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Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221A2 Nutrition Improvement for Sustainable Development Technical Project ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: following the International Conference on Nutrition and the World Food Summit, a large number of countries have adopted national plans of action on food security and nutrition in both rural and urban environments. These documents describe major policy orientations and define strategies for meeting the goals of reducing hunger and malnutrition. Different implementation approaches need to be analysed to draw lessons on what works and what does not, so as to improve the impact and sustainability of national actions.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the intent is to generate lasting effects through capacity building, collaborative learning and empowerment of vulnerable populations and communities. Experience has shown that community-based processes which are able to mobilise populations are essential for rapid and sustainable reduction of under-nutrition and malnutrition.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: the end beneficiaries are food insecure rural and urban households with particular attention to women, and also community groups, community leaders and local NGOs. Their views and interests will be at the heart of the learning process supported by this entity.

Objective

  • To enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of national plans of action for food security and nutrition.

Indicators

  • Countries that have made progress in the introduction of appropriate nutrition considerations in national sectoral and overall policies and plans.
  • Evidence of policy at work (inter-sectoral coordination structures, targeted programmes).

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The publication Improving nutrition programmes: an assessment tool for action (AT) has been finalized, following the integration of lessons learned from three pilot-testing activities. In addition, a training manual was developed in support of capacity-building for the use of the AT. These two publications, with the addition of the already-existing report of case studies on best practices for nutrition improvement that were at the origin of the development of the AT, now provide a much-needed package of practical information to serve in the implementation of national plans of action for food security and nutrition.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
425   Food security and nutrition policy advocacy.
  401 Advocacy information for nutritional status as an outcome indicator in poverty alleviation strategies Information (products, systems, databases) ESN RAF SAFR Cancelled
  402 Guidelines on intersectoral coordination and support for poverty alleviation strategies based on improving nutritional status Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF RLC SAFR SLAC Completed
  403 Guidelines on identifying and coordinating institutional support needs for nutrition improvement Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF RLC SAFR SLAC Completed
426   Assistance in the implementation of National Plans of Action for Nutrition (NPAN) and WFS Plan of Action.
  401 Annotated inventory of existing guides in support of nutrition improvement in the community (Tool box) Information (products, systems, databases) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SLAC Postponed
  402 Material and support for the alleviation and prevention of micronutrient deficiencies through food diversification and domestication of micronutrient-rich indigenous foods Information (products, systems, databases) ESN RAF SAFR Completed
  403 Guidelines for strengthening coping mechanisms to protect household food security and promoting healthy diets Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF SAFR Cancelled
427   Strategies to meet urban food security and nutrition needs.
  401 Strategies for diversification of dietary food choices among urban populations Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF RAP RNE Completed
  402 Guidelines on increasing variety and quality of street foods to better meet micronutrient needs Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF RAP RLC Completed
  403 Guidelines for introducing nutrition considerations into urban management and development programmes to promote healthy diets and better nutrition Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF RAP RNE SAPA Completed
  404 Appropriate indicators for measuring dietary adequacy and variety Information (products, systems, databases) ESN RAF RAP SAFR SAPA SLAC Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221A4 Community Action for Improved Household Food Security and Nutrition Technical Project ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: national and sectoral development policies and programmes must address household food security and be complemented by effective, inter-disciplinary, participatory and community-based action addressing local causes of malnutrition (e.g. chronic or seasonal shortages, lack of dietary diversity, inadequate feeding practices).
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: better targeted, more participatory and well coordinated community-based programmes aimed at improving household food security and nutrition, are expected to strengthen community ownership and promote sustainability, thus improving performance and benefits to food insecure poor and vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas. Lessons learned at the community level will be fed into policy formulation, in order to remove policy constraints to household food security, and promote pro-poor policies for achieving food security and nutritional well-being.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: vulnerable and poor population groups will benefit most from participatory appraisal and planning processes and community ownership of measures towards nutritionally adequate diets.

Objective

  • Assist national and international development institutions and NGOs to initiate, implement and evaluate community-based programmes aimed at improving household food security and nutrition in both urban and rural areas; enhance collaboration among development practitioners towards practical community-based food security and nutrition interventions.

