Chapter 2: Sustainable Food and Agricultural Systems
|(All amounts in US$ 000)
||2006-07 Programme of Work
||Direct Support to Programme of Work
||Other Voluntary Contributions
||Crop production systems management
||Livestock production systems management
||Diseases and pests of animals and plants
||Nutrition and consumer protection
||Forestry information, statistics, economics, and policy
||Forest management, conservation and rehabilitation
||Forest products and industry
||Fisheries and aquaculture information, statistics, economics, and policy
||Fisheries and aquaculture management and conservation
||Fisheries and aquaculture products and industry
||Sustainable natural resources management
||Technology, research and extension
||Rural infrastructure and agro-industries
|Percentage by Source of Financing
127. Thirteen substantive programmes (2A to 2M) lay the foundation for sustainable food and agricultural systems. Among them are those which address issues encompassed by biosecurity and the food chain approach (from the production, management and conservation of crops, crop biodiversity and livestock, to plant pests and animal diseases mitigation, to food safety, food quality and consumer wellbeing), sustainable management of forests, fisheries and natural resources, and rural infrastructure and agro-industry development. Responsibility for these programmes lies with four departments: Agriculture, Biosecurity, Nutrition and Consumer Protection (AG); Forestry (FO); Fisheries (FI); and Sustainable Development (SD).
Agriculture, Biosecurity, Nutrition and Consumer Protection
128. Action under 2A and 2B is centred on impact at the farm level. Programme 2A highlights sustainable intensification opportunities, and supports optimisation and diversification of production systems. As regards crop production, the main thrusts include: the conservation, development and use of plant genetic resources through plant breeding, biotechnology, biosafety and seed policy and production systems; the integration of agricultural practices, technologies and inputs for sustainable intensification and diversification of cropping systems. Prominence is given to the International Treaty (IT) on PGRFA, the world’s principal normative agreement for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the supporting component the Global Plan of Action.
129. The livestock production programme addresses the needs of both intensive and extensive systems. It focuses on productivity enhancement at farm level, including improved utilisation of farm animal genetic resources, animal feeding, animal nutrition, animal husbandry and on-farm animal health management. It assists Members in the preparation of the first Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources and in the definition of strategic priority actions for improved utilisation and conservation of these resources for intergovernmental negotiation. The infectious animal diseases, zoonoses, animal product related food safety, and the broader economic, social, environmental, institutional and policy dimensions of the fast growing global livestock sector are covered under other programmes, notably 2C, but also 2D, 2K, 2M, 3B, 3C, and 4D.
130. In the face of recurring major disease and pest threats to crop and livestock production systems, and the associated need to protect human health and the environment, Programme 2C regroups FAO’s key interventions on animal and plant health. It combines the plant pests and animal diseases components of EMPRES aiming at early warning and early response. Regulatory and policy aspects of plant pests, animal diseases and pesticide management are consolidated in this programme. High priority is given to international standard setting, knowledge sharing and support to countries especially for the IPPC and the Rotterdam Convention.
131. Concerning nutrition and consumer protection under 2D, the main objective is improving the access to, and consumption of, nutritionally adequate and safe food by all. Work on the Codex Alimentarius and Codex-related activities constitute major priorities. The work on Codex, jointly with WHO, consists of the development of food safety and quality standards in order to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in food trade. Programme 2D also includes support to national and subnational nutrition and food safety programmes, nutritional and dietary assessments of populations to understand food and nutrition requirements, and nutrition education to enable consumers to meet nutritional needs. It addresses animal product food safety issues, of major concern nowadays.
Joint FAO/IAEA Division (AGE)
132. Through its work on nuclear techniques and related biotechnologies, AGE provides critical inputs to this chapter, and more particularly to the sustainable intensification of crop and livestock production systems and improved food and environmental safety standards. In the spirit of following a more integrated presentation method, the contributions of AGE and attendant cooperation between FAO and IAEA are no longer shown under a separate programme in the structure. They are henceforth shown under the applicable programmes, i.e. 2A, 2C and 2D with clearly identified entities.
