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Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
210A1 Sustainable Intensification of Integrated Production Systems Technical Project AGD


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: meeting growing needs for agricultural products, while preserving the natural resource base, requires sustainable intensification and diversification of production systems. The challenge is generally not to optimise the production of one commodity in isolation, but to promote holistic approaches and to recognise the economic and social dimensions of technology transfer.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: examples of income gains for smallholder farmers at benchmark pilot sites within the SPFS will lead to the replication of field-validated and integrated technologies on a larger scale by national extension services and development projects.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: farmers, particularly smallholders, as well as the public at large will benefit from the development of integrated, sustainable intensification strategies and technologies, reducing food insecurity, generating income and contributing to the sustainable use of natural resources and biodiversity.

Objective

  • Foster and support coordinated action at selected SPFS pilot sites in various regions and exchange of information and lessons, in order to test, demonstrate and promote integrated production systems.

Indicators

  • National and regional strategies for integrated production systems adopted.
  • Field-tested examples of farm communities adopting sustainable, integrated technology packages that benefit farmers and the environment.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Several case studies were undertaken on economics of production systems intensification, integrated production systems and interactions between farm and non-farm enterprises. Synthesis reports were produced on the economic and ecological performance of farming systems diversification, intensification and the non-farm economy, and on economics of water harvesting. Notable progress was achieved on work related to good agricultural practices (GAPs), under the umbrella of the PROD PAIA. An internal FAO workshop was held in late 2004 to share lessons and define an FAO strategy on GAPs, resulting in the establishment of an interdepartmental GAP Working Group and increased synergies between over 13 units and Regional and Subregional Offices. FAO's expertise and assistance on GAPs became more visible to Members and partners, and its approach on GAPs was approved by COAG in 2005. An FAO GAP Web site and a GAP metadatabase were developed and other information products prepared, including a brief on GAP key references, another on FAO GAP activities, an inventory of GAP programmes and a GAP Working Concept Paper. In southwestern Burkina Faso, initial work on five SPFS pilot sites focused on farmer participatory assessment of new crop/pasture/livestock production systems based on conservation agriculture with a view to enhancing cotton-system intensification and diversification. IITA, CIRAD and the national research institute (INERA) have been key partners. This work expanded into two stakeholder workshops and a writeshop on GAPs, the development and field testing of a draft training manual and a pilot Farmer Field School on GAPs for integrated production systems. These activities were conducted with complementary extrabudgetary support (mostly from Norway), along with other country and regional field activities including a joint FAO-Government of Thailand workshop in September 2005 to refine the national GAP strategy on fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV). Contacts were initiated with UNEP towards a joint FAO-UNEP initiative on "Expanding the environmental benefits and volume of sustainable cotton production in West Africa". Thirty developing country professionals were trained on GAPs in a course organized by Wageningen University in the Netherlands. In response to a request from the North African Crop Research Network, FAO facilitated the preparation of a draft protocol for GAP olive production.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Coordination and planning of multi-disciplinary actions on integrated production systems.
  401 Electronic information forum and clearing-house for stakeholders to collect and share information on integrated production systems and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Information (products, systems, databases) AGA AGD AGP AGS RAF Cancelled
002   Integrated production practices for sustainable intensification of rice-based systems in Asia.
  401 Farmer-participatory pilot site, established through the SPFS, for study and demonstration of horizontal and vertical integration of production and post-harvest systems (Asia) Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA AGD AGP AGS RAP Cancelled
003   Integrated farming systems in West Africa.
  402 Dissemination of results of horizontal and vertical integration of production and post-harvest systems through local and national meetings and workshops in collaboration with partners(W. Africa) Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA AGD AGP AGS RAF Completed
004   Integrated production systems in highly-populated agricultural zones.
  401 Farmer-participatory pilot site, established through the SPFS, for study and demonstration of horizontal and vertical integration of production and post-harvest systems (W. Kenya) Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA AGD AGP AGS SAFR Completed
005   Integrated production systems in arid and semi-arid areas of the Near East.
006   Integrated production systems in Latin America and the Caribbean.
007   Economic assessment of strategies for integrated production systems intensification.
  401 Appraisal of farming systems resource management, productivity and profitability in PRODS pilot sites Studies and analyses AGA AGP AGS RAF RAP SAFR Postponed
  402 Analyses of intensification patterns and dynamics in important major farming systems for identification of differentiated development pathways and strategies Studies and analyses AGA AGP AGS Completed
  403 Synthesis and dissemination of information on the economics of intensified production systems Information (products, systems, databases) AGA AGP AGS Completed
008   Good agricultural practices for sustainable agriculture and rural development.
  401 Global information portal on Good Agricultural Practices Information (products, systems, databases) AGA AGD AGP AGS Modified
  402 Guidelines on good agricultural practices for selected crops and livestock in different agroecosystems Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA AGD AGP AGS Completed
  403 National and regional capacity building for the implementation of good agricultural practices in different agro-ecosystems in collaboration with partners in the public and private sectors and CSO's Training (including training courses and materials) AGA AGD AGP AGS RAF RAP SAFR Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
210A2 Promotion of Conservation Agriculture Technical Project AGD