Indicators

  • Countries and institutions using methodologies and guidelines for household food security and nutrition strategies and actions.
  • Examples of programmes which successfully strengthened community ownership and improved targeting, as a result of, inter alia, using outputs from this entity.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • A number of technical papers, resource materials and training packages were developed, including: FAO/WHO Guidelines on food fortification; a position paper on food fortification; and a Food Security Assessment Report of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. As part of the comprehensive Community action planning (CAP) guide, draft guidelines for participatory appraisal and analysis of food and nutrition security, along with an information note on CAP process, were posted on the FAO Web site. Assistance was given to Ethiopia and Zambia for developing national CAP guides to be used in national planning. A first draft of the Beneficiary assessment guide was prepared and tested in several countries. Given its cross-cutting nature, 221A4 contributed to various IDWGs and PAIAs and was active in orienting the work of the Household Food Security, Nutrition and Livelihoods Cluster. Strong support was given to the DFID-funded Livelihood Support Programme, including providing the co-convenors of the Participatory Policy and Local Governance subprogramme and contributing to promotion of people-centred development processes in Brazil, Cambodia, Honduras, Mozambique, Philippines. Cooperation with a wide range of partners in the Wakefield Coalition for the Reduction of Micronutrient Deficiencies was established, and collaboration with a variety of academic institutions was maintained, including through provision of training services. Work on HIV/AIDS and nutrition continued. A joint FAO/WHO training course, "Nutritional care and support for people living with HIV", was introduced at a subregional training course in Johannesburg, South Africa, and an Ethiopian version has been developed and endorsed by national authorities. Strong interagency collaboration with UNICEF and WFP resulted in a German-funded regional project, Protecting and improving food and nutrition security of orphans and HIV/AIDS-affected children (Phase 1: Lesotho and Malawi). ESNP has helped strengthen FAO's response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic by working closely with SDWW and the Informal Working Group on HIV/AIDS. Direct assistance was provided to member countries for undertaking participatory community-based programmes aiming to improve household food security and nutrition, with strong support given to the field programme, including technical support to: Ethiopia, Mozambique and Zambia through Belgian Survival Fund projects; the above-mentioned Lesotho and Malawi project; and to the UNF-funded Empowerment of women in irrigation and water resources management for improved household food security, nutrition and health (WIN) project in Cambodia, Nepal and Zambia. ESNP organized an international symposium on Community Nutrition Intervention Programmes at the Eighteenth International Congress of Nutrition (ICN) in Durban, South Africa.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
441   Methodologies and guidelines for household food security and nutrition strategies and actions.
  401 Information notes, guidelines and approaches on promoting Household Food Security and community nutrition Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Completed
442   Capacity building at national, sub-national and institutional levels for household food security and nutrition actions and interventions.
  401 Support to household food security and nutrition activities in urban and rural areas, including community-centred approaches Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Completed
  402 Capacity building in selected sub-sector activities Training (including training courses and materials) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Completed
  403 Assistance for integrating nutrition and HIV/AIDS activities Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Completed
443   An international forum for promoting household food security and community nutrition.
  401 Collaborative mechanisms and networks for promoting Household Food Security and Nutrition Coordination and information exchange ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Completed
  402 Interactive website on Household Food Security and Nutrition Information (products, systems, databases) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Postponed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221A5 Food and Nutrition Education, Communications and Training Technical Project ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: people, especially poor and vulnerable groups, require not only access to nutritionally adequate foods, but also the knowledge and motivation to make best use of available resources to meet the food needs of each household's members. However, the capacity in many countries to provide effective nutrition education and communication within schools, to the public, to highly vulnerable groups (e.g. victims of emergencies and HIV/AIDS affected communities) and to decision makers is limited.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: effective nutrition education, which is recognised as a key determinant in the extent to which the benefits of agricultural and economic development translate into adequate diets for all groups, and is also important for combating the rise in non-communicable, diet-related diseases seen in many countries.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: poor households, victims of emergencies, communities affected by HIV/AIDS, school children.

Objective

  • Strengthened capacities of national and local institutions in developing countries and countries in transition to implement effective nutrition education and communication programmes and activities.

