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Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
215A1 Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Systems through Technologies and Capacity-Building Technical Project AGE


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: efforts to achieve development goals through agriculture and international trade are being undermined by various forms of soil degradation, the use of crop germplasm that is poorly adapted to harsh environments and the physical damage or trade restrictions caused by insect pests. Identifying the causes, understanding the dynamics and finding solutions to these problems require access to appropriate diagnostic tools and plant production and protection technologies.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: nuclear techniques and biotechnologies provide valuable tools for researching both constraints and opportunities for intensifying and diversifying cropping systems, and for promoting international trade.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: producers, through access to more cost-effective crop management practices and use of higher yielding crop germplasm; consumers through availability of higher quality and safer fruits and vegetables. Environmental benefits include reduced soil erosion and nutrient mining, increased carbon sequestration, more efficient use of water and external inputs and less contamination of water.

Objective

  • Advanced technologies, products and practices for soil, water and nutrients analysis, crop germplasm improvement and risk assessment and management of major trade-related pests, used by National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) and plant protection authorities, and transferred to extension services, NGOs and concerned projects.

Indicators

  • Examples of effective use of technologies and practices, & feedback from users.
  • Number and types of national staff trained thanks to this entity.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • All outputs planned for PE 215A1 in the biennium were delivered. Ten national laboratories consistently demonstrated proficiency in total N and N-15 measurements. There were 220 requests for the "Manual on the use of isotope and radiation methods in soil and water management and crop nutrition". The number of registered officially released mutant varieties increased from 2 250 to 2 335 between 2003 and 2005; more than 100 mutant lines were exchanged among Member Nations. Seven countries are developing additional areas of low pest prevalence or are bound to be free of insect crop pests. Achievement highlights include: - By switching from the traditional flooding rice system to aerobic technologies, water savings in South Asia (seven countries) of 20-50 percent can be had without affecting grain yield. Conservation tillage and crop residue incorporation can reduce soil loss by 50 percent, representing an annual savings of US$100 per hectare, or 25 to 45 billion dollars for Africa and Asia, respectively. - Mutant rice variety VND95-20, with high quality and tolerance to salinity, became the key variety for export in 2005 (28 percent of the one million ha export rice area in the Mekong Delta). For the "significant socio-economic contribution" of this variety to Viet Nam, the local counterpart received the 2005 National Prize of Science and Technology of Viet Nam. - In Argentina, a certified medfly-free region in Patagonia and low-prevalence areas in Mendoza were established. This has resulted in opening the export market in the United States of America and will significantly reduce post-harvest treatment costs. Smaller low-prevalence areas were established in Israel, South Africa and Thailand. In South Africa and Thailand, there is documented evidence of a decrease in insecticide use in these areas. - Areawide pest control policies and strategies to deal with fruit flies were introduced in the Rio San Francisco irrigation area in Brazil and in several countries in Central America in order to open up new export markets. In Tunisia, policies were established to develop a pilot area to reduce insecticide use and losses to the medfly. - Facility design tools were used in two new mass-rearing facilities (Israel and Spain), four additional mass-rearing facilities are using genetic sexing strains (Brazil, Israel, Spain and Tunisia), and harmonized QC protocols were established in an additional three facilities (Brazil, Costa Rica and Israel). -260 papers were published in peer-reviewed journals.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Improved soil, water and nutrient management practices and capacities for sustainable intensification of cropping systems and environmental protection.
  401 Guidelines for determining C stocks and balance in crop and pasture systems Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  402 Guidelines for determining N fertilizer efficiency and N balance in cropping systems Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  403 Methodologies for determining crop water productivity Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  404 Improved national capacities for pilot-testing and demonstrating integrated soil, water and nutrient management practices Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGE Completed
002   Biotechnology and enhanced capacities for crop germplasm characterization, selection and improvement.
  401 Protocols for molecular characterisation of mutated genes and plant genetic resources for selection of germplasm Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  402 Cellular, molecular biology and induced mutation methodologies for banana improvement Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  403 Database on officially released mutant varieties Information (products, systems, databases) AGE Completed
  404 Analysis of the global impact of mutation-derived varieties Studies and analyses AGE Completed
  405 Training and infrastructure strengthening for integrating modern biotechnologies in national plant breeding programmes Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGE Completed
003   Improved procedures and capacities for risk assessment and management of major trade related insect pests of crops and biological control agents.
  401 Guidelines for production, handling and shipping of natural enemies Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  402 Guidelines for quality assurance of mass produced and released fruit flies in area-wide intervention programmes Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  403 Draft standard on transboundary shipment of sterile insects International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGE Completed
  404 Manual for assessing the economic returns of fruit fly SIT programmes Information (products, systems, databases) AGE Completed
  405 New and improved procedures for SIT application against moth pest insects Coordination and information exchange AGE Completed
  406 Improved national and regional capacities for planning and implementing area-wide SIT interventions Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGE Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
215A2 Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies and Capacity-building Technical Project AGE


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: as recalled under Programme 2.1.3 above, governments have to grapple with the risks accompanying this "livestock revolution", and in particular with the challenges of increasing productivity without degrading the feed and genetic resources upon which production depends, and of ensuring that diseases which impact on trade and human health are brought progressively under control or eradicated.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: biotechnologies such as immunoassays and molecular markers, as well as the sterile insect technique (SIT), can assist with better characterising and managing feed and animal genetic resources and controlling or eradicating transboundary animal diseases.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: livestock producers and exporters through improved productivity and freedom from International Office of Epizootics (OIE) List A diseases; consumers through more widely available and safer products; the environment through improved lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduced soil erosion.

