Table of ContentsRAP-806-

Chapter 2: Sustainable Food and Agricultural Systems

Programme 2A: Crop Production Systems Management

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2AA02 Soil Productivity and Conservation 2,454
2AA04 Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources 2,621
2AA05 Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Systems through Nuclear Techniques and Biotechnology 2,089
2AA06 Crop Production Systems - Sustainable Intensification, Diversification, and Biodiversity 4,328
2AP01 Technical Support to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 2,875
2AP03 Secretariat of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 1,124
2AS01 Committee on Agriculture (COAG) 512
2AS02 Technical Services for Partnership Development, Advice, and Information Enhancement 695
2AS03 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 3,467
Total 20,165

161.     This programme deals with the enhancement and sustainability at farm level of crop production systems and the conservation and use of plant genetic resources together with sustainable seed production. It integrates technical assistance, capacity-building and knowledge management activities associated with sustainable enhancement of crop production for food security and income generation. Best practices for major production systems are promoted, including: technologies for soil preparation, plant nutrition, on-farm water use and pest management; intensification opportunities; and diversification with emphasis on high-value horticultural crops. The programme covers the International Rice Commission, the Global Cassava Development Strategy, and the joint FAO/WHO Initiative on Fruits and Vegetables for Health and Income, which links to urban and peri-urban production systems.

162.     Secretariat and technical support are provided for the implementation of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (IT-PGRFA) and its components (Global Plan of Action, international ex situ collections, networks, global information system and reports on the State of the World’s PGR). Policies set through the IT-PGRFA are complemented by technical assistance to Members and capacity-building in integrating the conservation of PGR with their sustainable use in plant breeding (including associated biotechnologies), seed systems, and support for integrated ecosystem and on-farm management of crop-associated biodiversity.

163.     In putting due emphasis on knowledge exchange, policy and advocacy, the programme entities stress interdisciplinary approaches and result from the consolidation of previous entities, particularly under the new 2AA06: Crop Production Systems - Sustainable Intensification, Diversification and Biodiversity.

164.     The Joint FAO/IAEA Division (AGE) develops detailed guidelines and protocols, coupled with technical advice, for strengthening national capacities in applying molecular, genomic, nuclear and isotope abundance methods that will contribute to making cropping systems more productive and sustainable, particularly in marginal and stress-prone areas. AGE promotes the use of isotopic and soil water measuring devices to improve crop water productivity, enhance soil fertility and minimise land and water degradation, as well as biotechnologies to broaden the genetic bases of crops, for selection, breeding and scientific purposes. In combating exotic or alien invasive insects, AGE further assists Members in the use of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods.

Programme 2B: Livestock Production Systems Management

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2BA02 Sustainable Livestock Production 3,043
2BA03 Management of Animal Genetic Resources 2,307
2BP01 Global Livestock Information and Knowledge System 1,257
2BS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 1,891
Total 8,498

165.     Programme 2B addresses the on-farm aspects of livestock production. It covers biological and physical farm resources use - animal genetic resources (AnGR), feeding/nutrition, animal husbandry - and endemic (production) animal diseases, while activities related to epidemic and zoonotic diseases are under Programme 2C, and animal food-borne diseases are under Programme 2D. The programme hosts the Global Livestock Information and Knowledge System (2BP01) and two new entities: 2BA02 which deals with some on-farm related aspects of animal production and animal health (herd health management) and 2BA03 dealing with AnGR. The latter responds to the commitments negotiated by the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA): i.e. the first Report on the State of the World’s AnGR; the report on priority actions for improved utilisation and conservation of AnGR; the follow-up mechanism to the adoption of the State of the World’s AnGR Report; and the First International Technical Conference on AnGR planned for 2007. It may be noted that livestock-related contributions have been included under other programmes (2K, 2M, 3B, 3C and 4D) in addition to Programmes 2C and 2D.

Programme 2C: Diseases and Pests of Animals and Plants

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2CA02 Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Nuclear Techniques and Biotechnology 1,726
2CP01 Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) 4,656
2CP02 Pesticide Risk Reduction through Pesticide Management, IPM and the use of Biopesticides 3,936
2CP04 EMPRES - Migratory and Transboundary Invasive Plant Pests 5,226
2CP05 EMPRES - Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases 4,553
2CS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 3,772
Total 23,869

166.     In the face of recurring transboundary pest and disease threats to crop and livestock production systems, Programme 2C regroups FAO's activities in support of Members with focus on off-farm technical interventions for pest and disease control at global, regional and national levels.

