their resolution; capacity enhancement on strategies for agricultural development; capacity-building in multilateral agricultural trade negotiations; and technical workshops on emerging policy issues, including learning from and exchange of country experiences.

Europe

Resources for Europe
(all amounts in US$ 000)
  Regular Programme Trust  
  Major Programme Headquarters Decentralized Offices Total Fund Activities Total
21 Agricultural Production and Support Systems 1,789 1,648 3,437 6,429 9,866
22 Food and Agriculture Policy and Development 3,434 766 4,200 803 5,003
23 Fisheries 1,744 0 1,744 3,574 5,318
24 Forestry 2,999 891 3,889 1,723 5,612
25 Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts 1,548 1,464 3,013 795 3,808
31 Policy Assistance 588 2,140 2,728 0 2,728
Total 12,103 6,908 19,011 13,324 32,335


General Overview
547.     Events in the previous decade have had portentous social and economic consequences and resulted in an unprecedented increase in poverty in the region. In the ten countries that became part of the European Union (EU) in 2004, the preparation for membership had been a catalytic factor for political and economic reform and a similar development is taking place in the countries which are candidates for EU accession. Other countries of the region experienced a slower and more complicated transition process to a market economy. The region is also ecologically much diversified with a number of countries experiencing prolonged droughts and frequent floods. Key areas for priority attention have been identified and endorsed by the Regional Conference for Europe, such as revitalising the rural sector and supporting rural livelihoods in the less advanced countries, as well as in those countries undergoing reforms in order to meet requirements for EU accession and neighbourhood programmes. The requirements of the Balkan, Caucasian, CIS183 countries and Turkey will receive due attention. Regional approaches to address cross-boundary issues will be promoted, while new emerging issues such as organic farming, biotechnology and biosafety will influence work programmes.

Major Programme 2.1: Agricultural Production and Support Systems
548.     Planned activities include:

  • Promotion of high-value crop production systems for specific agro-ecological environments, and support to non-farm income generating activities;
  • Mitigation of droughts and floods with integrated land and water resources management, promotion of appropriate regional river basin management plans and policies, and modernisation of irrigation systems at national level; particularly in relation to the EU Water Framework Directive and the CAP184;
  • Capacity-building in soil fertility improvement, fertilizer use, and mitigation of land degradation through training and workshops;
  • Support to national and regional capacity-building for surveillance, diagnostics and control of transboundary animal diseases;
  • Support to national IPM programmes, in particular in connection with the regional project on IPM strategies for the control of the western corn rootworm;
  • Capacity-building of national phytosanitary and plant quarantine systems in the context of the IPPC;
  • Support to the eastern and southeastern European countries in the management of transboundary animal diseases, particularly of foot-and-mouth disease as agreed through the EUFMD185;
  • Strengthening analytical capacities and quality assurance systems in applying Codex standards and good agricultural practices to reduce food safety hazards in the production of high value products e.g. fruits, vegetables and meat;
  • Support to civil society and the private sector to address gaps in farmer support services linking farmers to markets, and provision of rural finance, market information and other services to rural entrepreneurs;
  • Modernisation of post-harvest handling, processing and marketing of agricultural products.
Major Programme 2.2: Food and Agriculture Policy and Development
549.     Activities cover:

  • In the nutrition area, attention will be given to the assessment of food composition, including the content of traditional foods for achieving food quality and nutritional balance and reducing the risk of diet-related diseases (obesity, overweight and malnutrition) as well as the promotion of nutrition information and improvement of nutrition education;
  • Regarding food security analysis, several CIS countries will benefit from training in the assessment of food and nutrition security issues and in the development of strategies;
  • In the area of food safety and quality, assistance requirements will be met for the harmonisation of food safety and quality standards and regulations with Codex Alimentarius as well as understanding and complying with WTO sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and technical barriers to trade (TBT) agreements;
  • Concerning food and agricultural information and statistics, the main accent will be on: capacity-building for agricultural information management, especially in the context of the subregional Agro Web network; and
  • Modernising national agricultural statistics systems, including new requirements that have arisen in the transition from a planned to a market economy and/or the accession to the European Union.
Major Programme 2.3: Fisheries
550.     The region will benefit in the first instance from several important field projects: e.g. AdriaMed186, COPEMED187 and MedSudMed188. Beyond this, FAO will support the modernisation of aquaculture and fisheries (in particular in eastern Europe) and improvements in ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