Indicators

  • List of national and local nutrition education programmes supported by this entity.
  • Examples of nutrition education programmes and institutions having upgraded their capacities and delivery in part thanks to this entity.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Published and Web-based information, education and training materials to promote healthy diets and improve nutrition were produced. Major manuals and guidelines finalized were: Nutrition education in primary schools - a planning guide for curriculum development (English; French in translation); Setting up and running a school garden - a manual for teachers, parents and communities (English; Spanish in translation); Family nutrition guide (English, French; Arabic and Spanish in press). The Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger global education initiative was expanded, and a Youth Window reaching out directly to teens was added. It is online in nine languages and has an interactive discussion forum and new resources. Member countries' capacities to provide dietary guidance and nutrition education were strengthened through training courses and workshops on food and nutrition topics, including food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs); dietary diversification; appraisal of food and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and behaviours; and nutrition education and communication programme development and implementation. Two technical consultations on FBDGs were cosponsored: for Central and Eastern Europe, with the International Life Sciences Institute (Europe), and for the Near East, with WHO. A global analysis of FBDGs was initiated and a corresponding Web site launched. Demand for technical assistance in school and community nutrition education grew, and support was provided through TCP and GCP projects in: Afghanistan, Argentina, Bangladesh, Barbados, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Grenada, Honduras, Mexico, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Zambia. Production of Food and nutrition - a handbook for Namibian volunteer leaders was an output from an earlier project in Namibia. The Voluntary guidelines on the right to adequate food were actively promoted and information briefs on nutrition, food safety and consumer protection, and education and awareness-raising produced. In collaboration with the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), preparation of a six-language illustrated book, and teacher activity guide, for 11-14 year olds on the right to adequate food and nutrition was initiated. ESN work on nutrition education was advanced through participation in major international meetings, and collaboration was strengthened with PAHO, UNESCO, UNICEF, WFP and WHO through joint initiatives, including: the FAO/WHO Initiative on Fruits and Vegetables for Health and Income; Nutrition Friendly Schools and Focusing Resources on Effective School Health (FRESH) Initiatives; and collaboration with the UNESCO Associated Schools Project Network. Support was provided to Codex Alimentarius committees in discussions about WHO's Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
444   Promotion of better nutrition through schools.
  401 Resource materials and training for Nutrition Information and Education in schools, including curricula development Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SLAC Modified
  403 Materials and support for nutrition and school gardens Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SLAC Completed
  405 Support to implementation of Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger Information (products, systems, databases) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SLAC Completed
  408 Collaboration and networking with other organizations working with schools (e.g. UNESCO, WHO, WFP, Fresh Initiative) Coordination and information exchange ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SLAC Completed
445   Capacity building in nutrition education and communication.
  401 Materials for nutrition educators and their trainers Training (including training courses and materials) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SLAC Modified
  403 Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for various population groups and other nutrition information, guidance, communication and education materials and initiatives through various media Information (products, systems, databases) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SLAC Modified
  404 Support to nutrition information and education programme and activity development, capacity-building and increased collaboration and networking among nutrition education stakeholders Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SLAC Completed
  405 Advice on nutritional care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221A6 Nutrition and Household Food Security in Emergencies Technical Project ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: natural disasters and complex emergencies have significant detrimental effects on food security and nutritional status of affected populations. Many countries require assistance and capacity building to assess this impact, understand coping mechanisms and design appropriate relief and rehabilitation programmes, as well as preparedness plans in at-risk areas.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: strengthened local capacities, better inter-agency collaboration and the incorporation of explicit nutrition and food security objectives, will improve the efficiency of emergency relief and rehabilitation interventions safeguarding the food and nutrition security of the populations vulnerable to, or affected by emergencies.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: population groups and communities affected by natural disasters and complex emergencies will benefit from a combination of interventions geared to ensure their food and nutritional security, including - but not limited to - food aid and group feeding programmes.

Objective

  • National and international development institutions working in emergencies have the technical skills to take due account of nutrition aspects in emergency preparedness, response and rehabilitation.

