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Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
213A3 Contribution of Livestock to Poverty Alleviation Technical Project AGA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: rural livestock producers in resource-poor areas face numerous constraints, i.e. lack of access to markets, goods and services, weak institutions and lack of skills, knowledge and appropriate technologies. Both production and productivity remain well below potential, and losses and wastage can be high. However, adapted breeds and local feed resources are available, along with proven technologies that include preservation and value-adding product processing. Together, they have the potential to substantially improve productivity and income generation.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: decision support tools produced by this entity will be tried and adopted by development agencies (national, bi- and multilateral and Non-governmental Organizations) in formulating and implementing programmes targeted at vulnerable communities in developing countries, thereby expanding their advisory and extension capacities, and leading to higher technologies adoption rates.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: poor rural and peri-urban households depending on low-input livestock production systems in LIFDCs will benefit from improved productivity of their animals, and increased income through a greater marketable share of their produce. Consumers should benefit from increased access to quality food of animal origin.

Objective

  • Improved techniques for livestock husbandry and health, animal product processing and market access used in programmes aiming at poor farm households; national poverty reduction strategies increasingly addressing potential improvements in small-scale animal husbandry.

Indicators

  • Number of countries with documented uptake of supported technologies, in particular by farmers involved in the SPFS.
  • Examples of programmes and policy interventions based on the entity's approach.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The programme entity (PE) focussed its resources on poultry, small-scale dairying/milk production and emergencies, including activities on HIV/AIDS mitigation in livestock production. The production-related aspects of the avian influenza crisis also had to be given priority. The demand for livestock-related disaster preparedness and mitigation was high, with public attention heightened by the Asian Tsunami, the Pakistan earthquake and HIV/AIDS in Africa. Activities in this area including the production of checklists and manuals will continue into the 2006-2007 biennium. The PE was unable however to undertake the more institutional activities under MO3. The PE has published a number of manuals and guidelines and has revised and updated its web pages, and there has been a constant demand for these products. An independent scientific review of the use of lactoperoxidase to conserve milk was initiated and its findings will be presented to Codex in 2006. PE support for the International Family Poultry Network was instrumental in the ongoing merger of the network with the World Poultry Science Association. An external evaluation that included this PE and that reported in early 2005 noted: i) the continuing demand for the more "traditional" approaches of technology-centred projects, meetings, expert consultations and publications and practice guides, ii) that the quality of the publications was high and appropriately targeted, but iii) that care needed to be taken that the expectations of response to requests do not exceed the breadth of staff and resources available. While the evaluation covered only part of the 2004-2005 biennium, the conclusions continue to remain valid.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Decision-support for sustainable resource use in smallholder, low-input livestock production systems.
  401 The Livestock Report - an updated series of analyses, case studies, strategies and best management practices Studies and analyses AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR Completed
  402 Guidelines to assist countries in coping with natural and man-made disasters affecting domestic livestock and to alleviate the impact of the HIV/Aids pandemic Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RNE Completed
  403 An interactive forum, including international networks, addressing livestock and poverty alleviation issues Information (products, systems, databases) AGA Completed
  404 Technical contributions and support to the project GCP/INT/804/UK (Pro-poor Livestock Policy Facility) Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RAP RLC SAFR Completed
002   Decision support for increasing household income through improvements in processing and distribution of value-added animal products in smallholder, low-input livestock production systems.
  401 Review and assessment of innovative technologies for value-added milk processing and for reducing post-harvest losses for use by the small-scale dairy sector, both formal and informal Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RLC RNE Completed
  402 Guidelines and strategies for incorporation of value-added milk and dairy products processing and distribution in poverty reduction (PRSPs) and food security (SPFS) strategies Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF SAFR Postponed
  403 Networks on small-scale milk and dairy products processing and marketing for milk producer groups and the small-scale dairy sector Information (products, systems, databases) AGA Completed
003   Strategies and decision support to improve access to essential goods and services by smallholder livestock producers.
  401 Guidelines and case studies for empowering communities to gain access to livestock goods and services Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA Postponed
  402 Guidelines, case studies and best management practices for the development of the Livestock Farmer Field School approach Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF SAFR Postponed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
213A5 Developing the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources Technical Project AGA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: the contribution of animal biodiversity to food and agriculture production is substantial, but yet not well appreciated. Past attempts in using genetic improvement of domestic animals have not always taken into account important factors, such as the variability of local conditions and production systems. Conservation and development of animal genetic resources (AnGR) is essential to enable farmers to adapt to changing environmental conditions and consumer demands.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources covers awareness and capacity building, a country-driven resource assessment process and effective systems for their utilisation and conservation, in order to tap the significant potential of animal genetic resources, contributing to food security and diversification and development in rural areas.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: livestock producers in local communities depending on traditional genetic resources will be able to improve these resources through sustainable breeding plans. Benefits to the environment will stem from management options that utilise natural resources such as pasture lands with minimum degradation.