551.     Assistance to CEEC189 will be provided to promote trade, improve market access and upgrade inspection facilities to EU required levels. Attention will be given to bring into effect the Agreement of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). The work undertaken by EIFAC190 to enhance aquaculture and inland fisheries – through interactive and flexible arrangements among institutions in the region – will continue. Ad hoc consultations between FAO and the European Commission on fishery policies and management and other issues are also expected to continue, as well as support to fisheries activities of the OECD191 and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).

Major Programme 2.4: Forestry
552.     In collaboration with UN/ECE192, FAO will continue to aim at strengthening management and marketing skills of private forest owners, and private forest sector institutions (associations). It will foster capacity-building to deal with protection of forest resources and conservation issues, forest land consolidation and land tenure issues, income diversification in rural areas. It will support investment in the eastern European forest sector and access to capital, promotion of traditional and environmentally-friendly use of wood (housing and energy generation) and the integration of CEEC and CIS into the regional forest sector policy dialogue.

Major Programme 2.5: Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts
553.     Countries in transition will be assisted in strengthening their institutional research systems to improve access to information; integrate in research agendas needs of multiple stakeholders of the rural sector; and adopt and develop appropriate technologies and biotechnology application based on participatory and precautionary approaches. Key planned activities will include:

  • Support to agricultural research, communication and information systems, especially in transition countries;
  • Paying attention to EU accession education messages in CEEC;
  • Capacity-building in development and implementation of harmonised biosafety regulations in the region, including guidelines, training and consultations;
  • Needs assessments in agricultural biotechnology and biosafety, as requested by countries;
  • Continued facilitation of exchanges and networks regarding multi-disciplinary agricultural research, education and research policy, integrating needs of multiple stakeholders in the region;
  • Gender mainstreaming at all levels through normative as well as field development activities;
  • Assistance to improved access to land through leasing arrangements and land markets, territorial organizations and financing of decentralization of rural services through land taxation;
  • Technologies associated with the development and management of modern land information systems;
  • Assistance in restructuring and/or strengthening of governmental and civil society rural institutions with focus on producer organizations and cooperatives.
Major Programme 3.1: Policy Assistance
554.     In the area of EU accession, FAO will aid countries through sector studies and capacity-building in the steps required for complying with the acquis communautaire in the field of agriculture and rural development. Some of the important areas for assistance in this regard are food safety measures, rural development policies and advice in setting up institutions for pre-accession assistance.

555.     As regards, agricultural trade opportunities for raising rural incomes, FAO will offer assistance in compliance with, and the certification process in food quality and safety standards for access to the EU market. Support will also be provided on the harmonisation of food safety and quality standards and regulations with Codex Alimentarius for compliance with WTO SPS and TBT requirements. FAO will also assists countries in building niche markets, for example, through building capacity and certification in organic agriculture. Advice may also be given on establishing vertical linkages for high quality agricultural commodities, setting up marketing associations for this purpose, as well as on the introduction of high value crops.