Indicators

  • Examples of emergency preparedness, response and rehabilitation programmes with increased capacity to address nutrition issues as a result of this entity.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The publication Protecting and promoting good nutrition in crisis and recovery: a resource guide was finalized and the English version made available in both hard copy and PDF formats; work was initiated for its translation into French. A five-day university course on Food and Nutrition Surveillance and Emergency, based on this manual, was developed and tested in collaboration with the Food Security Assistance Unit for Somalia and the University of Nairobi, Kenya. Technical assistance in food security, nutrition and livelihoods was routinely provided to countries in crisis situations through close collaboration with the Emergency Operations and Rehabilitation Division as well as Emergency Coordination Units (ECUs) at country and regional level. ESNP participated actively in the tsunami and South Asia earthquake task forces and carried out technical assistance missions to Burundi and the Africa ECU in Nairobi. ESNP provided technical leadership and backstopping to a number of projects that had a strong operational research dimension and contributed to the emergence and development of innovative, field-tested approaches that were incorporated into the normative work of 221A6. Close in-house collaboration continued through the PAIA on Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness and Post-Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation, in particular on rapid assessment tools, information systems and preparedness work. A training-cum-planning workshop was held at FAO headquarters to work on an interdisciplinary response to promote food security, nutrition and livelihoods in Burundi. 221A6 also contributed to the implementation of expanded Crop and Food Supply Assessment Missions in Mauritania and Sri Lanka. Extensive external collaboration was established within the UN system at country, regional and global levels, including through participation in the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) working groups on HIV/AIDS in Emergency Settings, the Nutrition Cluster and the Early Recovery Cluster; and by participating in the Nutrition in Emergencies working group of the UN Standing Committee on Nutrition. Support to the Emergency Nutrition Network journal Field Exchange continued. Technical assistance was provided to WFP for drafting the Caribbean Emergency Response and Nutrition Strategy, and for preparing a WFP Regional Programme for Nutrition Support for the region. An overall regional situation report and individual situation reports for four countries (Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago) were produced.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
446   Methods and techniques for incorporation of household food security and nutrition considerations in emergency preparedness, response and rehabilitation.
  401 Information notes and guidelines for incorporating household food security and nutrition into emergency preparedness and response activities Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA Completed
447   Training programmes for incorporation of household food security and nutrition considerations in emergency preparedness, response and rehabilitation.
  401 Training on household food security and nutrition in emergencies Training (including training courses and materials) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA Completed
448   Mechanisms for coordinated nutrition interventions in emergency situations.
  401 Collaborative mechanisms and networks for promoting household food security and nutrition in emergencies Coordination and information exchange ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SAPA Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221P1 Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Assessment for Food Safety and Quality Continuing Programme Activity ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: human nutrition requirements, both for macro-nutrients (energy and protein) and micro-nutrients (vitamins and minerals) need to be regularly updated, as new scientific information becomes available. This information is, among others, essential for international and national policy makers for estimating numbers of under-nourished and malnourished at global, national and sub-national levels.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: accurate and up-to-date information on nutrient requirements, and the contrasting of these with dietary patterns, constitute the basis for advice on healthy diets, for the estimation of the number of under-nourished in a given country or region and trends therein, and for Members in assessing their food needs. Governments, NGOs and civil society use these data to design interventions and programmes to improve nutritional status of populations, as well as to promote healthy diets and food quality and safety. International food trade is also facilitated through nutrient content labelling, and risk exposure assessment is achievable by integrating contaminant or anti-nutrient content with nutrient data.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: food consumers worldwide would benefit from improved information on nutrient recommendations, food composition and nutritional value; the food insecure, malnourished and vulnerable groups may benefit from better designed and targeted interventions.

Objective

  • International accepted estimates of the minimum, optimal and maximum safe intakes of macro-nutrients (energy, protein, carbohydrates, fats), micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, trace elements), non-nutrients, and anti-nutrients used as a basis to provide advice on healthy diets, to estimate the number of under-nourished and assist countries in assessing their food needs designing nutrition programmes.

Indicators

  • National and regional committees adopting and using revised food composition estimates.
  • Countries and international organizations, food industry and regulatory authorities adopting FAO's recommendations on human nutrient requirements and intakes.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Work has continued in the ongoing programme on nutrient requirements, food composition and dietary assessment. The FAO/WHO reports on requirements for energy, protein and micronutrients are extensively cited in the scientific literature and are provided as scientific advice to the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses. The Journal of Food Composition and Analysis published 16 issues in the period, including special issues on the International Year of Rice and the International Food Data Conference. Dietary-assessment software products have been evaluated for suitability for use in developing countries. Technical officers were invited to international, regional and national conferences to deliver presentations and participate in discussions and debates on nutrition policies and research directions. The biennial INFOODS meeting was held to steer the direction of standards development in food composition, and several INFOODS Regional Data Centre meetings took place, resulting in requests to FAO for specific assistance for training and capacity-building. The initial amino acid database was enlarged to a nutrient database project. It comprises the Web application from where users can access more than 100 partially documented components for different databases, and a bulk data entry system into the database behind the Web searchable nutrient database. The database will be accessible through the FAO Web site in 2006.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
432   The Journal of Food Composition and Analysis.
  401 Six regular issues of the Journal of Food Composition and Analysis Information (products, systems, databases) ESN Completed
436   Recommendations and applications of human nutrient requirements.
  402 Updated publication of amino acid composition of foods Information (products, systems, databases) ESN Completed
  404 Expert meeting on upper tolerable limits for vitamins & minerals based on Codex principles of risk assessment Coordination and information exchange ESN Completed
  405 Contribution to international groups such as WHO and IAEA Coordination and information exchange ESN E
  406 Expert Consultation on Protein Quality Coordination and information exchange ESN Completed
437   Dietary consumption and food data systems.
  401 Global Secretariat for INFOODS International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed
  402 Software and manuals for food data compilation (nutrient/non-nutrient/contaminant) for dietary consumption surveys Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN Completed
  403 Updated manual on conduct of dietary consumption surveys Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN Postponed
  404 Technical workshops on food data system use Coordination and information exchange ESN Completed
  405 Technical workshops on dietary assessment methodologies Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN Cancelled
438   Nutrient needs and dietary assessment for food quality and safety.
  401 Technical manual on food consumption methodology for population based risk assessment of exposure Information (products, systems, databases) ESN Postponed
  402 Integrated software system and manuals for dietary assessments, incorporating requirements, safe/tolerable limits and compositional data Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN Completed
  403 Technical contributions to JECFA, Codex & GEMSFOOD Studies and analyses ESN Completed
  404 Technical workshops on dietary assessment methodologies Training (including training courses and materials) ESN RAF RAP RLC RNE E