Objective

  • To improve the management and conservation of farm animal genetic resources at local, country, regional and international levels, including the implementation of priority actions plans and programmes, and the ratification of an international treaty on AnGR.

Indicators

  • Number of countries adopting priority action plans for AnGR, and examples of concrete achievements.
  • Number of countries supporting an international agreement on AnGR.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The programme entity (PE) was evaluated in three separate processes, i.e. in two AG cluster auto-evaluations and in one thematic evaluation. The AG Genetic Resources Cluster Auto-Evaluation 213A5 - Developing the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources concluded that the main focus of 213A5 during the period evaluated (1999-2004) was on the development and implementation of the Global Strategy for AnGR, adopted earlier, with focus on the reporting component of the Global Strategy, notably the preparation of the first Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources (SoW-AnGR). National reporting and management structures (150 National Focal Points and Committees) were set up and mobilized to produce country reports. Together with thematic studies, these form the basis for the SoW-AnGR report to be presented in 2007 at an International Technical Conference (ITC). The Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) was further developed; it serves as an information and communication tool and helps support the preparation of country reports. DAD-IS documents breeds from 35 domestic species in some 180 countries, and was recently auto-evaluated as part of Auto-Evaluation 213P1 - Global Livestock Information System and Knowledge Framework (AGAL). This auto-evaluation found that DAD-IS had the highest visitor numbers. The DAD-IS information product has a large user base, and is built on an extensive global network of information providers. It requires a limited amount of updating and will be moved to a more modern software in 2006. The 213A5 auto-evaluation and the Evaluation of Livestock Production, Policy and Information (Programme 2.1.3) concluded that the work of the PE has a very high profile internationally. However, the initial programme of work for 213A5 was overambitious for such a small PE. Because of the weight of work in preparing the SoW report, some other activities had to be put on hold: success criteria and indicators for the Global Strategy, utilization and development of breeding strategies for low- to medium-input environments, and economic valuation of AnGR at field level. Support to country-level activities has been limited so far. A follow-up mechanism to the SoW-AnGR report is envisaged, in order to mobilize resources, provide support in project design and enhance communications on the importance of AnGR.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Support to national implementation of the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources.
  401 Focal points and country networks trained and supported for the preparation of the 1st Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources (SoW-AnGR) Training (including training courses and materials) AGA RAF RAP SEUR Completed
  402 Issues and priority actions identified for improved utilisation and conservation of AnGR Coordination and information exchange AGA RAP SEUR Completed
002   First State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources Report with identification of priority actions for improved management and conservation of farm animal genetic resources
  401 Analysis of country reports on the State of the World's AnGR Studies and analyses AGA Completed
  402 Regional syntheses and preparation of regional priority actions for AnGR Coordination and information exchange AGA Modified
  403 Arrangements for global synthesis of regional reports Coordination and information exchange AGA Modified
003   Preparation and implementation of the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources follow-up mechanism for country assistance.
  401 Dissemination of AnGR monitoring and emergency managing tools and support to policy formulation Information (products, systems, databases) AGA Postponed
  402 Country data supplemented by technical studies on AnGR and environment interactions, valuation of AnGR and emergency management Studies and analyses AGA Completed
  403 Interregional analysis of impacts of gene migration and trade on AnGR Studies and analyses AGA Completed
  404 Decision support tools for conservation and sustainable use of AnGR Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA Modified
004   Policy framework and regulatory instruments for animal genetic resources management.
  401 Documentation and progress reports to the 3rd Session of the Inter-governmental Working Group on AnGR of the CGRFA International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGA Completed
  402 Progress reports on the development of the Global Strategy on the Management of AnGR to the 10th Session of the CGRFA International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGA Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
213A6 Veterinary Public Health Management and Food and Feed Safety Technical Project AGA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: zoonotic diseases and veterinary public health problems constitute a major constraint to livestock production and the safe utilisation of animal products by consumers around the world. Sustainable animal production, (veterinary) public health, food security and safety, rural development and trade are compromised by the presence of zoonotic diseases.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: improved veterinary and animal health capacities at the country level are likely to pay off in terms of human public health, consumer confidence and expanding trade.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: rural smallholders, producers and consumers are the focal end beneficiaries. Main benefits comprise healthier and more productive and profitable livestock, safer products and fewer barriers to formal domestic and international trade.