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: crop production based on conventional tillage practices cannot fully respond to the need to achieve and sustain enhanced food production and, at the same time, protect the natural resource base. Soil degradation, compaction and erosion are serious problems of conventional agriculture. The burning of crop residue and intensive tillage also lead to reduction of soil organic matter, and increased greenhouse gases emissions.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: increased awareness and understanding of conservation agriculture (CA) by key stakeholders will facilitate wider adoption, resulting in the long term in sustainable agricultural production and enhanced rural livelihoods.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: farmers and rural communities will benefit from increased farming profitability and improved environmental conditions (reduced erosion, pollution, and flooding), while broader benefits may be expected in terms of food security and increased soil sequestration of greenhouse gases.

Objective

  • A process for participatory development of sustainable agricultural production methods following the conservation agriculture concept is firmly established within a defined region, leading to a progressive increase in the number of governments, projects and farmers using and promoting CA.

Indicators

  • Number of governments promoting CA.
  • Number of field projects applying CA.
  • Area under CA.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Promotion and advocacy of conservation agriculture (CA) through training materials, workshops, conferences and direct support to Member Governments have led to an increase in awareness about the benefits derived from CA, which is directly reflected in an increase of the CA areas worldwide, support by governments and adoption of CA practices and policies. In Africa, countries such as Kenya, Lesotho, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia have become strong supporters of CA; in Asia, China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and Kazakhstan; and in Latin America, most recently Nicaragua. CA is being accepted now as a strategy for sustainable land management under investment initiatives such as TerrAfrica in Africa and CACILM in Central Asia. A major milestone was the organization of the third World Congress on Conservation Agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya, in October 2005. This event attracted high visibility and contributed to increased donors' attention to CA. The event allowed the production of extensive information material on experiences with CA in different agro-ecological zones, which will contribute through a knowledge management system to further advances and improvements of CA. The successful outcome of the conference is expected to contribute to a further accelerated increase of the CA areas worldwide. Two research projects, one on "Assessment of the effectiveness of soil conservation technologies for sustainable watershed management using fallout radionuclides" (involving Member Nations such as Argentina, Brazil, China, Chile, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, Turkey and Viet Nam) and another on "Integrated soil, water and nutrient management for conservation agriculture" (involving Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, India, Kenya, Morocco, Pakistan, Turkey, Uganda and Uzbekistan) were initiated to quantify the rates and patterns of soil distribution and to develop and refine fallout radionuclide methodologies, isotopic techniques (N15, C-13 and neutron probes) and soil sampling protocols for soil conservation assessment under a range of studied conditions.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Mechanisation technologies and study of farm economics for sustainable land husbandry (conservation agriculture).
  401 Guidance documents, strategies and information on relevant aspects of mechanization inputs for Conservation Agriculture as part of GAP/SARD Training (including training courses and materials) AGL AGP AGS RAF Completed
  402 Support for regional training, networks, workshops and pilot sites for Conservation Agriculture Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGL AGP AGS RAF Completed
002   Strategies for the selection and development of crops and cropping system for conservation agriculture.
  401 Regional workshops/training courses in West Africa and Central Asia on cropping systems development for conservation agriculture Training (including training courses and materials) AGL AGP AGS RAF Completed
  402 Country study case in Asia and/or Africa on successful adoption of appropriate cropping systems in conservation agriculture Studies and analyses AGL AGP AGS RAF Completed
  403 Support to the Eurasian Conservation Agriculture Network (ECAN) and the South Asian Conservation Agriculture Network (SACAN) Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGL AGP AGS RAF Modified
  404 Publication and training manual on "Progress in Conservation Agriculture in Central Asia" Training (including training courses and materials) AGP Completed
003   Soil and moisture conservation in agricultural production systems (conservation agriculture).
  401 Guidelines, training materials, workshops and support to networks on soil and moisture conservation in production systems Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGL RAF Completed
  402 Piloting, adapting and evaluating impact of better soil and water management at farm level (two countries in North Africa and Near East) Studies and analyses AGL RAF Cancelled
  403 On-line knowledge base (Web Page) on soil moisture conservation in production systems Information (products, systems, databases) AGE AGL AGP AGS RAF Completed
  404 Framework for monitoring soil water regime and assessing the effects of Conservation Agriculture practices on the water and structure dynamics of soil Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGL Completed
  405 E-mail conference on soil moisture assessment Coordination and information exchange AGL Completed
004   Livestock integration into conservation agriculture.
  401 Information and Guidance on the contribution of livestock to the achievement of Conservation Agriculture practices Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA AGL AGP Completed
005   Diagnostic and monitoring methodologies for conservation agriculture.
  401 Validated and refined models of nutrient and water dynamics in conservation agriculture Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE AGL Completed
  402 Validated and refined models of carbon sequestration and soil erosion in conservation agriculture Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE AGL Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
210P1 Secretariat of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) Continuing Programme Activity AGD