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221P2 Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme (Codex Alimentarius) Continuing Programme Activity ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: protecting the health of consumers and ensuring fair practices in the food trade, require science-based, internationally-accepted standards for food quality and safety that can be used in national and international regulatory frameworks.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: food standards form the commonly agreed basis for consumer protection and the removal of arbitrary or unjustified discrimination measures to trade. National standards that are based on internationally agreed standards provide adequate consumer protection and lead to the reduction of arbitrary and unjustified technical barriers to trade.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: food producers, processors, traders and consumers will benefit from the improved confidence in the quality and safety of food products marketed in domestic and international trade.

Objective

  • Internationally accepted, science-based food standards and related instruments are used by governments at the national level, or as a reference in bi-lateral, regional or international agreements to protect consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade.

Indicators

  • List of recommendations from the Codex Alimentarius officially adopted in national and international policies, principles or instruments.
  • Examples of cases where Codex Alimentarius standards were used to resolve international trade disputes.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The Codex Alimentarius Commission completed all of its planned activities for the biennium. The Twenty-seventh and Twenty-eighth Sessions of the Commission, held in July 2004 and July 2005, adopted over 39 new or revised Codex standards or related texts, including the Code of Practice for Good Animal Feeding and the Code of Hygienic Practice for Meat, as well as a number of maximum limits for food additives and contaminants and maximum residue limits for pesticides and veterinary drugs. In addition, the Commission pursued the implementation of the proposals originating from the FAO/WHO Evaluation of the Codex Alimentarius and Other FAO and WHO Food Standards Work conducted in 2002, including the amendments to its Rules of Procedure and other procedural texts, with a view to improving the Commission's ability to meet increasing expectations of governments, enhance efficiency and relevance of its work and achieve overall objectives in consumer protection, especially for health, and in fair practices for food trade. In particular, the Commission reinforced the strategic planning and programme management functions of its Executive Committee and enlarged its membership to include the Coordinators from regions. The Commission continued to strengthen its science basis by developing and documenting risk-analysis policies for subsidiary bodies dealing with food safety. The Commission emphasized the importance of cooperation and coordination with other intergovernmental organizations in the elaboration of food standards and related texts, and increased mutual links with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The Commission maintained or strengthened exchange of information and other forms of cooperation with other international organizations, including the World Trade Organization (WTO). The membership of the Commission continued to grow and reached 172 member countries and one member organization by the end of 2005. In March 2004, the FAO/WHO Project and Fund for Enhanced Participation in Codex became operational, and the participation of developing countries, especially least-developed countries, in the Codex process was significantly facilitated, thanks to the contributions from donors. Taking advantage of Internet-based communication and information dissemination, the Commission strengthened functionalities of its Web site and related online databases, while maintaining key publications of the Codex Alimentarius. The Commission's work was supported by continued contributions of other technical programmes of FAO and WHO, through the provision of scientific advice to the Commission and the capacity-building of member countries in their effort to apply Codex recommendations at the national level.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
461   Food standards, guidelines and other recommendations for consumer protection and trade.
  401 Establishment of general standards for food labelling and nutrition International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed
  402 Establishment of food safety standards International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed
  403 Establishment of standards for specific foodstuffs International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed
  404 Establishment of standards for food inspection, testing and certification International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed
  405 Publication and dissemination of adopted standards and related texts International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed
463   International policies and principles for food standardisation.
  401 Coordination with other UN agencies and standardizing bodies Coordination and information exchange ESN Completed
  402 Communication and information on codex standards and texts International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed
  403 Codex Alimentarius Commission: programme management and strategic direction International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed
  404 Coordination with regional Codex committees International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed
  405 Policies and procedures of the Codex Alimentarius Commission International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESN Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221P5 Food Quality Control and Consumer Protection Continuing Programme Activity ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: under the WTO agreements on sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and technical barriers to trade (TBT), countries are required to harmonise their food safety and quality standards with those of Codex Alimentarius; they also need to establish effective food quality assurance and control systems at both national and local levels to protect local consumer and promote trade. In addition, increased consumer awareness of food quality and safety issues requires objective and science-based risk communication.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: well formulated national policies and regulatory frameworks for food quality control and consumer protection will facilitate the establishment of effective food quality assurance and food control systems at both national and local levels, including food import/export inspection and certification and foods distributed through the informal sector. The entity also enhances consumer awareness of food quality and safety issues through objective and science-based risk communication.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: by contributing to the safety and quality of the food supply, this entity will benefit, above all, consumers in all regions.