Objective

  • National veterinary public health structures are established or strengthened for the control of priority zoonotic diseases.

Indicators

  • Examples of control programmes and veterinary public health units established or having increased capacities due in part to this entity.
  • Reduction in number of zoonotic diseases measured on a country-by-country basis.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The Global VPH Network and the Regional Networks were firmly established. The FAO/WHO/OIE Guidelines on Cysticercosis Surveillance, Prevention and Control were completed, published and distributed in developing countries affected by this disease. The outcome of the Expert Consultation on Community-based Veterinary Public Health Systems organized in 2003 was published. FAO participated in the design of management options of Non-human Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance and in the development of the list of "critically important" classes of antimicrobials for animals published by OIE in a joint effort with WHO and FAO. BSE-related work was enhanced through extrabudgetary resources. In implementing the new Codex Recommended Codes of Practice for Animal Feeding (2004) and for Meat Hygiene (2005) and Milk and Milk Products (2005), comprehensive technical manuals on Good Practices for the Meat Industry and Good Dairy Farming Practices were developed and regional workshops organized.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Veterinary public health concepts and support to control of major zoonotic diseases.
  401 Global Information Portal on Veterinary Public Health and Education Coordination and information exchange AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  402 Global and regional networks for prevention, contingency planning and risk assessment of zoonotic diseases and food borne diseases Information (products, systems, databases) AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  403 Guidelines on appropriate control measures and best preventive strategies for zoonotic diseases Information (products, systems, databases) AGA Completed
  404 National and regional capacity building for surveillance, diagnostics and control of zoonotic diseases Training (including training courses and materials) AGA Completed
  405 Guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials and antiparasitic drugs Information (products, systems, databases) AGA Completed
002   Food safety measures and the application of quality control along the "stable to table" process.
  401 Global information portal on animal source foods and food and feed safety Information (products, systems, databases) AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  402 Guidelines on safety in the food chain and quality control mechanisms for primary production, animal feed, and the milk and meat industries Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA Completed
  403 National and regional capacity building for implementation of guidelines for safe animal feeding, milk and meat hygiene Training (including training courses and materials) AGA RLC SAFR SEUR Completed
  404 Risk analysis tools and mechanisms developed to ensure biosecurity with respect to animal health and life, public health and the environment Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
213A7 EMPRES - Livestock Technical Project AGA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: livestock production is compromised by the presence of animal diseases such that food security, land cultivation, draught power, and the opportunity to market animals and their products may severely suffer. The occurrence of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) limits access to formal markets and international trade and thus reduces opportunities for income generation.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the alert systems supported by this entity are designed to avoid potential epidemics, thereby reducing health risks to the consumer and protecting trade outlets. The eradication of rinderpest will remove a major threat to world bovine and wildlife animal populations.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: poor farmers in the developing world - whether in peri-urban, mixed or pastoral systems - should benefit as animal diseases reduce sources of income and pose human health concerns. More wealthy groups and nations also benefit, as the control of transmissible diseases in endemic areas translates into reduced risk to national production, herd health, and international trade.

