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Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
214A1 Enhancing Small Farmer Livelihoods Technical Project AGS


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: the commercialisation of small farm production is a critical rural development issue throughout the developing world and in transition economies. Small farmers face unprecedented opportunities and risks as a result of market liberalisation, privatisation of agricultural services, and globalisation of trade.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: it is necessary to strengthen the capacity of public sector and civil society organizations to establish enabling conditions for small farmer development and enhance farmers' managerial and entrepreneurial skills. These will enable farmers to make sound decisions with respect to enterprise management and resource allocation. As a result, farmers will respond more rapidly and effectively to new market opportunities and minimise risks associated with commercialisation and globalisation.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: Enhanced livelihoods, in particular through higher incomes and competitiveness of small farmers, including vulnerable groups and farmers living in fragile "at risk" ecosystems.

Objective

  • To improve the support provided by public sector and civil society organisations to small farmers, including adjustments in their livelihood strategies, improved farm business management and income generation in the context of agricultural commercialisation and globalisation.

Indicators

  • Examples of improved support programmes and services to small farmers, e.g. more demand-oriented, focusing on critical resources and assets, etc.
  • Examples of successful small farmer enterprise diversification and development initiatives, as supported by this entity.
  • Cases of field agents and small farmers using improved farm management, marketing and financial tools for farm and enterprise decision making.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Implementation has, in general, been satisfactory, with the exception of major output 1, where progress has been slower than anticipated because two staff positions were lost within the service. Appraisals of export-oriented diversification opportunities were conducted in Asia, Africa and Latin America to provide policy-makers and programme managers with technical guidance on opportunities for product diversification. A series of Diversification Booklets was launched; they describe new income-earning opportunities for farmers (beekeeping, home gardens, poultry, post-harvesting and agro-processing). Studies were conducted, culminating in Occasional Papers, Working Papers and Technical Reports. Handbooks and guides for extension workers were drafted and field tested in farm business management and supported by regional training materials for extension workers in three regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America). The concept of the farm business school, modelled on the farmer field school, was launched and appeared to have potential for field programme design. The training materials have been used in FAO field projects and donor-supported projects (Department for International Development [United Kingdom] in Afghanistan and World Food Programme in Ethiopia). There has been strong demand from field programmes and some development organizations for the materials and advisory information produced by the programme entity. These include diversification opportunities and strategies, farm management and marketing extension, farm business management training, guidance on sustainable and efficient mechanization options (in particular labour-saving practices as a response to the impact of HIV/AIDS) and rural business services. The programme entity has contributed to increasing FAO's visibility on farm power and mechanization for sustainable livelihoods and business services to support income opportunities for farmers. The outputs have contributed to increased awareness among governments, regional and international bodies in sub-Saharan Africa of the role of farm power and mechanization for improving farmer income. A number of Technical Cooperation Programme/Government Cooperative Programme projects in sub-Saharan Africa dealing with issues related to environmentally friendly farm mechanization are operational. The programme entity has also contributed directly to the Livelihoods PAIA and the Food Security and Livelihoods Cluster in promoting farmer livelihoods. The products and services of the programme entity have the potential to contribute to increasing the competitiveness and incomes of small farmers. The key lessons drawn are the high demand globally for technical assistance to support farmers in accessing markets and increasing their income and the complementary nature of the normative products and the field programmes.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Formulation of supportive policies and programmes for small farmers.
  401 Materials on strategies and supportive policies for increasing small farmer competitiveness and income opportunities in relation to globalisation and market liberalization Studies and analyses AGS SAFR Modified
  402 Guidance for small farmer income and alternative livelihoods programmes Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS RAP SAPA Modified
  403 Advisory materials on small farmer production for export Information (products, systems, databases) AGS RAF Modified
002   Appraisal and promotion of opportunities for increasing farm income.
  401 Technical, economic and environmental appraisals of new income-generating and value-adding activities at the farm and community level Studies and analyses AGS RAF RAP SAPA SEUR Completed
  402 Promotional booklets on opportunities to increase farm and non-farm income Information (products, systems, databases) AGS Completed
003   Field guides and training materials for improving management skills.
  401 Field handbooks for extension workers Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS SAPA Completed
  402 Regional training manuals for farm management planning and management Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS RAP SEUR Completed
004   Guidance on appropriate tools, equipment and mechanisation policies.
  401 Guideline on field mechanisation strategies incorporating engineering and economic considerations Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS RAF Completed
  403 Review and information materials on farm and rural transport in Asia with particular attention to farm-marketing linkages Information (products, systems, databases) AGS RAP Completed
005   Support to small farmer advisory and support services.
  401 Appraisal of rural enterprise development services Studies and analyses AGS Completed
  402 Field guides to reinforce services provision by farmer organizations and NGOs Information (products, systems, databases) AGS SAFR Postponed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
214A2 Meeting Urban Food Needs Technical Project AGS