133. FAO’s forestry work is now principally included under Programmes 2E, 2F, 2G and 2K, which are designed to support national efforts and international cooperation to achieve sustainable forest management, addressing environmental, economic and social dimensions.
134. 2E brings together the major elements underpinning sound policy, e.g. economic analysis and global and regional outlook studies, contributions to the international forest policy dialogue primarily through support to the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and a new Forestry Knowledge and Communication centre to increase the dissemination of forestry information. Continued support will be provided to the Committee on Forestry (COFO) and the Regional Forestry Commissions. 2F groups a number of activities that directly support sustainable management and conservation of forests, i.e. natural forests, planted forests, woodlands and trees outside forests, arid lands vegetation, coupled with international cooperation on forest fires and partnership in forest health. 2G emphasises technical and policy advice to countries on sustainable harvesting and processing of wood and non-wood forest products and wood fuels. Dissemination of best practices will give due emphasis to small industries which contribute to the livelihoods of a large number of poor people who are dependent on forests. 2G will also integrate the assessment, monitoring and reporting on forest resources, products and institutions.
Fisheries and Aquaculture
135. Programmes 2H, 2I and 2J reflect more balanced attention to aquaculture, given its growing significance in global output and relevance to rural livelihoods. Cross-cutting priorities include promoting the uptake and implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) and related instruments, as well as other initiatives to improve the fishery and aquaculture sector’s long-term contribution to sustainable development.
136. 2H brings together the major elements underpinning sound policy as regards fisheries and aquaculture: e.g. supporting the implementation of the CCRF and the IPOAs of the Code; support to COFI and regional fishery bodies (RFBs); assisting Members in their efforts to eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing through international collaboration and better management practices including through monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS); the newly adopted Strategy for Improving Information on Status and Trends of Capture Fisheries (Strategy-STF) and socio-economic analysis of the two sectors, especially with a view to increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries and aquaculture to food security and poverty alleviation.
137. 2I works on key aspects of management and conservation, including: implementation of the relevant provision of the Code; improved technologies and dissemination of best practices; and the implementation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries. 2J assists Members in maximising benefits from fisheries and aquaculture products and related industries, paying attention inter alia to human and institutional capacity-building and methodology development, particularly for small-scale fisheries and in the area of fish utilisation, trade, food quality/safety and fishermen safety, as well as technical aspects of MCS, including the use of vessel monitoring systems (VMS).
Natural Resources, Technology and Sustainable Development
138. Other programmes under this chapter aim at addressing in a more holistic manner than heretofore: the sustainable management of natural resources and environmental concerns, including water (2K); and the enhancement of capacities in research and extension for improved technology adoption (2L). The new Programme 2M is meant to give more prominence to work on rural infrastructure and agro-industries, recognising that the lack of infrastructure enhancements such as rural roads, storage and conditioning facilities, markets, fish hatcheries/aquaculture ponds and cold chains for agricultural products is a major stumbling block in the development of productive and competitive agriculture, and that value addition through agro-industries is critical to generating employment and income.
139. The main lines of work under these three programmes may be selectively highlighted as follows:
- capacity-building in improved management and conservation of land, water and genetic resources, including the essential knowledge base for their sustainable use;
- the adaptation of agricultural production systems to climate change, and the contribution of agriculture, fisheries and forestry to climate change mitigation through processes such as carbon sequestration and bioenergy;
- assistance in land and natural resources tenure issues and management of fragile ecosystems such as mountain development and combating desertification;
- research and technology development related to measures to reduce the negative impacts of fishing on the environment;
- research and technology development and dissemination, including support to strengthening national agricultural research systems, extension services and their interfaces, fostering partnerships with international research and academic institutions;
- support to infrastructure and agro-industry development, notably by documenting and disseminating best practices in delivering rural infrastructure services, supporting capacity-building to enhance the competitiveness of agro-industries, and providing advice on the requirements for successful market participation by small farmers.