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: the contribution of bio-diversity to food and agriculture production is substantial, but yet not fully appreciated. Past attempts to increase agricultural production using genetic improvements were found lacking in comprehensive and sustainable approaches.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) is the main intergovernmental forum for consideration and negotiation of policy instruments, agreements, regulatory frameworks, and specific action programmes addressing Members' needs for the conservation, sustainable utilisation and equitable sharing of genetic resources for food and agriculture, which underpin food security and sustainable agriculture.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: Farmers and livestock producers in all countries will benefit from the conservation of, and easier access to plant genetic resources, and be better able to develop and improve genetic resources through sustainable breeding plans. The general public and future generations will benefit from the continued availability of a large variety of agricultural products. Benefits for the environment stem from management options that are sustainable, such as pasture lands with minimum degradation.

Objective

  • Negotiation, implementation and management of national and international policy and regulatory frameworks, intergovernmental agreements and codes of conduct for the conservation and sustainable utilisation of GRFA. Appropriate orientation given to FAO's work on GRFA, and inclusion of related ethical considerations in FAO's work.

Indicators

  • Sectorial and general instruments on GRFA negotiated, adopted and into force.
  • Examples of participation of other sectors in work of the CGRFA.
  • Evidence of mainstreaming of ethics in FAO's work.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The CGRFA is FAO's main forum for developing international instruments on biodiversity for food and agriculture (BFA) and genetic resources for food and agriculture. During the biennium the main task was preparation of the Governing Body of the IT/GRFA. Members participated directly in the process, and provided considerable extrabudgetary resources. Rapid ratification was a further sign of support. The CGRFA continued the development of a policy and regulatory framework for animal genetic resources (AnGR), through the International Technical Conference on AnGR, planned for 2007, with extrabudgetary support. CGRFA-10 launched the development of a multiyear programme of work on all components of BFA for its eleventh session, in order to promote technical and policy coherence within FAO, and with other forums. Both governments and civil society continue to support the work of FAO and the CGRFA in this regard. The establishment of a new publications series, Readings in Ethics, to bring together relevant work under technical programme entities, shows the mainstreaming of ethics in FAO's work.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Regular sessions of the CGRFA.
  401 One regular session of the Commission and support to its Intergovernmental Technical Working Groups (ITWGs) on Animal and on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGD Completed
002   Meeting of the CGRFA acting as Interim Committee for the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.
  401 Pending the entry into force of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, support to the CGRFA as Interim Committee, with activities funded by extra-budgetary resources, and meetings as required International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGD Completed
003   Development of internationally agreed policy and regulatory frameworks for animal and plant genetic resources (as well as other sectors).
  401 Coordination with relevant international processes International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGD Completed
004   Ethics in food and agriculture.
  401 Meeting of the Panel of Eminent Experts on Ethics in Food and Agriculture, and two publications, with additional outputs subject to extra-budgetary resources becoming available International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGD Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
210S1 Committee on Agriculture (COAG) Technical Service Agreement AGD


Indicators

  • Recommendations for action by FAO Secretariat
  • Recommendations for Member Governments