Objective

  • To help countries organise and manage their food control systems, harmonise their food standards and regulations with the Codex Alimentarius, participate in the work of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and therefore facilitate access of their products to international food markets.

Indicators

  • List of countries which received technical assistance and used it to reform their food control systems.
  • Increase in active participation of developing countries in Codex Alimentarius.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Twelve countries have been directly assisted in the review and reorganization of their food safety systems, including the harmonization of their food standards and regulations with international requirements (Codex); ten others have received assistance in the establishment and operation of national Codex committees. Jointly with WHO, three regional food safety conferences were held in Africa, the Americas and the Caribbean, and Asia, and a second Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators was held. The six regional and subregional training workshops organized on food safety risk analysis, on modern approaches to food control systems, and on the safety and quality of fresh fruits and vegetables have increased awareness among food control officials and stakeholders of basic principles in food safety management and control, including the food chain approach. A number of training tools, manuals and technical publications have been issued or initiated. They include two training packages on the quality and safety of fresh fruits and vegetables and on Codex, a manual on food safety risk analysis and another on the assessment of capacity-building needs in food safety. Draft guidelines for governments to address the obstacles to the application of HACCP, particularly in small and less-developed businesses (SLDBs) and approaches to overcome them have been prepared. A manual and a CD-ROM on good handling and processing practices to prevent mould growth and ochratoxin contamination of green coffee is also under finalization. Initiated in 2004, a monthly electronic newsletter, FAO Food Safety and Quality Update, is sent to over 3 000 subscribers to provide information on recent developments and upcoming activities of FAO and Codex that are related to food safety and quality.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
465   Harmonisation of national food control regulations with Codex.
  401 Harmonization of national food regulations with Codex Alimentarius Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAF RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Completed
  402 Regional and sub-regional coordination on application of Codex standards and food quality and safety management Coordination and information exchange ESN RAF RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Completed
  403 Support to national infrastructures for Codex Alimentarius activities Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAF RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Completed
  404 Capacity building on Codex for Central Eastern European Region Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN Completed
466   Support to national food quality and safety assurance systems and programmes.
  401 Advice on the application of food safety management systems Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESN RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  402 Reviews of national food control infrastructures Studies and analyses ESN RAF RLC RNE SAFR SAPA SEUR SLAC Completed
467   Support to risk communication and consumer awareness.
  401 Information exchange on food quality and safety regulations Information (products, systems, databases) ESN RAF RLC RNE Completed
  402 Dissemination of public information on food safety issues Information (products, systems, databases) ESN RAF RLC RNE Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221P6 Food Safety Assessment and Rapid Alert System Continuing Programme Activity ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: ensuring quality and safety of food in the interest of consumer protection and international trade requires the scientific assessment of risks associated with food additives, contaminants, veterinary drugs, microbiological hazards, and biotechnologies, so as to provide a scientific basis for the work of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and FAO's member countries. It also helps resolve emerging and/or accidental food safety-related problems.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: many countries do not have easy access to the expertise and the resources necessary to undertake comprehensive risk assessments. Neutral, independent and scientifically-grounded assessments of food-related risks and contaminant exposure are, therefore, indispensable for them to take appropriate measures in protecting their consumers.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: consumers should benefit from safer food; and food producers and traders from stronger consumer confidence.

Objective

  • To assist countries with sound, scientific assessments of food-related risks, allowing them to respond appropriately to food-related crises and to implement effective regulatory systems; enhance transparency in international food trade through globally accepted scientific assessments.