Latin America / Caribbean

Resources for Latin America / Caribbean
(all amounts in US$ 000)
  Regular Programme Trust  
  Major Programme Headquarters Decentralized Offices Total Fund Activities Total
21 Agricultural Production and Support Systems 5,580 3,710 9,290 13,085 22,375
22 Food and Agriculture Policy and Development 5,115 2,537 7,652 2,795 10,447
23 Fisheries 4,092 1,524 5,616 1,570 7,186
24 Forestry 4,450 1,950 6,400 8,841 15,241
25 Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts 2,589 2,330 4,919 38,315 43,234
31 Policy Assistance 1,131 3,933 5,065 474 5,539
Total 22,957 15,984 38,941 65,080 104,021


General Overview
556.     Based on the guidance of the Regional Conference and internal analysis carried out in the Regional Office, the main thematic priorities include:

  • Food security, particularly in terms of access to assets;
  • Agricultural trade, especially the impact of trade negotiations and eventual agreements on family farm and non agricultural activities in rural areas;
  • Management and conservation of natural resources, including integrated multidimensional natural resource management;
  • Capacity-building on rural development, including at the subnational and municipal levels;
  • The new roles of governments in development;
  • Addressing food safety issues;
  • Forging alliances between public and private sectors.
557.     These thematic priorities are useful in guiding the formulation of specific activities, including field projects and in support of seminars held with governmental authorities about individual country requirements in the food and agriculture sector.

Major Programme 2.1: Agricultural Production and Support Systems
558.     Planned activities include:

  • Transfer of technologies for integrated management of land, water and plant nutrients and programmes to improve irrigation water efficiency and water productivity in rainfed agriculture;
  • Capacity-building in assessing and mitigating land and water quality degradation;
  • Strengthening of national phytosanitary systems in line with the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC);
  • Development of national pesticide registration and management regulations, and management of obsolete pesticide stocks;
  • Capacity-building in plant breeding and biotechnology;
  • Support to, and coordination of two hemispheric disease eradication programmes: CSF193 and FMD194;
  • Support to pro-poor livestock policy initiatives, with emphasis on the Andean subregion;
  • Strengthening analytical capacities and quality assurance systems in applying Codex standards and good agricultural practices to reduce food safety hazards;
  • Promotion of food quality and safety programmes for small-scale agro-industries and development of smallholder based, export-oriented processing industries.
Major Programme 2.2: Food and Agriculture Policy and Development
559.     The region will receive assistance for:

  • Capacity-building for improved national food control systems, including quality assurance for food analysis laboratories;
  • Harmonisation of national food standards and regulations and follow-up to the Regional Conference on Food Safety for Latin America and the Caribbean;
  • Promotion of nutrition education in schools;
  • Implementation of the voluntary guidelines to support the progressive realisation of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security;
  • Capacity-building for data analysis, use and dissemination;
  • Effective participation in international trade negotiations and implementation of multilateral trade agreements, and understanding of the impact of agricultural and rural development policies;
  • Agricultural information management, in collaboration with regional agencies such as IICA195.
Major Programme 2.3: Fisheries
560.     As regards industrial fisheries and aquaculture, priority activities will address:

  • Capacity-building of fisheries institutions to avoid over-exploitation within respective economic exclusive zones (EEZ) through better information collection, fish stock assessment, improved fisheries management, and related legislation enforcement and control, as well as a better distribution of benefits; and
  • Cooperation with, and support to governments in the implementation of International Plans of Action endorsed by COFI196.
561.     As regards small-scale fisheries and aquaculture, FAO assistance will focus on:

  • Management of resources in large rivers and coastal areas to avoid over-exploitation and increase fishers’ income; and
  • Ensuring better access of fisheries communities to markets, reduction of post-harvest losses, increased value-added fish products through better handling, conditioning and small-scale processing at landing places.
562.     FAO will continue to provide support to, and promote the strengthening of COPESCAL197 and WECAFC198 and their subsidiaries bodies and to actively cooperate with the non-FAO RFBs within the region (e.g. OLDEPESCA, OSPESCA, CPPS, CFRM199).