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The Eighteenth Session of COAG (9-10 February 2004) was dedicated exclusively to FAO's Proposed Follow-up to the Report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. COAG generally acknowledged the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in both developed and developing countries, and the associated rise of public health and social expenditures and economic losses. Two recommendations were made to FAO: continue collaboration with WHO and provide Members with policy advice on nutrition and healthy diet to prevent such diseases; and thoroughly assess country-specific linkages between changing food consumption patterns and NCDs, and the possible effects of changing demand on agricultural production systems and commodity trade. The Nineteenth Session (13-16 April 2005) reviewed substantive issues of interest to Members, such as sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD) and good agricultural practices (GAPs), FAO's strategy for a safe and nutritious food supply, the impact of changing markets on the globalizing livestock sector, and bioenergy. COAG: (i) highlighted the need for national and local capacity-building in the application of standards, the development and use of technology, and in multilateral trade negotiations; (ii) emphasized cross-cutting areas such as biotechnology, plant and animal genetic resources, biodiversity, water use, water management and land and water quality improvement; (iii) underlined the importance of the IPPC and Codex-related work on food safety; (iv) stressed FAO's comparative advantage in food and agricultural statistics; (v) agreed on the importance of the SARD Initiative for fulfilling FAO's responsibility in follow-up to the WSSD and endorsed FAO's approach to GAPs as being non-prescriptive, voluntary and consistent with existing regulatory instruments (Codex, IPPC and OIE) and not creating trade barriers; (vi) supported FAO's proposed framework for a safe and nutritious food supply within a food-chain approach, with emphasis on capacity-building and technical assistance to developing countries; (vii) appreciated the development and usefulness of the International Portal on Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health; (viii) agreed that the livestock sector was important for economic development and food security, noted the negative effects of trade barriers for the sector and recognized the need for this issue to be addressed in the context of WTO negotiations; (ix) requested FAO to assist Members in their technical and policy decision-making processes regarding bioenergy; and (x) endorsed FAO and Brazil's proposal to hold an International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in 2006.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Planning and implementation of biennial sessions of COAG
  401 Planning and organization of 18th session of COAG Coordination and information exchange AGD ESD SDD Completed
  402 Planning and organization of the 19th session of COAG Coordination and information exchange AGD Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
210S2 Technical Services for Partnership Development and Information Enhancement Technical Service Agreement AGD


Indicators

  • Services contributed partnerships and initiatives
  • Demonstrated use of information products

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Contributions continued to be made to the work of the SARD Task Force, through participation in Task Force meetings and review of guidelines and other work commissioned by the SARD Task Manager. The SARD Initiative is an important instrument for fulfilling FAO's responsibility as UN System Task Manager for WSSD follow-up on implementation of Chapter 14, Agenda 21. Inputs were also provided, in areas covered by AG, to global perspective studies especially in the context of the GLOB PAIA. Guidance and assistance provided to AG divisions on publications and communications helped improve the quality, presentation and targeting of publications and associated messages in the department. An evaluation of AG publications was undertaken, which led to a number of recommendations for enhancing the quality and the impact of departmental and divisional publications, including those disseminated online. Those recommendations are now being implemented progressively. AG's work was regularly featured on the departmental Web site "Agriculture 21", attracting much interest from the public. Advocacy material on the department's main activities was produced and coordinated with AG divisional Web pages throughout the biennium. The biennial consultation of AG technical department group leaders was held in Rome in December 2004. Briefing sessions were organized with AG divisions as well as other FAO departments and units. The report of the consultation was produced and widely circulated both at headquarters and in the regional offices.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Contributions to Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) - UNCED, Agenda 21, Chapter 14
  401 Coordinated contributions to work on SARD as relates to Agenda 21 of UNCED, and to the agriculture component of WEHAB (Water, Energy, Health, Agriculture, Biodiversity), in follow-up to the WSSD Coordination and information exchange AGD Completed
002   Contribution to global perspective studies
  401 Coordinated contributions to global perspective studies Studies and analyses AGD Completed
003   Departmental-level services for publication quality and communications, regional reporting and liaison
  401 Publications and communications planning and management services to divisions to improve editorial quality, presentation and targeting of publications and associated messages Information (products, systems, databases) AGD Completed
  402 AG Department web site "Agriculture 21" and related advocacy material produced and coordinated with divisional web pages Information (products, systems, databases) AGD Completed
  403 Liaison with Regional Office groups, as well as organization and report on biennial meeting of AG technical department group leaders Coordination and information exchange AGD Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
210S5 Central Support to PAIAs Technical Service Agreement PBE


Indicators

  • Extent to which FAO development work reflects a more co-ordinated interdisciplinary approach.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The central provision of US$592 000 was used in line with its intended purpose of providing catalytic support to PAIAs. The GIL division benefited from financial assistance to ensure harmonization of specialized Web pages. Other allocations were given to PAIA groups for, inter alia, the preparation and issuance of seminal technical guidelines and key information materials; special studies; the development of methodologies; the initial development of multidisciplinary databases; the facilitation of FAO's participation in significant external events; and direct technical inputs to field work.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Central Support to PAIAs
  401 Catalytic contributions to support effective implementation of PAIAs Coordination and information exchange PBE Completed
  402 Interdisciplinary support for organization of a conference on sustainable development in the Small Island Developing States Coordination and information exchange PBE Completed



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