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: current demographic trends indicate that 50% of the world's population will live in urban areas by 2007. Improved food supply and distribution systems are necessary to address increasing levels of urban food insecurity, while ensuring higher farmer incomes.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: meeting the food needs of future urban dwellers requires strengthening of capacities of national and local government institutions to recognise and address problems of food insecurity arising from rapid urbanisation, define respective public and private sectors' roles and support peri-urban and urban agriculture.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: more efficient food supply and marketing would be of direct benefit to urban consumers, with improved access to affordable and safe food supplies, and to rural producers as well, through enhanced income earning opportunities.

Objective

  • Government and municipal authorities made aware of the need to improve food supply and distribution systems for urban food security and of possible solutions. Extension staff using techniques and options to promote value-added processing, to reduce post-harvest losses and to increase urban and peri-urban food production.

Indicators

  • Examples of municipal, regional or national interventions and policy changes in favour of urban agriculture inspired by or using recommended FAO approaches.
  • Examples of improved municipal or national food supply and distribution systems designed or implemented in part due to this entity.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • This was the final biennium of the programme entity, and activities and resources were limited. The envisaged activities and outcomes relating to two major outputs (MOs) were successfully completed, with publications produced and workshops held under MO1: Policies and strategies to strengthen rural-urban linkages; and MO2: Policy, planning and investment support to city and local authorities. This programme entity was a major contributor to the PAIA Food for the Cities and has brought to the attention of central and local governments the critical issue of the need to improve food supply and distribution systems to address the food needs of the rapidly expanding cities in most regions. A large amount of technical documentation was produced and was made available on Food Supply and Distribution to Cities (FSDS). Multimedia, sensitization and training products have been developed and widely diffused to policy-makers, technical staff and researchers. Over the past six years, this programme entity has held regional workshops in Africa (West and East), Asia, Latin America and North Africa and numerous national workshops to highlight the urgency to tackle urban food insecurity and improve FSDS. Recognition of this need is increasingly evidenced in global fora.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Policies, strategies and methods to strengthen rural and urban linkages and improve the efficiency and sustainability of food supply and distribution systems in rural, urban and peri-urban areas, responding to changing food requirements.
  402 Planning guidelines for enhancing rural urban linkages Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS Completed
  403 Guidelines to address the impacts of modern fresh food distribution systems Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS Completed
002   Policy, planning and investment support to city and local authorities and to civil society organizations aiming at enhanced efficiency and safety of food marketing systems in urban areas.
  401 Information and training material to sensitize and enhance capacity of local authorities to address urban food security issues Information (products, systems, databases) AGS Completed
  402 Workshops to promote action and assist in identifying policies and programmes to help improve access to food by low-income urban households Coordination and information exchange AGS Completed
004   Assessment of profitability and sustainability of urban and peri-urban farming.
  402 Publication on the economics of peri-urban livestock keeping in Africa Information (products, systems, databases) AGS RAF Postponed
  403 Publish farm economics handbook on peri-urban farming Information (products, systems, databases) AGS Cancelled



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
214A3 Sustainable Commercial Provision of Input Supply, Mechanisation, Investment Support and Marketing Services Technical Project AGS


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: profitable farming cannot develop without efficient input supply and marketing systems. Many governments have divested themselves of inputs supply and agricultural products marketing activities and are looking to the private sector to provide such services efficiently and on a competitive basis. However, the input supply and marketing sectors still require substantial improvements in a large number of countries, as they do not provide the services required for the development of an efficient agricultural system.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: by improving the efficiency and competitiveness of the agricultural input supply sector, farmers will have access to the support services they need at a reasonable price. This will lead to increased food security and farm profitability.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: farmers and producers will gain from inputs and marketing services provided to them, with more choice and at competitive pricing. The ultimate benefit will be in terms of a more productive and efficient agriculture sector.