167.     Concerning plants, the programme aims at preventing and reducing pest damage and pesticide-associated risks to human health and the environment. It supports national programmes through global and inter-regional action and includes contributions to the international regulatory and cooperative frameworks related to plant health. High priority is given to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), in particular standard setting, information exchange and capacity building, the Rotterdam Convention, the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, pesticide standards, IPM policy and implementation. Regulatory and policy aspects of pest and pesticide management are consolidated into entity 2CP02 including the joint FAO/UNEP Secretariat of the Rotterdam Convention.

168.     Priority is also given to the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) addressing the prevention, early warning, contingency planning, and effective response to animal and plant pests and diseases of a transboundary nature. Entity 2CP04: EMPRES - Migratory and Transboundary Invasive Plant Pests provides support to national plant health services within 'off-farm' biosecurity approaches. This entity covers the Desert Locust programme and, with the incorporation of aspects of IPM, other invasive, alien and emerging pests of regional and national importance.

169.     Entity 2CP05: EMPRES - Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases addresses ‘off-farm’ animal health issues, covering infectious and zoonotic animal diseases with emphasis on rinderpest, avian influenza, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), swine fevers, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR). It includes work on trypanosomiasis (with the PAAT secretariat) and other arthropod-borne diseases, as well as the environmental management of animal diseases. It is also the basis for FAO’s participation in SPS-related standard setting at the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The threat from avian flu receives particular attention.

170.     The Joint FAO/IAEA Division contributes to the process of declaration of global freedom from rinderpest and to the progressive control of other livestock diseases covered by EMPRES. Training, guidelines, early detection methods and quality-assured data from national serological and molecular surveys are provided. Inputs to OIE will be on validation criteria for diagnostic assays and accreditation of veterinary laboratories. Contributions will be made, through PAAT, to the African Union’s Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC), e.g. on interventions that involve the SIT to create tsetse-free zones. Also, countries’ access to molecular tools for better characterizing indigenous animal genetic resources and identifying DNA sequences that mark favourable traits will be facilitated.

Programme 2D: Nutrition and Consumer Protection

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2DA01 Animal Product Food Safety 1,835
2DA05 Household Food Security, Nutrition and Livelihoods 2,822
2DA06 Food and Nutrition Education and Consumer Awareness 1,459
2DP01 Improving Food and Environmental Safety through Nuclear Techniques 1,703
2DP02 Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Assessment in a Transforming Food Economy 1,471
2DP03 Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme (Codex Alimentarius) 6,932
2DP04 Food Quality and Safety throughout the Food Chain for Consumer Protection 2,641
2DP05 Provision of Scientific Advice on Food Safety 2,779
2DS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 2,054
Total 23,696

171.     Programme 2D focuses on promoting and monitoring the production, processing, distribution and consumption of nutritionally adequate and safe food for all. In collaboration with academic institutions, other specialised agencies and international experts, it will: strengthen capacity-building in assessment and monitoring of dietary intake and nutritional status of populations; update knowledge and recommendations on nutrient requirements; and provide advice on nutrition-related strategies and programmes, including advice on nutrition education for schools and the general public. The programme promotes the establishment of food control and quality assurance systems, compatible with international standards, in particular those of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and contributes to building national capacities in food quality and safety. The Secretariat supports the Commission and its subsidiary Committees in setting worldwide standards to protect the health of the consumer, and ensuring fair practice in the food trade.

172.     The consolidated new entity 2DA05 integrates concepts and actions at global, national and local levels to improve nutrition in the context of both development and emergency preparedness and response. Another newly consolidated entity (2DP02) contributes to updating reference standards for human nutrient requirements, for assessing nutritional status of individuals and populations and for monitoring changing trends in food consumption patterns resulting from the nutrition transition with considerations of their impact on nutrition and health.

173.     Entity 2DP04 aims at reinforcing the food chain approach to food safety and consumer protection, while 2DP05 is to provide scientific advice on important food safety issues. 2DA01 addresses food-borne human health hazards related to animal source food, thereby contributing to the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius and to OIE work on animal production food safety.

174.     Through distance learning and technical cooperation projects, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division will assist countries in harmonising national regulations based on the Codex general standard for irradiated foods and the IPPC international standard on irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. It will help them minimise risks to food production and food security from a nuclear or radiological accident through plans for emergency preparedness. By introducing laboratory quality management systems compliant with international standards, it will improve the services provided by laboratory personnel involved in food control and regulation of pesticides and veterinary drugs, thereby promoting good agricultural practices from “farm to table” and consumer and environmental protection.