Major Programme 2.4: Forestry
563.     Main activities will address the following regional priorities:

  • National forest programmes (administration, institutions and policy aspects);
  • Integrated watershed management (water resources, land and forest cover, and social aspects and environmental services of the forests);
  • Community forestry development;
  • Forest resources assessments and outlook studies for planning and decision-taking;
  • Conservation of biodiversity through preservation of national parks, biological reserves, national forests, biological corridors, and other areas of conservation;
  • Management of wildland fires through prevention, control and combat to forest fires.
Major Programme 2.5: Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts
564.     The main areas of attention for this region include:

  • Continued mainstreaming of gender issues and concerns into sustainable rural development and food security projects, programmes and policies;
  • Ensuring that government decision-making, planning, and policies reflect the implications of population dynamics on rural development and household food security;
  • Critical examination of alternative extension advisory service modalities;
  • Restructuring of governmental and community-based rural institutions in order to enhance the livelihoods of the poor.
Major Programme 3.1: Policy Assistance
565.     Policy assistance will focus inter alia on: assessment of free trade competitiveness on agriculture; macro and sector policy reform; financing agriculture development, including promoting policies for public-private financing. Whenever applicable, FAO will emphasise agriculture and rural development within a regional-territorial-local approach. Capacity-building in policy development and preparation of plans and strategies will continue, mainly through donor funding.

566.     At the subregional level, policy assistance will continue to be provided to regional economic organizations such as CARICOM200, in follow-up to the Regional Special Programme for Food Security, as well as to the Comunidad Andina (CAN), the Consejo Agropecuario Centroamericano (CAC) and MERCOSUR201 in the areas of trade, competitiveness and subregional integration-related matters.

Near East

Resources for Near East
(all amounts in US$ 000)
  Regular Programme Trust  
  Major Programme Headquarters Decentralized Offices Total Fund Activities Total
21 Agricultural Production and Support Systems 4,562 4,845 9,407 145,778 155,185
22 Food and Agriculture Policy and Development 4,023 1,324 5,347 1,698 7,045
23 Fisheries 2,351 530 2,881 673 3,554
24 Forestry 3,805 586 4,391 0 4,391
25 Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts 2,182 1,225 3,407 3,950 7,357
31 Policy Assistance 1,146 4,146 5,293 474 5,767
Total 18,070 12,657 30,727 152,573 183,300


General Overview
567.     The Near East region exhibits a wide range in resources endowment, incomes and levels of development. Many countries are still adopting economic policy reform and trade liberalisation measures to enhance competitiveness and improve the allocation of limited resources. Several countries are also witnessing food deficits, coupled with increased food imports; while some countries are affected by malnutrition and in some cases pockets of hunger and intermittent localised famines.

568.     Against this backdrop, the FAO Regional Conference and the technical commissions have formulated recommendations for priority action by the concerned governments and FAO.

569.     These priorities include: policy advice on agriculture, rural development and food security; water resources management as the overriding factor for agricultural production and food security; redressing the low productivity of current farming systems; building national technical and institutional capacities; reduction of post-harvest losses; promotion of active afforestation and land conservation programmes; ensuring sustainability of fisheries resources and better fisheries management; promotion of private sector investments and agricultural production entrepreneurship; effective interactions among countries for joint cooperation, exchange of experience, funding of projects at country and regional levels with the involvement of the development funds and financial institutions based in the region.

Major Programme 2.1: Agricultural Production and Support Systems
570.     Planned activities include:

  • Development of innovative supply-and-demand water management strategies, including options offered by trade in agricultural products between water-deficit and water-rich areas and the safe use of non-conventional water resources in irrigation, such as treated wastewater and brackish and saline waters;
  • Land management programmes for drought mitigation and rehabilitation of degraded lands;
  • Strengthening of national phytosanitary systems in line with the International Plant Protection Convention;
  • Support to national pesticide registration and management, including pesticide disposal;
  • Preventive control of transboundary plant pests including desert locusts through EMPRES;
  • Coordination of regional programmes for transboundary animal disease control in the context of the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases;
  • Identification of regional priority actions for the improved management and conservation of animal genetic resources;
  • Development of agro-industries, micro agro-enterprises and marketing institutions;
  • Development of quality assurance systems in food production and processing and promotion of viable micro-finance systems.