Objective

  • Increased choice and supply of inputs for farmers; improved marketing services for farmers; increased competition among suppliers of inputs and services leading to more favourable pricing.

Indicators

  • Examples of national input supply and marketing systems, successfully reformed in part due to this entity.
  • Improvements in prices and services offered to farmers resulting from supported market reforms.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Significant progress was made in producing studies, particularly guides providing resource and training material on agricultural marketing and rural finance. All publications were made available on the Internet. Normative studies on agricultural marketing and rural finance contributed to requests for field projects in these areas. Field projects using guides (some translated not only in the official languages of FAO but also in various local languages), publications and low-cost software programmes such as the FAO/GTZ MicroBanker and the FAO AgriMarket were implemented in over 20 countries. Support was provided to the regional rural finance and marketing networks in all regions. The evolution of the PE followed a sound and logical approach with: (i) studies by country and region, (ii) country and synthesis reports, (iii) region analysis and proceedings through meetings, consultations or reports; and (iv) specific needs and opportunities.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Policy and strategy advice to foster the sustainable provision of commercial services - input supply, machinery, finance and marketing.
  401 Guidelines on enhancing the access of producers and processors to domestic and international markets Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RNE Completed
  402 Strategies and policies to support private-sector provision of marketing services Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS SAPA Completed
  403 Strategies for fostering appropriate decentralised financial services for small farmers and rural households Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS Completed
002   Guidelines, bulletins, training materials and software systems to support provision of commercial input supply services to farmers.
  401 Publication on impact and implementation of farm input marketing liberalization in Africa Studies and analyses AGS Completed
003   Similar range of activities linked to mechanisation products and services.
  401 Guidance on policies and strategies for the provision and utilisation of appropriate agricultural mechanisation services and inputs Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS RAF Modified
  402 Information and guidance on the supply chain (manufacture, distribution and retailing) of farm machinery, tools and equipment Information (products, systems, databases) RAF Completed
004   Advice and outreach materials to support the provision of viable financial services to farmers.
  401 MicroBanking system standardization, promotion and related training Training (including training courses and materials) AGS RAF RAP RNE Completed
  402 Knowledge management system for CABFIN (capacity building in rural finance) Information (products, systems, databases) AGS Completed
  403 Guidelines and training material for financial institutions on appraisal of term finance proposals Training (including training courses and materials) AGS Completed
  405 Support to regional rural finance networks and workshops on rural finance issues Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGS RAF RAP RNE Completed
005   Advice and outreach materials to support provision of commercial marketing services to farmers.
  401 Guidelines for improvement of the provision of commercial marketing services Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS RLC Completed
  403 Support to regional agricultural marketing networks and workshops on agricultural marketing issues Training (including training courses and materials) AGS RLC RNE Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
214A4 Agribusiness Development Targeted to Small and Medium Post-production Enterprises Technical Project AGS


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the agricultural sector generate a significant share of income and employment in low- and middle-income developing countries. However, knowledge and skills for enterprise management and for the selection and use of appropriate processing technologies are limited. As a result, their performance is often far from optimal.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: governments and civil society organizations (trading boards, business associations, NGOs supporting small enterprises) can assist small and medium enterprises through enabling policies and institutional frameworks, information, training, and technical advice.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: the agricultural sector at large will benefit from the improved competitiveness and employment generation capacity of post-production enterprises, and from a better interface between producers and these enterprises.

Objective

  • Small and medium scale enterprises and entrepreneurs in Member Countries have increased capacity and efficiency to offer consumers food and agricultural products through sustainable and profitable agribusiness ventures.