Objective

  • Effective national and regional control and eradication strategies and capabilities for transboundary animal diseases, and enhanced emergency planning by member countries to prevent and/or limit the spread of TADs.

Indicators

  • Level of rinderpest occurrence after rigorous testing campaigns.
  • Examples of early warnings issued in part due to this entity, and of effective control actions taken as a result.
  • Number of countries adopting emergency preparedness and contingency plans for TADs in part due to this entity.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • In the 2004-2005 biennium, some 10 countries or administrative areas reported the occurrence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). This major transboundary animal disease (TAD), with potentially severe human health consequences, increased its geographical spread into parts of Central Asia and Eastern Europe by late 2005. This development profoundly affected the implementation of planned PE activities: In 2004 over 100 missions were fielded to respond to the HPAI crisis and to meet member country requests; in 2005, this number rose to over 160. FAO invested over US$10 million to answer the HPAI crisis - to the detriment of other planned activities or emergencies in member countries (Africa as a whole suffered most from this diversion, as it had been the focus of FAO's animal health programme). There has been no solid evidence of occurrence or recrudescence of rinderpest anywhere in Asia or Africa. However, the Somali ecosystem (comprising parts of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia), believed to be the last focus of infection, requires further study. Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote-d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea, India, Lebanon, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria and the United Republic of Tanzania have issued a self-declaration of Provisional Freedom from Rinderpest, an important step in the process for international recognition. The Central African Republic, Islamic Republic of Iran, Saudi Arabia and Sudan obtained international recognition of rinderpest freedom in 2004; in 2005, Afghanistan, Gabon and the United Arab Emirates. Some areas of Ethiopia and Kenya were also recognized as free from rinderpest during this biennium. Though HPAI has taken up much of the PE resources, the successes of rinderpest eradication are a result not only of the tireless efforts of GREP, but also of the countries themselves and regional bodies assisting them along the way (e.g. the African Union). Not affected by the HPAI crisis during the 2004-2005 biennium, RLA was able to undertake numerous activities in prevention and eradication activities in TADs. The classical swine fever eradication continental plan has been boosted through the addition of countries wishing to sign on in the process and through decreasing disease incidence in South America (eradication in Argentina), and better surveillance has shown viral activity that previously had not been fully recognized. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and African swine fever continue to smoulder in the endemic zones; FMD has a higher incidence in areas previously under control (southern Africa, southern South America).