Indicators

  • Instances where food safety assessments were used in the management of food-related risks at national/international levels.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Technical reports on the Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth JECFA sessions and results of ad hoc expert consultations/meetings on risk assessment of microbiological hazards in Food (JEMRA), biotoxins, non-human antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance, acrylamide, substances without IDA/MRL, were released, and results were considered by FAO/WHO member countries in their review of their regulations, standards and control measures. Results were also provided to the Codex Alimentarius system and have been used: in the review of standards on food additives, veterinary drug residues and contaminants in food; in the review of the code of practice for products such as infant formula, fish and fish products, eggs and meat; and in the review of papers on risk management strategies for specific pathogens such as Listeria, Enterobacter, Vibrio and Salmonella. Exposure assessment and risk characterization guidelines have been prepared for use by member countries and Codex, as well guidance on the application of HACCP in small and less-developed food enterprises.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
468   Scientific safety evaluations of food additives, contaminants and processes.
  401 Evaluation of the safety of additives, contaminants in foods Studies and analyses ESN Completed
  402 Evaluation of the safety of veterinary drug residues in foods Studies and analyses ESN Completed
  403 Safety assessment of microbiological hazards in foods Studies and analyses ESN Completed
  404 Safety assessment of processes including food derived from biotechnology Studies and analyses ESN Completed
  405 Methods for the evaluation of chemicals, contaminants and residues in food Studies and analyses ESN Completed
469   Risk assessment through dietary intake studies.
  401 Dietary intake of chemicals, contaminants and residues in food Studies and analyses ESN Modified
470   Database on food additives and contaminants.
  401 Database on specifications for the identity and purity of food additives Information (products, systems, databases) ESN Completed
  402 Database on maximum residue limits for veterinary drugs Information (products, systems, databases) ESN Completed
471   Food safety rapid alert and crisis management system.
  401 Dissemination of independent, impartial and scientifically sound information on food safety emergencies Information (products, systems, databases) ESN Modified



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221P7 Public Information about Nutrition, Food Quality and Safety Continuing Programme Activity ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: public interest in nutrition, diet and health, food safety, and food regulations has never been so high, requiring unbiased, understandable and readily available information on these subjects.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the entity will provide information regarding nutrition, food quality and safety, to help professional non-specialists and educated "lay" persons in making informed decisions. The information products under this CP also provide an opportunity for practitioners, as well as researchers to exchange views and experiences.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: consumers, the general public and educators should take advantage of unbiased information on food safety and nutrition to improve diets.

Objective

  • A steady stream of unbiased information on nutrition, food insecurity, diet and health, under-nutrition, livelihood strategies, food quality and safety, food regulations and international food standards reaches out to the food industry, consumer organizations, NGOs, and is relayed to the general public.

Indicators

  • Examples of topics and issues explored by the Food, Nutrition and Agriculture Journal/Web site, that were widely quoted or reviewed in media and consumer organizations' publications.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • One issue of Food, Nutrition and Agriculture (FNA), No. 34, was published and distributed as hard copies and through the Internet. The requests from other UN agencies and FAO units for hundreds of copies, in addition to the constant requests for subscriptions, indicate that the issue was appreciated. This was the last issue of FNA, as funds were not available to continue producing the journal. No substitute has been found for disseminating information about these topics; however, efforts have been made to publish FAO work in external journals. The Web site for FNA was significantly improved through development of an indexing/search tool. The Food and Nutrition Web site continues to make documents available on nutrition, food safety and food standards. Progress on this activity has been constrained by lack of resources for improving the Web site.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
449   Journal of Food, Nutrition and Agriculture.
  401 Food, Nutrition and Agriculture Journal Information (products, systems, databases) ESN Completed
450   Food and Nutrition Web site.
  401 ESN Website Information (products, systems, databases) ESN Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221P8 Food Quality and Safety throughout the Food Chain Continuing Programme Activity ESN


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: food quality and safety are paramount to ensure public health, consumer confidence and access to international trade. Yet providing safe and nutritious food to consumers requires a commitment to quality throughout the food chain, i.e. in agriculture production, harvesting, processing and marketing practices, and the set-up of "farm (or sea) to table" quality control systems.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: this new entity will develop a framework for access to safe and nutritious food, addressing policy advice, safety evaluations, capacity building and technical assistance, and actions that need to be taken along the food chain at national and international level, laying the groundwork for the development of comprehensive and efficient food safety systems.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: consumers are prime end beneficiaries via the expected improvement of the safety and quality of food supplies. Food producers, processors and distributors should take advantage of improved access to national and international markets.

Objective

  • Contribute to the development of comprehensive and efficient food safety systems and provide a framework for more focused policy advice, provision of safety evaluations, capacity building and technical assistance, and required interventions along the food chain.