Indicators

  • Number and proportion of SMEs that increased their volume of activity and/or generated additional employment and income with help from this entity.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Substantial progress was made in developing guidelines on appropriate and relevant post-harvest technologies covering a number of potential options for small and medium agro-processing enterprises. Some of the issues addressed included: packaging, waste management, water use and safety in agro-processing and post-harvest management for fresh fruits. Most of the guidelines and technical reports produced are in electronic form and are hosted on the Information Network on Post-harvest Operations (INPhO) or AGS Web site in order to reduce the costs of publication. The selection issues address was done based on a matrix approach covering all the post-harvest operations, technical as well as managerial, in order to have an answer for each operation. Very good progress was made in developing technical guidelines and training materials to reinforce small enterprise business management. There was follow-up and validation of earlier work on productive partnerships and business linkages.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Field guides and training materials on management and marketing practices for small and medium post-production enterprises.
  401 Handbook for agricultural processors on successful business management Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS Completed
  402 Training and decision support material on small and medium-scale enterprise management Training (including training courses and materials) AGS RAF Completed
002   Information materials and advice on environmentally sound processing, packaging, storage, transport and distribution technologies for small and medium enterprises.
  401 Practical manuals and training guides on appropriate and profitable technologies and their implementation in small and medium enterprises Training (including training courses and materials) AGS RAF Modified
  402 Technical and marketing studies on post-production technologies for non-traditional products including organic foods and products of beneficial insects Studies and analyses AGS RLC Completed
003   Advisory and training materials and field guides for strengthening farm-agribusiness linkages.
  402 Training material to enhance the capacity of farmer associations to become agribusiness intermediaries Training (including training courses and materials) AGS RLC SEUR Completed
  403 Workshops to promote and develop farm-agribusiness linkage programmes Studies and analyses AGS RAP Completed
004   Studies on the efficiency, profitability and competitiveness of small and medium enterprises, and guidance on policies, strategies and programmes for promotion and development of small and medium enterprises.
  401 Study on factors affecting the profitability and competitiveness of small and medium-scale enterprises Studies and analyses AGS Completed
  403 Policy advice for improved support of post-production enterprises Studies and analyses AGS RAF RAP Modified



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
214A9 Enhancing Food Quality and Safety by Strengthening Handling, Processing and Marketing in the Food Chain Technical Project AGS


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: incidences of rejection of food stuffs at national, regional and international levels due to low quality and/or contamination are on the increase, resulting in health hazards, physical and economic losses, reduced consumer confidence and lower trade competitiveness. The quality of food is governed by both pre- and post-production practices. Inadequate food handling, processing, packaging, storage, transportation, distribution and marketing may result in physical damage and/or chemical, environmental and biological contamination. In the long run, unsafe and low-quality foods may also hinder improvements in nutrition and health, poverty alleviation and social development.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: by adopting practical and effective measures to control problems in food handling, processing, packaging, storage, transportation, distribution and marketing, the private sector in countries will increase its capacity to offer high-quality and safe food products to consumers.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: Consumers are clearly to benefit from high-quality and safe foods and a lower incidence of food-related illnesses. Producers, processors and traders should also benefit from increased consumer confidence and fair trade conditions.

Objective

  • Concrete, economically-feasible and environmentally-sound measures taken at the technical level to enhance food quality and safety during handling, processing, packaging, storage, transportation and marketing

Indicators

  • Number of enterprises that have successfully improved their operations and have been able to offer high-quality and safe food products.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • This was a new programme entity for Medium Term Plan 2004-09. The design and approval in AG, by PBE and by governing bodies was successfully carried out in 2003. Programme entity implementation and management included: priority analysis, activity review and approval for funds allocation in 2004 and 2005, review of action plans, discussion on budget allocation with other programme entity leaders and AGS managers, budget follow-up and forecasting and divisional leadership regarding food quality and safety issues. Full execution and completion of the programme entity budget and activities in 2004 and 2005 were achieved, including allocation of additional divisional resources to the entity. The extent of work was: about 40 studies in c. 28 countries on 4 continents by 15 AGS Officers. The entity was included (in 2005) as part of the institutional cluster on Food Quality and Safety, and in the preparation of strategies in this subject area. The first biennium was completed. As a divisional strategy, AGS decided to convert the programme entity into a major output for the new programme.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Studies and technical support to evaluate problems and priorities for assuring food quality and safety along the handling, processing and marketing chain.
  401 Studies on priorities for assuring food quality and safety in the handling, processing and marketing food chain Studies and analyses AGS RLC SEUR Completed
  402 Review and appraisal of methodologies for evaluating problems and improving quality and safety in developing countries Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGS RLC Completed
002   Technical support to national policies and strategies to maintain and reinforce food quality and safety in the handling, processing and marketing chain.
  401 Guidelines and strategies for governments and organizations on feasible and cost-effective management systems for improving food quality, safety and competitiveness in developing countries Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGS RLC Completed
003   Technologies, methods and good practices for enhancing safety and quality of foods in the main components of the food chain, i.e. handling, processing, packaging, storage, transportation, distribution and marketing.
  401 Assessment and promotion of cost-effective technologies and good practices for improving quality and safety in product handling, processing, packaging, storage, transportation, and marketing Studies and analyses AGS RAF RAP RLC Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
214P2 Agricultural Services - Data and Information Systems Continuing Programme Activity AGS