Objective

  • Advanced technologies, products and practices for the integrated management of natural resources, constraint and risk assessment and management, diagnosis and control of transboundary insect pests developed, tested and used by NARS and transferred to livestock production and veterinary authorities, extension services, NGOs and interested projects.

Indicators

  • Number of veterinary laboratories achieving accreditation for conduct of diagnostic tests for TADs.
  • Number of laboratories with enhanced capacities for sampling and testing for presence of veterinary drugs in meat and milk.
  • Examples of effective use at national level of the technologies and management options promoted by this entity.
  • Feedback from users on relevance and efficiency of tested / adopted technologies and management practices.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Targets were achieved or exceeded. Significant progress has been made in: 1. increased capacity of member countries to address livestock production and health in a sustainable way; 2. improving feed conversion and nutrient utilization, optimizing breeding management and artificial insemination; 3. guidance and support to member countries regarding fulfilling the requirements for OIE declarations for transboundary animal diseases (e.g. rinderpest) and consequent benefits; 4. achievements in the control of screwworm and tsetse and trypanosomosis; 5. innovative activities in the application of sterile insect technique (SIT); and 6. improved tsetse mass-rearing techniques and quality-control procedures developed and transferred, and protocols for entomological sampling and population genetic assessment made available to collaborating countries. Highlights: - Capacity to evaluate livestock feed resources was improved in 18 countries; 44 new alternative feeds and 11 tanniniferous plants evaluated on farm for nutritional value; RIA laboratories linked to national AI services in 20 countries; data-management software for AI services used in 20 countries. - 2004-2005 OIE declaration free from rinderpest disease: countrywide basis: Benin, Eritrea, Senegal, Togo; zonal basis: Central African Republic, Chad, Kenya; under evaluation: Sudan, Uganda. - 2004-2005 OIE declaration free from rinderpest infection: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Congo/Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Zambia; under evaluation: Gambia, Mali, Rwanda. - Three laboratories accredited (ISO/IEC 17025) and seven laboratories with operational screening facilities for veterinary drug residues. - Training CD on urinary purine derivative methodologies distributed to additional 40 laboratories in MS. Urinary purine derivative methodologies and tannin assays for assessing nutritional status of animals and for development of feeding strategies respectively distributed to over 50 MSs. - Production of diagnostic ELISA kits transferred to MS. - Trypanosoma oligochromatography dipstick developed. - Guidelines for the submission of validated laboratory procedures and tests submitted to OIE. Test validation templates prepared were accepted at the OIE General Assembly in May 2005. - First textbook on SIT published. - International Conference on Area-wide Control of Insect Pests attended by 304 participants from 81 countries, 9 organizations and 8 exhibitors. - Agreement with international partners under PAAT and PATTEC on harmonized procedures for assessing the absence of tsetse and trypanosomosis. - Tsetse prediction maps and baseline data collection in use by eight collaborating countries in East, West and South Africa. - Improved mass-rearing procedures adopted or under evaluation in five rearing centres.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Biotechnology and strengthened capacities for characterizing farm animal genetic resources and improving natural resource management within production systems.
  401 Proceedings of an International Symposium on gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health Information (products, systems, databases) AGE Completed
  402 Manual on gene-based technologies in animal nutrition and genetics Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  403 Guidelines for improving artificial breeding of cattle in Africa Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  404 Training on assessing and more efficiently managing feed resources, breeding and local genotypes Training (including training courses and materials) AGE Completed
002   Biotechnology and enhanced capacities for assessing and managing the risks from transboundary animal diseases, diseases of veterinary public health importance and veterinary drugs through international standards to improve diagnosis, surveillance and control.
  401 Results from serological surveys in support of GREP and information on diagnostic assays and reagents for EMPRES diseases, including reference DNA and serum banks Coordination and information exchange AGE Completed
  402 Validated methods for separating vaccinated from naturally infected FMD animals and for assessing the effectiveness of vaccination strategies against Newcastle disease in village poultry Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  403 Manual for sampling and analysis of veterinary drugs in meat and milk Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  404 Advice to the OIE Standards Committee on validation criteria for diagnostic assays and accreditation of laboratories International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards AGE Completed
  405 Training and capacity building for managing transboundary livestock diseases Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGE Completed
004   Area-wide policies and integration of the SIT into intervention campaigns against tsetse and screwworm flies.
  401 Technologies and guidelines for area-wide decision making on tsetse interventions in Africa Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  402 Validated methods for determining mating compatibility and for defining tsetse populations genetically Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  403 Results from international network on screwworm population genetics Information (products, systems, databases) AGE Completed
  404 Support to the PAAT and PATTEC Coordination and information exchange AGE Completed
  405 Institutional capacity building for planning and implementing interventions Direct advice to Members; field programme support AGE Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
215P1 Capacity Building and Risk Analysis Methodologies for Compliance with Food Safety Standards and Pesticide Control and Strengthened Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures through Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Commodities Continuing Programme Activity AGE