Indicators

  • Examples of "farm to table" quality control systems contemplated or implemented due in part to this entity.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Field activities have been instrumental in improving the capacity of several developing member countries (e.g. Bangladesh, Benin, Gabon, Guyana, Mongolia, Nigeria, Suriname) in food safety and quality and consumer protection, and in meeting international market requirements. The number of national, regional and subregional projects increased to an all-time high of 43 in 2005, nearly double the average annual number in 2001-2003, with a continuous, progressive evolution towards an integral, farm-to-table approach. Several projects have also helped countries (e.g. Algeria, Gabon, Paraguay, Tunisia, the United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen) in improving the quality and effectiveness of their participation in Codex work and in their efforts to apply Codex standards, guidelines and recommendations at national level. Assistance in the review, evaluation and, when needed, reorganization, of the institutional set-up for food control has been an important component of these projects. This includes the updating of national food legislation, the coordinating mechanism among all concerned agencies, the link with other stakeholders (industry, consumers, etc.) and the overall management of the food control system. Field activities also addressed specific food safety problems such as ochratoxin contamination of coffee (eight coffee-producing countries), aflatoxin contamination of pistachio (Islamic Republic of Iran), street foods (e.g. Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea). The outcomes of these projects/activities constitute important references for use by other countries. Preparation of the document on Strategies for Access to Safe and Nutritious Food, which was discussed at the last Committee on Agriculture (COAG) session: The strategies developed in the paper, which were adopted by COAG, are based on the food chain approach to food safety, and provide a framework for member countries to consider in applying this approach. It calls on governments to support food safety programmes as a priority, and for FAO and partner agencies to continue to support the development of scientific, risk-based food standards, guidelines and recommendations through the provision of expert advice, and the development and dissemination of necessary tools to assist in their implementation. It also proposes measures to strengthen FAO's ability to assist member countries in ensuring the supply of safe and nutritious food.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
472   Elaboration of strategic frameworks for the food chain.
  401 Formulation of a strategic framework to address key elements and actions required along the food chain for safe and nutritious food Studies and analyses ESN Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
221S1 Technical Support Services to Member Nations and the Field Programme Technical Service Agreement ESN


Indicators

  • Reports of activities

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Field activities have been instrumental in improving the capacity of several developing member countries (e.g. Bangladesh, Benin, Gabon, Guyana, Mongolia, Nigeria, Suriname) in food safety and quality and consumer protection, and in meeting international market requirements. The number of national, regional and subregional projects increased to an all-time high of 43 in 2005, nearly double the average annual number in 2001-2003, with a continuous, progressive evolution towards an integral, farm-to-table approach. Several projects have also helped countries (e.g. Algeria, Gabon, Paraguay, Tunisia, the United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen) in improving the quality and effectiveness of their participation in Codex work and in their efforts to apply Codex standards, guidelines and recommendations at national level. Assistance in the review, evaluation and, when needed, reorganization, of the institutional set-up for food control has been an important component of these projects. This includes the updating of national food legislation, the coordinating mechanism among all concerned agencies, the link with other stakeholders (industry, consumers, etc.) and the overall management of the food control system. Field activities also addressed specific food safety problems such as ochratoxin contamination of coffee (eight coffee-producing countries), aflatoxin contamination of pistachio (Islamic Republic of Iran), street foods (e.g. Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea). The outcomes of these projects/activities constitute important references for use by other countries. Demand for technical assistance in school and community nutrition education grew, and support was provided through Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) and Government Cooperative Programme (GCP) projects in: Afghanistan, Argentina, Bangladesh, Barbados, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Grenada, Honduras, Mexico, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Zambia. Production of Food and nutrition - a handbook for Namibian volunteer leaders was an output from an earlier project in Namibia. ESNP provided technical leadership and backstopping to number of projects, including an emergency TCP project in Somalia, Office for Sahelian Relief Operations (OSRO) projects in Sri Lanka and a GCP project in Afghanistan. Direct assistance was provided to member countries for undertaking participatory community-based programmes aiming to improve household food security and nutrition, with strong support given to the field programme, including technical support to: Ethiopia, Mozambique and Zambia through Belgian Survival Fund projects; a Lesotho and Malawi project; and to the UNF-funded Empowerment of women in irrigation and water resources management for improved household food security, nutrition and health (WIN) project in Cambodia, Nepal and Zambia.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
434   Support to regional and sub-regional offices for the implementation of normative information and tools
  401 Support to the implementation of normative tools for the improvement of nutritional status Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAP RNE SAFR SAPA Completed
435   Support for conferences and meetings on food data systems and nutrition in development
  401 Support to the implementation of poverty alleviation policies and strategies based on improving nutritional status Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAP RNE SAFR SAPA Completed
451   Field programme support (ESNP)
  401 Support to the field programme Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAP RNE SAFR SAPA Completed
452   Support to other entities and non-FAO bodies (ESNP)
  401 Support to non FAO bodies Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAP RNE SAFR SAPA Completed
472   Field programme support (ESNS)
473   Support to other entities and non-FAO bodies (ESNS)
  401 Advice and support on food quality and safety Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESN RAP RNE SAFR SAPA Completed



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