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: policy makers, managers, and agricultural services providers in the public and private sector need information and statistical data about technologies and services available to the agriculture sector. These should enable them to frame appropriate policies and ensure efficient support services and enterprise development.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: improved information management and access relating to agricultural services will improve decision making and the formulation of agricultural services policies and programmes.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: end beneficiaries are the farmers through improved technical information and policy environment and the general public through sustainable production and quality of agricultural products.

Objective

  • Enhanced capacity in countries for data collection, information access, and decision making in agriculture.

Indicators

  • Number of countries adopting standards and guidelines produced under the entity into their national legislation, and/or quoting FAO data on agricultural services in their policy documents.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Guidelines have been produced on agricultural pesticide application equipment, including sprayer standards and guidelines for regulations to reduce pesticide hazards through safer equipment and proficient operators. These guidelines have been included in the FAO International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides and have directly led to the development of ISO standards for knapsack sprayers. Information on farm-power availability and potential strategies for adaptation to lack of farm power, resulting, for example, from HIV/AIDS, have led to donor support (International Fund for Agricultural Development) for labour-saving strategies and farm-power studies.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Global information and data on farm power and mechanisation.
  401 Standards and Codes of Conduct for Agricultural Tools and Machinery International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGS RAF Completed
  402 Global Information and Data on Farm Power and Mechanization Information (products, systems, databases) AGS RAF Completed
002   Post-harvest information systems and databases.
  401 New modules for the INPho Website on food quality and safety for new products and on marketing Information (products, systems, databases) AGS Modified
  403 Coverage of new products in INPho (organic foods and standards, orphan crops, niche markets, etc..) Information (products, systems, databases) AGS RAF RLC Completed
003   Information systems and databases for rural finance, agricultural marketing and farm economics.
  401 Further development and maintenance of agricultural and rural finance (AgriBank-Stat) database Information (products, systems, databases) AGS Completed
  402 Internet information platform for farm and farming systems economics (InFarm) Information (products, systems, databases) AGS RAF SAFR SEUR Cancelled
  403 Budget data for selected farm enterprises and commodities Information (products, systems, databases) AGS Modified



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
214S1 Field Programme Support and Advisory Services to Countries Technical Service Agreement AGS


Indicators

  • No. of projects/ programme requests and responses.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Concerted attention was given to field programme development and support, which resulted in growth of the field programme during the biennium. Extensive technical backstopping was carried out in support of agricultural commercialization, enhancing farmer livelihoods and agro-processing technologies. Programme officers continued to play an active role in supporting projects led by other units. Experiences in the field programme make it clear that there is strong and growing interest in value addition and the business side of agricultural development. One of the main lessons learned is that efforts to enhance farmer incomes and support agro-processing enterprises requires attention to strengthening of service providers, access to markets and financial services, technical support for upgrading product quality and safety, and business management training. The programme made a major contribution to the International Year of Microcredit, organizing several regional workshops for awareness-raising and partnership-building.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Field programme support
  401 Field programme support on agricultural management, marketing and rural finance Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGS RAF RAP REU RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR Completed
  402 Field programme support on agricultural mechanization, food and agro-industries Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGS RAF RAP REU RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR Completed
002   Direct advisory services to countries
  401 Direct advisory services to countries on agricultural management, marketing and rural finance Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGS RAF RAP REU RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR Completed
  402 Direct advisory services to countries on agricultural mechanization, food and agro-industries Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGS RAF RAP REU RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR Completed
003   Support to non-FAO bodies, contributory support to programme entities in other divisions, secretariat servicing of statutory bodies, etc
  401 Technical support and training related to planning, monitoring and evaluation in the SPFS Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGS RAF RAP REU RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR Completed
004   Support to emergency projects
  401 Technical support relating to provision of services in emergency programmes, particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGS RAF RAP REU RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR Completed



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