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Support to functional early warning systems for transboundary animal diseases (TADs) at national, regional and global levels.
  401 Transboundary Animal Disease Information System (TADinfo) for use at regional, national and sub-national levels Coordination and information exchange AGA RAF RAP RLC SAFR Postponed
  402 Complete set of manuals for recognition of the major transboundary animal diseases (TADs) available in paper and electronic form and Good Emergency Management guide updated Information (products, systems, databases) AGA Modified
  403 Global early warning system for TADs in collaboration with OIE and WHO Coordination and information exchange AGA Modified
  404 Epidemiological data from animal disease emergencies analysed and information on trends disseminated to member countries, including through publication of the EMPRES Bulletin Information (products, systems, databases) AGA Modified
002   Early-reaction capability, including contingency planning and strategic disease analysis for animal disease emergency management.
  401 Computer-based tools for early reaction to, and management of disease outbreaks Coordination and information exchange AGA Modified
  402 Disease specific guidelines for emergency response Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA Completed
  403 Assistance to member countries with analysis of emergencies and advice on formulating control options Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Modified
  404 Emergency preparedness planning procedures established and communicated to international fora Coordination and information exchange AGA Modified
003   Application of biotechnology to diagnosis, vaccines and strategic epidemiological analysis of TADs.
  401 Support to World Reference Laboratories for morbilliviruses, FMD and CBPP International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGA Completed
  402 Diagnostic guidelines for TADs Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA Modified
  403 Quality-assured primary diagnosis and surveillance techniques transferred to countries Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Modified
004   Leadership and coordination of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) towards a world free from rinderpest.
  401 Monitoring mechanism for epidemiologically significant events to detect possible re-emergence and/or spread of rinderpest from known or undetected reservoirs of infection Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RAP RNE SAFR SEUR Modified
  402 GREP Technical Consultations to guide progress towards global freedom Coordination and information exchange AGA Modified
  403 Promotional and technical material for GREP Training (including training courses and materials) AGA Modified
  404 Mechanism for technical coordination of national and regional GREP activities Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RAP RNE SAFR SEUR Modified
005   Coordination of strategies for regional control of priority transboundary animal diseases.
  401 Global framework for the progressive control of FMD and other TADs, established in close collaboration with the OIE Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Modified
  402 International consultations for the assessment and guidance of EMPRES in TAD control and eradication Coordination and information exchange AGA Completed
  403 CBPP control strategy for Africa through regular international consultations Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RNE SAFR Completed
  404 Support to regional disease control programmes Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  405 Outcomes of the regular sessions of the EUFMD, its Executive Committee and of the Research Group communicated to stakeholders Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA SEUR Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
213A8 Technologies and Systems for Efficient Natural Resource Use in Livestock Production Technical Project AGA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: the rapid increase in global demand for livestock products and the consequent changes in the livestock sector, often described as the "livestock revolution", require a new set of research and development paradigms to protect and strengthen public goods, veterinary public health and natural resources that are at stake.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: if successfully promoted by extension services and grass-root projects and actively adopted by farmers, good agricultural practices (GAPs) on integrated farming systems, integrated parasite control, feed production, and milk and meat processing will substantially contribute to the sustainability and profitability of livestock production.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: people in cities will benefit from improved supply, quality and hygiene of livestock products. Medium- to high-potential rural areas will benefit from participation in the "livestock revolution" through commercialisation of production and processing industries. The public at large will benefit from enhanced sustainability of livestock production.

Objective

  • Policies are implemented to foster livestock development while protecting public health and the environment; national veterinary and livestock services and other grass-root projects promote GAPs for intensive and semi-intensive livestock systems.

Indicators

  • Environmental policies relating to livestock implemented at national and intergovernmental levels, in part thanks to the Livestock, Environment and Development Initiative.
  • Extent to which GAPs are tested, adapted and used by national extension and veterinary services, grass-root projects and international NGOs and CSOs.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The programme entity (PE) continued to support the Livestock, Environment and Development Initiative, a multidonor project, and the development of decision-support tools for the assessment of policy and technology options addressing the role of livestock in land and water pollution, deforestation and degradation of common property resources. The focus of the second part of the PE was on the dissemination of good agricultural practices (GAPs) relating to livestock through publications and regional meetings. This included networks and meetings on parasite resistance management and good veterinary practices for parasite control. The independent external evaluation of FAO's Livestock Production, Policy and Information work in 2005 noted the transition from traditional technical advice to policy advice in this area and the adaptation of the activities of this PE towards that objective. In this respect, the PE had a wide impact in Africa, Asia and Latin America in promoting good practices in the livestock sector.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative.
  401 Decision-support tools for the assessment of policy and technology options addressing livestock's role in the deforestation process Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RAP RLC Completed
  402 Decision-support tools for the assessment of policy and technology options addressing the role of grazing livestock in the degradation of common property resources Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RAP RLC Completed
  403 Decision-support tools for the assessment of policy and technology options addressing the role of industrial livestock production in land and water pollution Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RAP RLC Completed
  404 Decision-support tools for the assessment of policy and regulatory options addressing the role of the pharmaceutical industry in the control of animal diseases Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RAP RLC Cancelled
002   Dissemination of GAPs for livestock in specific high-potential agro-ecosystems (including integrated production systems), good practices for milk and meat processing (to protect public health, animal health and the environment) and integrated parasite control.
  401 Global information portal on Good Agricultural Practices for livestock Information (products, systems, databases) AGA RAP Completed
  402 Guidelines on good agricultural practices for intensive and semi-intensive livestock, including feeding, breeding, production, health and integrated parasite control, product processing and distribution Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  403 National and regional capacity building for the implementation of good agricultural practices for intensive and semi-intensive livestock production and meat and milk processing Training (including training courses and materials) AGA RAF RAP RLC SEUR Completed
  404 National and regional capacity building for the implementation of good agricultural practices for the prevention and control of pesticide parasite resistance and environmental contamination Training (including training courses and materials) AGA RAF RLC Completed
003   Technology transfer towards improved delivery of veterinary and livestock services.
  401 Strategies and decision support techniques formulated to enhance public and private sector livestock extension and veterinary services Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RAP RNE SEUR Modified
  402 Strategies and decision support techniques field-tested and validated in private sector livestock extension and veterinary services Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA RAF RAP RNE SEUR Modified