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: countries are increasingly giving priority to food control systems that are designed to ensure quality and safety throughout the food chain and to meet the standards enforced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) within the agreements on sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and technical barriers to trade (TBT).
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: laboratories are an integral component of food control systems, providing policy makers at national, regional and international levels with the necessary data to support decision making. Nuclear and other methods are used to analyse food and environmental samples and commercial products, and irradiation is an effective pathogen and insect control method which does not affect product quality.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: consumers, through safer and better quality produce; producers and traders, through improved income-generating and trade potential.

Objective

  • Greater ability of food control laboratories in developing countries to sample and analyse products for residues and contaminants covered by Codex standards; greater adherence to good agricultural and manufacturing practices.

Indicators

  • Number of laboratories participating successfully in inter-laboratory method validation exercises and proficiency testing.
  • Number of countries using irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment.
  • Number of countries integrating and using GAP for production of fruits and vegetables in their extension programmes.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The basic objective of this programme entity is to contribute to the promotion, development and reinforcement of policy and regulatory frameworks. 1. Cooperative arrangements between FAO and IAEA for the exchange of information and improved preparedness for maintaining food safety in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency are in place, including recommendation on first actions and agricultural countermeasures. Interaction with FAO/ECN during the Convention Exercise (ConvEx-3) and additional activities under the Inter-agency Committee on Response to Nuclear Accidents (IACRNA) demonstrated the benefits of member countries' using harmonized international arrangements. 2. Evidenced by the increased application of irradiation for sanitary and phytosanitary purposes by almost 60 and 20 countries, respectively, reflecting a 15 percent increase over the biennium. 3. Personnel trained in analytical methodologies, laboratory quality assurance/quality control, food safety requirements and good agricultural practices (GAPs), including the use of a "train the trainers" approach, has resulted in training courses on the above subject matter, including the role of laboratories in the application of GAPs, being implemented in Cambodia, Nigeria, Thailand and Uganda by participants in FAO/IAEA training workshops. 4. Auto-evaluation completed in early 2006 showed additional success stories in the enhancement of member country capacities in food safety and environmental monitoring; in the elaboration of training materials, including the establishment of eLearning systems; in increased contributions to the establishment and adoption of international standards (Codex, IPPC), especially regarding the analysis of pesticide and veterinary drug residues, and including the final adoption of Codex Guidelines on the Use of Mass Spectrometry for the Identification, Confirmation and Quantitative Determination of Residues, and; in contributions to consumer protection. 5. Enhanced national capacities to implement agreed sampling and analytical procedures for contaminants and residues covered by the Codex Alimentarius is reflected in part through the establishment or enhancement of the capacity of seven food safety or environmental monitoring laboratories, three of which achieved accreditation according to ISO/IEC 17025. 6. Ongoing contributions to the revision and adoption of the Codex Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods, including in the dissemination of information as well as practical steps in the application of agricultural countermeasures in response to nuclear accidents or radiological events. Problems related to government and consumer acceptance of food irradiation, especially within the EU, as well as the application of phytosanitary (including quarantine) treatments, are continually addressed through education, training and the development of national legislation based on international standards.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Strengthened capacities and procedures for risk analysis related to food safety and pesticide management.
  401 Training modules and courses covering the areas of pesticide residues and pesticide formulation control Training (including training courses and materials) AGE Completed
  402 Guidance documents on: sampling plans for field surveys; estimating uncertainty of sampling and results of analysis of pesticide residues and mycotoxins; testing the stability of pesticide residues Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) AGE Completed
  403 Regularly updated web-based International Food Contaminant and Residues Information System (INFOCRIS), also available on CD-ROM Information (products, systems, databases) AGE Completed
  404 Training of analysts and policy makers through workshops, networks and field projects on principles of quality management and good analytical and agricultural practices, and procedures that support laboratory accreditation for analysis of food contaminant Training (including training courses and materials) AGE Completed
  405 Training on joint FAO/IAEA Action Plan for preparing and responding to nuclear or radiological emergencies in relation to food and agriculture Training (including training courses and materials) AGE Completed
002   International standards on irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment for food and agricultural commodities.
  401 Publication on the effectiveness of the food irradiation process in ensuring the hygienic quality of fresh, minimally processed foods of plant origin Information (products, systems, databases) AGE Completed
  402 Publication on effectiveness of irradiation for ensuring quarantine security against insect pests in food and agricultural products Information (products, systems, databases) AGE Completed
  403 Training of food control and plant quarantine personnel and provision of regularly updated science-based information on food irradiation Training (including training courses and materials) AGE Completed



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