Programme 2E: Forestry Information, Statistics, Economics and Policy

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2EP03 Forestry Knowledge and Communication Centre 3,016
2EP04 Global Socio-economic analysis and forest sector studies 1,893
2EP05 Strengthening Policy, Institutional and Participatory Capacities for Forest Management and Conservation 2,462
2EP06 Support to COFO, Global and Regional Forestry Processes 2,496
2ES01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 1,414
Total 11,281

175.     Under Programme 2E, country-based information will be provided on all aspects of forests and forestry, building on knowledge exchange and partnerships with member countries, other organizations, and the private sector. This information will be made available at various levels through integrated databases, as well as targeted, cost-effective publications. Regional and global outlook studies will expand the knowledge base on forestry through participatory processes, also supporting capacity-building. Assistance will be provided to national forest programmes, covering: policy aspects, effective actions including participation and law enforcement, and sharing of best practices at the regional, national and local levels. The programme will promote practical linkages between forestry and poverty alleviation, and between forestry and other key sectors and facilitate regional and global policy dialogue, emphasizing sustainable forest management. FAO will continue to lead the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, focusing on effective, multi-disciplinary approaches to complex issues.

Programme 2F: Forest Management, Conservation and Rehabilitation

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2FA06 Forest Fire Management and Forest Health 1,486
2FA07 Conservation and Rehabilitation of forests and woodlands ecosystems 2,160
2FP02 Sustainable Management of forests, woodlands and trees outside of forests 2,293
2FS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 2,295
Total 8,234

176.     In promoting sustainable forest management, Programme 2F aims at ensuring that goods and services derived from forests and trees meet the needs of present and future generations. It will provide countries with decision support information for the sustainable management of their natural forests, the establishment and management of planted forest and tree resources, and assistance to smallholders in relation to plantation forests and agroforestry systems. Trees outside forests and urban forestry will receive special attention in low forest cover countries. New management approaches to dry lands and mountains will be promoted. As specifically requested by COFO and the Ministerial Meeting held in March 2005, voluntary guidelines for forest fires will be developed in collaboration with key partners. The prevention and control of forest pests and diseases as well as invasive species, will continue to be addressed.

Programme 2G: Forest Products and Industry

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2GA01 Strengthening the Contribution of Forest Industries to Rural Development 1,347
2GP01 Best practices in forest products harvesting, utilization and appropriate industry development 2,697
2GP02 Assessment, monitoring and reporting on forest resources products and institutions 3,210
2GS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 1,645
Total 8,899

177.     Programme 2G includes technical and policy advice to countries on the harvesting and processing of wood and non-wood forest products (NWFPs) that contribute to urban and rural livelihoods. Technical analysis and policy support will also be offered in situations where wood and forests play an important role in energy generation and consumption. The programme will aim at strengthening the capacity of developing countries to develop small and medium size forest-based industries. It will continue work on assessment, monitoring and reporting on forest resources, products and institutions, as well as sharing of knowledge and best practices among countries on sustainable harvesting, processing and utilisation of wood, NWFPs and wood fuels with due emphasis on employment and income generation.

Programme 2H: Fisheries and Aquaculture Information, Statistics, Economics and Policy

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2HA01 Support to the Strategy for Improving Information on Status and Trends of Capture Fisheries (Strategy-STF) through FIRMS and other FIGIS Partnerships 1,038
2HA02 Implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (Including Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture) and Related Instruments 3,825
2HP01 Provision of Fisheries Information and Statistics 4,760
2HP04 Global socioeconomic analysis of fisheries and aquaculture and of their contribution to food security, poverty alleviation and economic growth 1,574
2HS02 Promotion and Strengthening of Regional Fisheries and Aquaculture Bodies and Arrangements 2,967
2HS03 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 2,871
2HS04 Support to COFI and associated Meetings 823
Total 17,858

178.     Programme 2H aims in the first instance at promoting the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), including inland fisheries and aquaculture, and related instruments. This involves: analysis, development and promotion of appropriate policies, strategies and regulatory instruments, including the elaboration of additional guidelines on ecolabelling of inland and marine capture fisheries; work on capacity and small-scale fisheries; and the use of vessel monitoring system (VMS) for combating illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and ensuring safety of fishers. Priority is given to the further sustainable expansion of aquaculture, support to COFI and associated meetings and the strengthening of regional fishery bodies (RFBs). Policy work is supported by the global socio-economic analysis of fisheries and aquaculture, particularly their contribution to food security, poverty alleviation and economic growth. The programme will monitor and analyse major policy issues with implications at global, regional and national levels, such as: overcapacity, access to resources and fishing grounds in coastal and inland waters, participatory resources management, deep sea fisheries, marine protected areas, the ecosystem approach to fisheries, and monitoring, control and surveillance.