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
213A9 Environmental Management of Insect Borne Diseases Technical Project AGA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: animal agriculture and associated socio-economic development, are compromised by the presence of insect-borne diseases. In Sub-Saharan Africa, livestock distribution is distorted by the disease threat posed by tsetse. In large areas of sub-humid West Africa, rolling back tsetse would allow for a doubling of livestock and crop production. In East Africa, there is a situation of tsetse invasion of productive farmland in highland areas, a phenomenon that could be climate-related.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the transmission of insect borne diseases is strongly influenced by environmental factors, therefore, landscape management changes can help control such diseases.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: the intended beneficiaries extend through the animal production chain from livestock keepers to consumers. Expected benefits comprise healthier and more productive livestock, safer products, and a more profitable and sustainable livestock sub-sector.

Objective

  • Adjustments in the production, processing and trade environment, making it safer, cleaner and less conducive to the transmission of insect borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis and screwworm.

Indicators

  • Level of adoption of environmental animal health practices in field projects and national and regional programmes.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The PAAT Advisory Group Coordinators meetings took place in September 2004 in Accra, Ghana, and September 2005 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PAAT Programme Committee Meetings were convened in April 2004 at FAO headquarters and in May 2005 at IAEA headquarters, Vienna. PAAT Technical and Scientific Series Papers published included "Long-term tsetse and trypanosomiasis management options in West Africa" and "Trypanotolerant livestock in the context of trypanosomiasis intervention strategies". Major developments during the biennium were the development of PAAT-PATTEC-supported project proposals for implementation in the southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia and the provision of policy advice to the African Development Bank for field programmes to be carried out in East and West Africa. The PAAT template for interagency collaboration continues to draw wide attention. UNIDO is now the fourth UN agency united within PAAT. The International Federation for Animal Health has also joined, concentrating on aspects of quality control/quality assurance of trypanocides and other veterinary drugs. This activity has become part of the Codex Commission agenda. An IFAD grant was approved to develop the PAAT Information System further. In environmental animal health management practices, there has been a shift in emphasis towards avian influenza. Still, studies were finalized on the role of meat production and demand discrepancies in the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Turkey and the analysis of environmental variables dictating the seasonal flare-up of Old World screwworm in the Near East. Regarding the analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Southeast Asia, the main attention has gone to the role of free-ranging ducks and rice cropping patterns in respect to the introduction, spread and persistence of the H5N1 virus. It was established that free-ranging ducks are more prone to carrying virus and that this type of duck husbandry is confined to those areas of irrigated rice production that provide for post-harvest rice paddies, and thus duck feed, on a year-round basis. With the direct link between HPAI-risky duck husbandry practices and the presence of multiple rice crop areas, it has also become possible to use satellite imagery to pinpoint areas where disease outbreaks are more likely to occur. This work has been initiated in Thailand. Work in progress aims at a satellite-driven HPAI risk-assessment tool for Asian countries with significant wetland and flood-plain agriculture.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Support to the Programme Against African Animal Trypanosomiasis (PAAT).
  402 Support to Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis management programmes in the PAAT-PATTEC agreed priority areas in East and West Africa Coordination and information exchange AGA RAF Completed
  403 Secretariat of PAAT (including statutory bodies, information tools) Coordination and information exchange AGA RAF Completed
002   Environmental animal health management practices for insect borne diseases.
  401 Assessment of disease spread in the "Eurasian Ruminant Street" and related regional capacity building Studies and analyses AGA Completed
  402 Analysis of the relationship between climate change, agro-ecology, livestock and disease in Africa, Asia and the Mediterranean Basin and environmental disease management strategies Studies and analyses AGA Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
213B1 Livestock Sector Analysis and Strategy Development Technical Project AGA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: livestock production is growing more dynamically than any other agricultural activity, a trend associated with increasing market orientation, intensification and industrialisation. But the hidden costs of the "livestock revolution" are seldom taken into account, and complex subsidies and urban biases distort today's global and national production. Intensification of livestock production also raises human health and environmental concerns. In developing countries, while the number of off-farm jobs in handling, processing and marketing will probably increase, the number of on-farm jobs may decrease in less favoured regions, where lives the bulk of the world's present under-nourished people.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: Decision makers need to be better informed about the hidden costs and benefits of different forms of livestock production, so that they may promote livestock farming that is economically and ecologically efficient and safe, while reducing poverty.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: small-scale livestock producers should gain from a more balanced policy environment. The public at large should benefit from emphasis placed on public health and environmental sustainability issues.