Major Programme 2.2: Food and Agriculture Policy and Development
571.     The region will require:

  • Appropriate mechanisms to facilitate communication and exchange of experience in food-borne disease surveillance among countries, as well as information about food-borne hazards;
  • Regular monitoring of food security and undernourishment, covering conditions at household, national and regional levels, including through the establishment and improvement of FIVIMS at national level;
  • Assistance with the implementation of the voluntary guidelines to support the progressive realisation of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security;
  • Through a regional report on the State of Food and Agriculture, the identification of critical areas for food security for better targeting and reducing vulnerability;
  • Capacity-building for WTO negotiations and implementation of agreement reached;
  • Wide access to tools and methodologies to meet specific regional and national information needs, in the context of Bridging the Rural Digital Divide, as recommended at the last Near East Regional Conference (2004).


Major Programme 2.3: Fisheries
572.     FAO’s assistance will focus more particularly on:

  • Improvement of collection, quality and reliability of fisheries statistics;
  • Promotion of regional and subregional cooperation, including assessment and management of shared stocks and intra-regional trade;
  • Strengthening of regional and subregional fisheries commissions, in particular RECOFI202 and establishment of new regional fishery bodies as appropriate;
  • Upgraded safety and quality systems to meet international requirements and improve marketing information systems;
  • Active implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and related International Plans of Action, including capacity-building at national level.


Major Programme 2.4: Forestry
573.     The Near East is a low forest cover region, and priority activities will address forest and water improved practices for integrated management of woodlands, steppes and rangelands. Other main areas of work include: tree and shrub restoration in degraded lands and strengthening national institutional capacities.

Major Programme 2.5: Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts
574.     Key planned activities will be:

  • Support to the integration of rural women into rural development projects and programmes, on-going land reform programmes, and conservation of natural resources;
  • Promotion of research and application of suitable technologies for perishable food products, biotechnology application and awareness of genetically modified organisms biosafety issues;
  • Facilitation of effective research, extension, education linkages and interactions at national and regional level;
  • Assistance in restructuring and/or strengthening of governmental and community-based rural institutions in order to enhance the livelihoods of the poor.


Major Programme 3.1: Policy Assistance
575.     Policy assistance to Members, including the countries in central Asia, will continue to focus primarily on issues relating to sustainable use of water and natural resources and trade. In countries emerging from natural and man-made disasters, support will be directed to the establishment of appropriate institutional and policy frameworks for rehabilitation of the agriculture and rural sector. Countries will also be supported in updating their strategies and policy frameworks at national and subregional levels, and in promoting the exchange of information, experience and lessons among themselves, particularly through the newly established agricultural policy network in the region (NENARNAP203).


174 Regional Office for Africa

175 Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

176 Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases

177 World Health Organization

178 Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System

179 World Trade Organization

180 Subregional Office for Southern and East Africa

181 Association of Southeast-Asian Nations (ASEAN); South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC); Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)

182 Integrated pest management

183 Commonwealth of Independent States

184 Common Agricultural Policy (EU)

185 European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

186 Scientific Cooperation to Support Responsible Fisheries in the Adriatic Sea

187 Cooperation Networks to Facilitate Coordination to Support Fisheries Management in the Western and Central Mediterranean

188 Assessment and monitoring of the fishery resources and ecosystems in the strait of Sicily

189 Central and Eastern European countries

190 European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission

191 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

192 Economic Commission for Europe

193 Classical swine fever

194 Foot-and-mouth disease

195 Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture

196 Committee on Fisheries

197 Commission for Inland Fisheries of Latin America

198 Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission

199 Latin American Organization for Fisheries Development (OLDEPESCA); Organización del Sector Pesquero y Acuícola del Istmo Centroamericano (OSPESCA); Organization for the Conservation, Protection and Optimum Utilization of Tunas and Tuna-like Species in the Eastern Pacific (CPPS); Mecanismo pesquero regional del Caribe (CFRM)

200 Caribbean Community Secretariat

201 Southern Common Market

202 Regional Commission for Fisheries

203 Near East and North Africa Regional Network for Agricultural Policies

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