179.     Concerning information and statistics (especially 2HA01 and 2HP01), due prominence is given to promoting and implementing the newly adopted Strategy for Improving Information on Status and Trends of Capture Fisheries (Strategy-STF), coupled with The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA), statistical publications and other information products. Improved quality and coverage of information and statistics will be pursued through partnerships with governments, RFBs and centres of excellence.

Programme 2I: Fisheries and Aquaculture Management and Conservation

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2IP01 Monitoring, Management and Conservation of Fishery Resources 5,540
2IP02 Monitoring, Management and Conservation of Resources for Aquaculture Development 3,862
2IS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme in the area of Fishery Resources 1,793
2IS02 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme in the area of Aquaculture 1,721
Total 12,915

180.     Programme 2I aims at promoting improved conservation of resources and effective management of production systems through complementary entities dealing with the two sub-sectors of: capture fisheries (marine and inland); and aquaculture. It also contributes to the implementation of the relevant aspects of the CCRF, associated International Plans of Action (IPOAs) and other international instruments. Among other activities, it will: a) pursue the identification, assessment, and monitoring of resources; b) develop guidelines, methodologies, and indicators for management and conservation of both marine resources and aquaculture systems; c) clarify the role of ecosystem-related management instruments (including aquatic protected areas); d) address environmental aspects of fishing and aquaculture; e) contribute to reduction of illegal fishing through improved monitoring, control and surveillance; f) carry out studies for improved efficiency and intensification of aquaculture, including new technologies; and g) develop a Fishery Management Information Exchange network. The programme will provide for the secretariats for the COFI Sub-Committee on Aquaculture and for the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission.

Programme 2J: Fisheries and Aquaculture Products and Industry

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2JA02 Implementation of MCS 564
2JA03 Capacity Building for Aquaculture and Small-Scale Fisheries Development 1,050
2JP01 Utilization, safety and quality of fishery products 1,628
2JP02 Fish trade and marketing 2,020
2JP03 Improving the safety of fishing operations 528
2JS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 3,459
Total 9,248

181.     Programme 2J covers the provisions of the CCRF and related instruments addressing harvesting, handling, utilisation and trade of fisheries and aquaculture products. Guidance will be provided on cost-effective use of monitoring, control and surveillance assets and technologies. Guidelines and extension materials will assist with sustainable, cost-efficient and safe fishing operations in small scale fisheries, together with information dissemination networks. The programme will support increased contributions of small-scale fisheries and aquaculture to supply fish to local markets and promote their access to regional and international fish markets. The impact of market development on the value chain will be analysed. Priority will also be given to follow up of biennial sessions of the COFI Sub-Committee on Fish Trade and implementation of Codex recommendations related to fish, with due emphasis on aquaculture.

Programme 2K: Sustainable Natural Resources Management

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2KA01 Agricultural Water Use Efficiency, Quality and Conservation 4,080
2KA05 Land Tenure, Agrarian Reform and Access to Natural Resources 2,684
2KA06 Integrated Land, Water and Production Systems Policies, Planning and Management 1,638
2KA07 Forests and Water 1,107
2KA09 Impact of Fishing on the Environment 955
2KP01 Secretariat of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) 2,077
2KP02 Land and Water Knowledge Management, Information Systems, Databases and Statistics 2,476
2KP04 Economics of Natural Resources and Environmental Sustainability 1,479
2KP06 Environmental Analysis and Support to Sustainable Agriculture 1,797
2KP07 Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation 1,557
2KP08 Fragile Ecosystems 1,144
2KS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 7,813
Total 28,808

182.     An important share of this programme relates to the management of land and water resources. Three tightly knit entities (2KA01, 2KA06 and 2KP02) focus on: ensuring greater efficiency in water use and conservation; the integration of land and water policies, planning and management; land and water quality improvement; and enhanced knowledge management and databases on land and water resources. Work on water management includes transboundary water resources, playing a catalytic role in enhancing inter-country cooperation and agreements, and supporting major international initiatives. In addition, entity 2KA07 addresses the importance of forests to the provision of adequate supplies of fresh water, in particular through the development of methodologies and the provision of advice to countries on effective watershed management policies and practices. Entity 2KA05 will assist countries to put in place effective and affordable systems of access to land and other natural resources, and land tenure security for improved social justice and rural development, as a follow-up to the International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ICARRD).