Objective

  • Enhanced awareness among civil society and decision makers of the hidden costs of livestock revolution, leading to public policy changes in favour of fair livestock farming, and public goods such as equity, public health and the environment.

Indicators

  • Countries where livestock sector analysis generated a public debate on livestock policies.
  • Evidence of livestock policies influenced by related sector analysis.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The programme entity (PE) made considerable progress in analysing the livestock sector around the world. In particular, the PE focused on structural change in the livestock sector, characterized by increasing market orientation, intensification and industrialization. Structural change is also associated with marginalization of smallholder producers, and it raises human health and environmental concerns. The PE provided decision-makers, particularly in developing countries, with information about the hidden costs and benefits of different forms of livestock production, so that they may promote livestock farming that is economically and ecologically efficient and safe, while reducing poverty. The PE also provided decision-support tools and methodologies for the assessment of the social, environmental and public health impact of various livestock policy options. Environmental policies were designed as part of a policy dialogue to address resource degradation issues related to livestock. Specific pro-poor policy measures were tested in different agro-ecological and socio-economic environments, and related capacity-building was conducted. An emerging focus was social and economic analysis and associated policy support in conjunction with the FAO emergency programme on avian influenza control.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Global livestock sector analysis.
  401 Regional Livestock Sector Perspective Studies Studies and analyses AGA Completed
002   Development of livestock sector strategies.
  401 Decision-support tools and methodologies for the assessment of the social and environmental impacts of various livestock policy options Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA Completed
  402 Specific pro-poor livestock policy measures tested in different agro-ecological and socio-economic settings Studies and analyses AGA Completed
  403 Guidelines on policy uptake pathways Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA Postponed
003   Support to livestock sector policy dialogue and capacity building.
  401 Effective dialogue supported for the integration of environmental and animal health issues, and equity and distributional aspects into national policy formulation and international harmonization Coordination and information exchange AGA Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
213P1 Global Livestock Information System and Knowledge Framework Continuing Programme Activity AGA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: driven by population and income increases, livestock production is growing more dynamically than any other agricultural sector and currently accounts for more than 40% of the gross value of agricultural production. This trend will have social, health and environmental implications. Objective, comprehensive and timely information is needed to guide national governments and the international community to successfully respond to the challenges posed by livestock intensification.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: better informed decision makers in the livestock sector should be able to devise more effective development programmes and policies, including enhanced participation of small-scale livestock producers in the "livestock revolution".
  • Intended end beneficiaries: small-scale livestock producers are the main intended beneficiaries, through their increased participation in expanding markets, while the public at large would benefit from the impact of healthier, more sustainable and equitable livestock production methods.

Objective

  • Improved decision making at local, national, regional and international level with respect to livestock policies and technologies that enhance livelihoods and income opportunities for small-scale livestock producers while at the same time promoting sustainable natural resource use.