183.     Under 2KP01, the Secretariat of the CGRFA will assist development of internationally agreed frameworks for genetic resources for food and agriculture. The eleventh regular session of the Commission in 2007 will review the status and needs of the various sectors of biodiversity, including biodiversity for food and agriculture other than plants and animals, as well as the agro-ecosystem approach to genetic resource management and conservation. It will adopt a multi-year programme of work, i.e. on the Secretariat support to the IT-PGRFA and to the First International Technical Conference on Animal Genetic Resources.

184.     Programme 2K also includes three important inter-related cross-disciplinary entities that focus on the implications of global environmental trends for member countries. Entity 2KP07 will cover in a holistic manner, issues of climate change and mitigation. This will include analysing and advising countries on adaptation and mitigation of climate change in the agriculture and rural sectors, managing climate variability, the role of forests in climate change and climate change-related actions as priority areas. Developing countries will be provided with information on terrestrial climate observations and the benefits of new environmental markets under the clean development mechanism (CDM) and the newly formed adaptation fund. The entities dealing with the Environmental Analysis and Support to Sustainable Agriculture (2KP06) and Fragile Ecosystems (2KP08) will address areas such as: bioenergy, environmental hotspots analysis and early warning system support, poverty and environment geospatial analysis, support to multilateral environmental agreements (especially climate change and combating desertification), and environmental analysis tools and information systems. 2KP08 will also promote multidisciplinary work on mountains and combating desertification. The programme will address the Impact of Fishing on the Environment (2KA09), including the physical impact of different fishing gears on the aquatic habitat and the environmental impact of marine debris and ghost fishing by lost gears.

185.     Programme entity 2KP04: Economics of Natural Resources and Environmental Sustainability also addresses livestock-environment interactions (water, land and air pollution, livestock-mediated deforestation, grazing land degradation), including the extrabudgetary-funded Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) initiative.

Programme 2L: Technology, Research and Extension

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2LA01 Strengthening National Agricultural Research and Extension Systems 2,828
2LP01 Secretariat of the CGIAR Science Council 5,650
2LS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 1,534
Total 10,012

186.     Programme 2L aims primarily at supporting and enhancing capacities of the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS), the modernisation of national agricultural extension systems and the establishment of strong functional linkages and coordination mechanisms. Improved integration of research and extension programmes will enable to strengthen the knowledge chain for the generation and adoption of appropriate technologies. Through 2LA01, the programme will pursue partnerships with the International Agricultural Research Centres of the CGIAR, other UN agencies, the Global Forum on Agricultural Research, regional and subregional organizations and fora on research and extension. The Science Council Secretariat of the CGIAR is hosted under 2LP01.

Programme 2M: Rural Infrastructure and Agro-industries

(all amounts in US$ 000)
Programme Entity Title Programme of Work 2006-07
2MA04 Fostering competitive agro-industries 6,019
2MA05 Enhancing small farmer income, employment and livelihoods 2,700
2MP02 Rural Infrastructure Development 2,229
2MS01 Technical Support Services to Members and the Field Programme 4,773
Total 15,721

187.     Programme 2M addresses rural infrastructure improvements which range from systems for the provision of inputs to rural road, market and other post-production infrastructure. It seeks to enhance the efficiency and competitiveness of agro-industries, particularly in the transition to commercial agriculture. Special attention is given to strategies and managerial practices for improving profitability in the different parts of the agrifood system, and to strengthening market linkages for farmers and agro-processing enterprises, notably through capacity-building. Main partners are UN-HABITAT for rural infrastructure and UNIDO for agro-industries, while cooperation with financial institutions is also prominent.

188.     Previous programme entities have been consolidated leading to 2MA04 and 2MA05. One new entity was formulated to address rural infrastructure development (2MP02). 2MA04 brings together three complementary areas of work for competitive agro-industries: enabling environments, capacity-building for agro-enterprises and business linkages, and quality and safety assurance. It also includes activities on livestock product (dairy and meat) processing and value-adding with focus on the small-scale sector. 2MA05 covers capacity-building for diversification and enterprise development, and farmer market linkages from the perspective of small farmer livelihoods.

Table of ContentsRAP-806-