Indicators

  • Number of countries adopting equitable and sustainable livestock policies, technologies and codes of practice.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Over the biennium, the AGA Web site has maintained its growth trend. Available Web statistics now show over 360 000 monthly visits, making it the second most visited Web site at FAO. A number of other divisions are using the AGA site as a template for their own sites. More than 50 000 document downloads are registered per month. Furthermore, AGA has now achieved global coverage of digital distributions of the major livestock species, at a spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km. Available data have been collated and standardized, gaps have been filled by predicting livestock numbers based on empirical relationships between livestock densities and environmental variables in similar agro-ecological zones, and the information is made publicly available through FAO's GeoNetwork data repository. The spatial nature of these livestock data facilitates analysis that includes: estimating livestock production; mapping disease risk and estimating the impact of diseases of livestock; estimating environmental risks associated with livestock resulting, for example, from land degradation or nutrient-loading; and exploring the complex relationships between the many components of human well-being and livestock.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   A Global Livestock Knowledge Framework to provide decision support for sustainable resource use in livestock development.
  401 Livestock Knowledge Framework as a comprehensive set of technical information and guidelines on livestock production and health Information (products, systems, databases) AGA RAP RLC Completed
  402 AGRIPPA electronic journal and posting of reviews, scientific and extension information in the FAO Document Repository Information (products, systems, databases) AGA Completed
  403 Support to regional networks, information systems and websites Coordination and information exchange AGA RAP RLC Completed
002   Global Livestock Information System.
  401 Data and knowledge bases, GIS layers and information dissemination tools on livestock production, disease, animal genetic resources and livestock - poverty, livestock - environment interactions Information (products, systems, databases) AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR Completed
  402 Decision support and modelling tools for livestock development planning Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGA Completed
  403 Contribution to the development of a new database for food and agricultural statistics (STAT2000) (livestock component) Information (products, systems, databases) AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
213S1 Advice to Member Countries and Support to the Field Programme Technical Service Agreement AGA


Indicators

  • FAO Field Programme (Livestock)
  • FAO Field Programme (Livestock)

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Technical backstopping and support were provided to member countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Carribean and the Near East. During the biennium, the programme entity supported 48 operational Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) projects (total value US$10.5 million) and 52 Trust Fund (TF) projects (total value US$151 million), and over 350 backstopping missions were undertaken. AGAH supported 46 operational (TCP and TF) projects covering transboundary animal diseases (including avian influenza), veterinary services, early warning systems, viral disease surveillance, trade-related vector-borne animal diseases and the establishment of disease-free zones. AGAP supported 31 operational (TCP and TF) projects covering milk processing, milk and meat safety and marketing, animal feed, drought management and small-scale poultry development. AGAL provided policy support through six operational TF projects. In addition, technical support was given to projects for which AGA was not the lead techical unit. Technical backstopping was provided to major rehabilitation programmes in Afghanistan, Angola, Iraq, Somalia and the Sudan, including, among other things, provision of technical specifications and advice during bid evaluation for procurement of animals, animal feed, milk and meat processing equipment, veterinary drugs, implements and equipment for diagnoses, as well as for management and operation of control and prevention of diseases. Emergency projects accounted for 37 (value US$61.4 million) of the total portfolio of 100 operational projects. During 2004, the emergence of avian influenza and the Asian Tsunami created a significant increase in the demand for field-programme support. Technical support services were also provided to member countries, other agencies and FAO programmes (SPFS) on a wide range of non-project livestock development issues. Staff time was allocated to the development of the proposed national medium-term priority frameworks.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Direct advice to member countries and field programme support concerning livestock health and veterinary services
  401 Advice to member countries and field programme support Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
002   Technical backstopping to SPFS and TCOR emergency projects on all aspects of animal health and veterinary services development
  401 Technical backstopping to projects on animal health and veterinary services development Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  402 Technical backstopping to SPFS on all aspects of livestock development and animal production Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RAP RLC SAFR Completed
003   Direct advice to member countries and field programme support concerning livestock production and development
  401 Direct advice to member countries and field programme support concerning livestock production and development, and animal product processing Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA Completed
  402 Direct advice to member countries and field programme support concerning livestock sector policy Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA Completed
004   Technical support to emergency and relief operation projects with respect to animal production and livestock development
  401 Technical support to emergency and relief operations with regard to animal production and livestock development Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGA RAF RAP RNE SAFR Completed



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